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African slave trade

-Led to the diffusion of African cultures across several continents
-In the 1700s, slaves were shipped primarily to S. America, the Caribbean, and N. America

Columbian Exchange

-Exchange of goods, ideas, and diseases between Africa, the Americas, and Europe; named after Christopher Columbus
-Europe benefited the most financially


Surrounded by water on 3 sides; Europe is a peninsula

Oceans effect on climate

-Temperature ranges in areas located near oceans do not vary much because water heats and cools more slowly
-(i.e. The western half of Norway is warmer because of its exposure to warm ocean currents from the Atlantic.)


landform at the mouth of a river shaped by incoming tides


Modification of the environment that produces electricity and and improves farming

Development of high-speed rail technology

Due to an increase in tourism, political and economic unity (EU), and a need for day travel

Ruhr Valley in Germany

-Rich with soil and mineral deposits
-When Europe industrialized, this region became an important supplier of coal

Modification of the environment

When humans change to physical environment to suit their needs; may often have both positive and negative effects

Catholicism in Europe

-Developed and spread during the Roman Empire through cultural diffusion as Rome expanded and traded across Europe.
-Italy became the center.

Religion in Europe

-Predominantly Christian: Catholic, Protestant, Orthodox, etc.
-Catholics and Protestants constantly clash in Ireland which is why it is divided today.

Eastern Europe vs. Western Europe

-Eastern Europe used to be controlled by the Soviet Union and was communist.
-Countries gained independence in the 1990s.
-More diverse in culture and language than W. Europe which has made unification difficult

Elevation's effect on climate

As elevation increases, air pressure and temperature decrease making it colder.

Agrarian society

Society is based on farming (i.e. most of Europe before the Industrial Revolution)

Industrial society

Society revolves around its factories and businesses (i.e. Great Britain in the 1780s)

Traditional society

Society is influenced by its history (i.e. Italy is a modern country but remains somewhat traditional because of its ancient history.)

Secular society

Society is non-religious

Immigration to Europe

Pull factors include economic opportunities and increased standard of living

Industrial Revolution

Began in Great Britain in the 1780s because of its abundant coal and iron ore supply, fast-flowing and navigable rivers, and many harbors.

European Union (EU)

An international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members.

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