In the beginning where plantations most likely to use indentured servants or slaves?
A rebellion lead by Nathaniel Bacon with backcountry farmers to attack Native Americans in an attemp to gain more land
"mother" to white children & "head" of the household. Strong role and presence in Southern home and lifestyle.
battle of Nat turner
runs away, turns self in, slave religious leader, 3 years to plan rebellion, hammers and pitchforks the whole plantation family, moved to other plantation
believed immigrants were dangerous to society (prostitution, drugs, religions, job stealing)
wanted to limit govt offices to american born, education to protestant only, must be 21 years old to become a citizen, restrict sale of alcohol, divided on slavery so it breaks up
compromise of 1850
Includes California admitted as a free state, the Fugitive Slave Act, Made popular sovereignty in most other states from Mexican- American War
gave a speech in may 1856 called " the Crime Against Kansas" militant opponent of slavery, beat with a cane by Preston Brooks after the speech, collapsed unconscious and couldn't return to senate for 4 years, symbol throughout the north.
dred scott vs. sanford
an 1856 supreme court case in wich a slave, dred scott, sued for his freedom because he had been taken to live in territories where slavery was illegal ; court ruled against scott
- Most die in field hospitals (conditions are poor)
- Is injured or wounded...most often lose that limb
o Infection is the #1 killer
i. Operated by the Confederate army
ii. Disease, overcrowding, nasty -
1. (Union prisons are very similar)
Republican Party (GOP) -
i. "Free Soiler" platform - any land acquired will be free
What happens after Electoral College- clear victor was Lincoln?
South Carolina - secedes immediately 20 December 1860
By Lincoln's inauguration six other Deep South states secede
ghost Amendment, Adopted, never ratified, Would have made it illegal to outlaw slavery - to change the Constitution
which is loyal to the Union, Kind of awkward situation as it is located in enemy territory...eventually runs out of supplies, Governor want to enter into negotiations with Lincoln and that if Lincoln attempts to resupply the fort he will take that as an act of war
First Major Decision for Lincoln
Cannot enter into negotiations with Confederacy...would be recognizing their legality and so would Europe, Secession is also not allowed in the eye of the Union
Union: "Keeping the Union Together" is original reason/ message of Civil War - 1861,
Lincoln wants to punish the south...corrupt, rebellious, South---not the states, just its individuals
Confederacy fired first...then more states secede. whats the order?
Ark, NC, TN and 2/3 of VA ...creation of West Virginia which is loyal to the Union; MO is loyal to the Union even though it is a slave state...
Advantages of Confederacy
Slave pop (can't utilize of liquidate), Have land, Short on funds, better generals!, Robert E. Lee
If you have $300 (yearly income) you can buy yourself out, Poor man's war to fight, If equal number of deaths - north still wins because they have a larger population, Grant understands he can always resupply troops
Whats the Union strategy?
Anaconda Plan, Naval blockade around Confederacy...then move to divide 1863-64, Control MS River
When and where was Battle of Bull Run?
May 1861, Outside Washington, D.C. - First battle and thought to be only battle
Lee attempts to invade the north...from Maryland to Pennsylvania
50,000 C v. McClellan 90,000 U
Battle of Antietam
Antietam is the single bloodiest day during war, why?
4,000 soldiers killed, 18,000 are wounded; Battle is enough of a non-loss for Lincoln to push for the Emancipation Proclamation in order to isolate the Confederacy, As well as change the main reason for conflict
When is the Battle of Gettysburg, what are the troop numbers, hows it turn out?...
3rd of July, 75,000 C v. Meade 85,000 troops, Meade is too cautious so Lee escapes, Lincoln needs a general who can get the job done
What happens on July 4th, 1863?
"saving grace", Lincoln hears word of a victory in Vicksburg, MS, Control the high ground with limited number of cannons, Grant is in charge "unconditional surrender", Cuts =Vicksburg off - no negotiations so the city surrenders, Not pretty but Grant gets it done...this is Lincoln's best general, Tenacious and okay with losing soldiers for the cause
Spring 1864, Wilderness Campaign
64-65 Lee troops are diminishing quickly...and he can't replace, desertion rates increase
Grant doesn't let Lee have any rest
Lincolns reconstruction policy
reintroduce states into union; 10% plan, about individuals living in states
When state has 10% of the population take the loyalty oath what happens?
state can make constitution and send delagates
Johnson uses 10% plan but adds what?
Anyone who owned $20,000 worth of land had to beg for forgiveness
The bureau's focus was to provide food, medical care, administer justice, manage abandoned and confiscated property, regulate labor, and establish schools.
Guaranteed citizenship to former slaves and protected the rights of all citizens. Equal protection under the law.
Stands for Ku Klux Klan and started right after the Civil War in 1866. The Southern establishment took charge by passing discriminatory laws known as the black codes. Gives whites almost unlimited power. They masked themselves and burned black churches, schools, and terrorized black people. They are anti-black and anti-Semitic.
compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river; This settled the election of 1876, troops were removed from Louisiana and South Carolina and concessions for building a southern transcontinental railroad made U
jim crow laws
The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965
Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free by jan 1, 1863
Union war plan by Winfield Scott, called for blockade of southern coast, capture of Richmond, capture Mississippi R, and to take an army through heart of south.
would have been the 13th admendment. made illegal to change constitution (can't ban slavery)
dred scott vs sanford
scott was a slave willed to sanford. goes to original master to free areas. judge taney
Invests in alternative fuel (oil); doesn't believe in competition, buys it all out; lobbied train companies to only transport his oil
standard oil of ohio
1882, stock holders surrenders power to a band of directors managed by 9 trustees
JD buys 22 of 26 oil refining businesses, says hes "the man of oil" remaining competitors says that is not fair
Price war Rock vs scott
Rock withholds oil, and he has more resources so he cut wages which made a strike; Scott Penn. RR invests oil
a corporation of labor; early unions were local/regional and for skilled only; labor is a form of property and government should protect property
knights of labor
1869- started skilled only then vertically integrated; skilled, unskilled, blacks, white, women, etc
elected president in 1879, catholic which led to the knights open membership; secret society which led to his decline in 1886
american federation of labor
led by Gompers; cigarette roller;most skilled workers; union; company did well because most were skilled
great railroad strike of 1877
scott vs rock; rock halts distribution (by railroad) of oil because scott gets involved in oil
haymarket square riot
demonstration and march for a 40 hour work week in chicago; pipe bomb thrown at end and killed police officers ( was peaceful) made unions look violent
pullman strike 1893
owned facories, jobs, and everything in town; cut wages 4 times but didn't cut cost of living
in re debs
supreme court rules the strike is a restraint to free trade and breaks the sherman antitrust act
try to produce as much as possible so crop prices would go down, went into debt so they blamed on circumstances
patron saints of husbandry 1867
started out at a social gathering to complain but turned to an economic concept so they could get seeds and grain for cheaper prices
storing/hauling of grain
unevern charges; more grain stored = lower price; patron saints of husbandry; combined and stored grain together
Munn V IL 1877
allowed state regulation of grain elevators as long as it was devoted for a public use; decided state rights because grain was a communal good
Wabash v IL 1886
illinois couldn't regulate the railroad because it crossed state lines; decided wabash wins
reduce tariff, regulate railroad, secret gallot, federal income tax, direct election of senators, FUCS, inflation to assist farmers; all became future practices; farmers=pay debt, miners=work
Brown v Board of Education
court found that segregation was a violation of the Equal Protection clause "separate but equal" has no place
Booker T Washington
Born a slave then freed; was patient and funded legal challenges against the jim crow laws; went to Tuskegee Institute (vo tech school)
Went to Fisk Univeristy first
1st black to earn Ph.D. from Harvard, encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create NAACP in 1910
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional
The Souls of Black Folk
WEB DuBois 1903 - blacks should not be treated bad, they should be aggressive rise up for equality
The Peculiar Institution
what white southerners referred to slavery as, meaning that the institution was odd but that it was distinctive, special, since the South was one of the few places in the Western World where slavery still existed, and isolated the South from the rest of American society.
"defenders of the faith." Christians who worked hard to dispel the false rumors about Christianity and to make Christianity appear both reasonable and acceptable to non-Christians.
Senator who persuaded Congress to accept the Missouri Compromise, which admitted Maine into the Union as a free state, and Missouri as a slave state
United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913)
Stephen A. Douglas
Senator from Illinois who ran for president against Abraham Lincoln. Wrote the Kansas-Nebreaska Act and the Freeport Doctrine
Kansas Nebraska Act
This Act set up Kansas and Nebraska as states. Each state would use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery. People who were proslavery and antislavery moved to Kansas, but some antislavery settlers were against the Act. This began guerrilla warfare.
A sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory. The dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making civil war imminent.
Dred Scott v. Sanford
Supreme Court case that decided US Congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in federal territories and slaves, as private property, could not be taken away without due process - basically slaves would remain slaves in non-slave states and slaves could not sue because they were not citizens
Congressman Preston Brooks severely beat Senator Charles Sumner in the senate chambers.
Sumner (from Massachusetts) was vocally anti-slavery. Brooks (South Carolina) took offense at an earlier speech made by Sumner, feeling it was anti-southern and libel against his home state. He approached Sumner, who was seated at a desk in a nearly empty chamber, and after a brief expression of his feelings on the matter, began to attack Sumner with his heavy cane. He continued to assault Sumner the Senator tried in vain to escape up the aisle, blinded by his own blood.
These were a small group of people in 1865 who supported black suffrage. They were led by Senator Charles Sumner and Congressman Thaddeus Stevens. They supported the abolition of slavery and a demanding reconstruction policy during the war and after.
abolitionist who was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harper's Ferry, Virginia (1800-1858)
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)
the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union
a U.S. federal government agency that aided distressed refugees and freedmen (freed slaves) in 1865-1872, during the Reconstruction era of the United States.
This amendment freed all slaves without compensation to the slaveowners. It legally forbade slavery in the United States.
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
were a series of violent disturbances in New York City that were the culmination of discontent with new laws passed by Congress to draft men to fight in the ongoing American Civil War
Creates Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist. Was one of the "Robber barons"
Type of monopoly where a company buys out all of its competition. Ex. Rockefeller
Practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution
He was a highly-valued pioneering figure: an American industralist and philanthropist. He revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy. He founded "Standard Oil". His 40 oil companies owned about 90% of the nation's pipelines and refined 84% of the nation's oiil. His fortune was mainly used to create the modern systematic approach of philanthropy with foundations that had a major effect on medicine, education, and scientific reserach. He was a horizontal integrationer (joining competiting businesses in one area).
the change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
A time when new inventions such as the seed drill and the steel plow made farming easier and faster. The production of food rose dramatically.
Laws written to separate blacks and whites in public areas/meant African Americans had unequal opportunities in housing, work, education, and government
Low wages and unsafe working conditions cause workers to revolt and group together. (Ex. American Railway Union, Child Labor Movement, Women Labor Movement, Industrial Workers of the World, Social Gospel Movement)
The unions' method for having their demands met. Workers stop working until the conditions are met. It is a very effective form of attack.
Prominent socialist leader (and five time presidential candidate) who founded the American Railroad Union and led the 1894 Pullman Strike
American Federation of Labor
Federation of craft labor unions lead by Samuel Gompers that arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor
Labor disorders had broken out and on May 4 1886, the Chicago police advanced on a protest; alleged brutalities by the authorities. Suddenly a dynamite bomb was thrown that killed or injured dozens, including police. It is still unknown today who set off the bomb, but following the hysteria, eight anarchists (possibly innocent) were rounded up. Because they preached "incendiary doctrines," they could be charged with conspiracy. Five were sentenced to death, one of which committed suicide; the other three were given stiff prison terms. Six years later, a newly elected Illinois governor recognized this gross injustice and pardoned the three survivors. Nevertheless, the Knights of Labor were toast: they became (incorrectly )associated with anarchy and all following strike efforts failed.
in Chicago, Pullman cut wages but refused to lower rents in the "company town", Eugene Debs had American Railway Union refuse to use Pullman cars, Debs thrown in jail after being sued, strike achieved nothing
The Noble Order of the Knights of Labor
The first improtant national union, it reached its peek in 1886. It tried to bring together the entire working class, both skilled and unskilled. It was unsuccessful, however, due to the many disagreements between skilled and unskilled workers.
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
International Workers of the World
1905 - Also known as IWW or Wobblies - created in opposition to American Federation of Labor
a party made up of farmers and laborers that wanted direct election of senators and an 8hr working day
reformers who worked to stop unfair practices by businesses and improve the way grovernment works
This 1906 work by Upton Sinclair pointed out the abuses of the meat packing industry. The book led to the passage of the 1906 Meat Inspection Act.
Booker T. Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
1st black to earn Ph.D. from Harvard, encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create NAACP in 1910
Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25.
Pacific Railroad Act
Called for the building of the Transcontinental Railroad to stretch across America connecting California and the rest of America.
Corrupt organized groups that controlled political parties in the cities. A boss leads the machine and attempts to grab more votes for his party.
migration into a place (especially migration to a country of which you are not a native in order to settle there)
Sand Creek Massacre
In Colorado territory in 1864, U.S army colonel John M. Chivington led a surprise attack on a peaceful Cheyenne settlement along Sand Creek River. The Cheyenne under Chief Black kettle tried to surrender. First he waved the America Flag and the White flag of surrender. Chivington ignored the gestures. The U.S army killed about 200 Cheyenne during the conflict
Fetterman's army led into wilderness and ambushed by Sioux, 82 soldiers killed, sparked public debate over Indian policy
Treaty of Fort Laramie
Treaty under which government agreed to close Bozeman trail, and Sioux agreed to live on reserve along Missouri River. The Sioux were forced into this treaty. The treaty was only a temporary to warfare between Native Americans and Whites.
1887 law which gave all Native American males 160 acres to farm and also set up schools to make Native American children more like other Americans
He was a new prophet, who promised to restore the Sioux to their original dominance on the Plains if they performed the Ghost Dance
An act that removed Indian land from tribal possesion, redivided it, and distributed it among individual Indian families. Designed to break tribal mentalities and promote individualism.
The term "popular sovereignty" means ____________________________________ and was a main section found in the Compromise of 1850.
power in decision making
______________________ was arrested after the Pullman Strike...charged for organizing the strike.
What the remaining three components of the Compromise of 1850?
- harsher fugitive slave laws enforced
- California entered as a free state
- Popular sovreignty
Slave trade was abolished in District of Columbia
Another application of popular sovereignty could be found in 1854 by the ________________________________Act to determine the status of slavery.
The _______________________________ to the United States Constitution ratified in December 1865 abolished slavery throughout the Union.
8. The _______________________________Act took effect in January of 1863 and offered 160 acres of free public land to settlers in the West.
During the Bleeding Kansas era... after such violence in the Midwest about the issue of slavery another event was taking place in D.C. between which two Congressmen. _____________________________
Preston Brooks and Charles Sumner
At Vicksburg in July 1863, the Union under __________________________'s leadership was victorious.
Ulysses S. Grant
Abraham Lincoln's January 1, 1863 Emancipation Proclamation freed _________________________________________________________________
slaves in confederate states
The Emancipation Proclamation was issued immediately after ____________________________
battle of antietam
The 15th Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibited federal and state governments from denying any citizen the right to _________________because of race.
As a result of the _________________________________riot in 1886, which transformed from a peaceful rally to an issue with a pipe bomb, unions loss sympathy because of their oftentimes violent nature.
The __________________________ were laws that sought to regulate the lives of former slaves.
The political "boss" of New York City in the early 1870s was ____________________________
William Marcy Tweed (political machine)
What was the name of the organization that sought to organize both skilled an unskilled workers women as well as men, blacks along with whites, and achieved a membership of nearly 800,000 in 1886 __________________________________________
The Nobel Order or Knights of Labor
The 1886 case Wabash v. IL attempted to challenge a state law regulating the ____________________________. The following year the Interstate Commerce Commission was created.
hauling of grain
What was the name of the labor organization of principally white, male, skilled workers that arose in the 1880s and was headed by Samuel Gompers? __________________________
American Federation of Labor
he following were devices used by Southern whites to keep blacks from exercising suffrage
- poll taxes
Who was the African-American leader who delivered a speech in 1895 at the Atlanta Cotton Exposition urging black Americans to adjust to segregation and stop agitating for civil and political rights? _______________________________________
Booker T. Washington
In the mid- 1860s the Republican Party sought to...
abolish the institution of slavery (1863 emanc. proc)
The following is true of the Battle of ____________________________, September 17, 1862?
- It was the bloodiest day of fighting in American history; more died at Antietam than at D-Day in World War II.
- 4,300 men were killed that day in fighting and 2,000 of those wounded later died.
- ______________ is located in Maryland, and southern forces under the command of General Robert E. Lee, having crossed into Maryland, were repelled in their northern advance by General McClellan and the Army of the Potomac.
One of the main purposes of the _____________________________was to ensure a fair and viable system of labor relations between former slaves and former slave owners
In ________________________________ of 1877 a grain operator challenged a state law about the regulation. The SC decided that it was a communal good and this upheld the law.
Munn vs. IL
All of the following were Captains of Industry except:
John D. Rockefeller.
_________________________ was notorious for his creative route of escaping slavery to a Northern abolitionist's house.
Henry "box" Brown
What was the name of the organization that advocated a workers' revolution to seize control of the means of production and abolish the state, and which organized women, blacks, as Asian-Americans, as well as white men? ________________________________________
Industrial Workers of the World
The largest citizens' movement of the 19th century was the ______________________ Alliance
The Congressman from Nebraska, William Jennings Bryan ,was the Democratic Party nominee for president in 1896 who was calling the free "_______________________" of silver
The ________________________________________ of 1851 pushed several Indian tribes onto reserves and caused major uprooting. Then in 1868 the government agreed to abandon forts as long as the tribes agreed safe passage.
Treaty of Ft Laramie
What landmark United States Supreme Court decision gave approval to state laws requiring separate facilities for whites and blacks? __________________________________
Plessy vs Ferguson
The immigrants facing the harshest reception in late-nineteenth-century America were those arriving from __________________________
The nineteenth-century view that there should be an immediate end to slavery and incorporation of the freed persons into the republic as equal citizens is called _____________________________
In the eyes of Lincoln the action of _________________________ or withdrawing formally from membership from the Union was illegal.
Describe the main components of the Dred Scott v. Sanford case.
Scott : slave then Emerson dies, he is willed to Sanford, he sues because he was in a free state with Emerson so Scott should be free. Judge Taney decides against Scott : not a citizen, slave, deems compromises unconstitutional.
One of the leading figures of the Democratic party in the 1850s was________________________
The ____________________________ platform called for the government to bar slavery from the western territories and provide land free in the territories to people who wanted to homestead there.
Free Soil Party
Black Americans who refused to sign labor contracts to work for whites during Reconstruction were often convicted of ________________________________ and fined; oftentimes they were then auctioned to the person who paid the fine.
Reconstruction began even before the Civil War ended...with the creation of the _________________________.
__________________________ called for a more radical approach to dealing with segregation and equality among black Americans... "Talented Tenth"
President Johnson never fully supported ______________________________________ whose purpose for to acquire equal rights for newly freed slaves
Vertical Integration in which every aspect of production is owned (raw material to finished product) was practiced by ___________________________________________
________________________ was responsible for leading guerilla-style ambushes on the US militia. Also responsible for the Fetterman Massacre which resulted in 82 US deaths.
The 1887 ______________________ Act which distributed land to speculators led to the loss of tribal lands and the erosion of Indian cultural traditions.
The ___________________________Act of 1863 encouraged transcontinental rail lines in which the government would pay a selected sum of money to companies depending on the terrain.
Wovoka is accredited to creating and practicing the _____________________________ which was later outlawed by the US militia