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In the beginning where plantations most likely to use indentured servants or slaves?
indentured servants
How many slaves survived the middle passage?
12 million
Most of the slaves going through the middle passage go to...?
South America
How many slaves actually go to the colonies?
675,000
Bacons rebellion
A rebellion lead by Nathaniel Bacon with backcountry farmers to attack Native Americans in an attemp to gain more land
1 drop rule
1/32 of dna is black then the person is still considered black
long staple cotton
hard to grow, easy to clean
short staple cotton
easy to grow, hard to clean
planter class
20 or more slaves
Yeoman farmers
0to 10 slaves 80 to 160 acres
Largest population in south
poor whites with no land and no education
Aristocratic Society
birth and wealth determined class landless laborers, slaves
Color line
Below is colored
House closest to house on plantation is...?
highest
mammy
"mother" to white children & "head" of the household. Strong role and presence in Southern home and lifestyle.
who was the last slave sold?
mammy
what are the two systems of labor?
gang and task
gang labor
group work together until job is done
task labor
when task is done you are done for the day
most often use of punishment
whip
Ways to prevent runaways
bells on collar or cut tendon
What do they never do to punish?
withhold food and water
why is marriage encouraged?
they can make babys which will mean more slaves
how much money goes into a slave if it is worth $100?
$15 (bonnet, hat, shirt, pants or boots)
what is 1 week ration?
1 peck cornmeal 3-4 lbs
back fat 2-3 lbs
how many calories do slaves need a day?
5,000 to 6,000
Slave life expectancy
45 unless female
how many slave children die by age 5?
20%
If a slave tattles what does he/she get?
freedom
battle of Nat turner
runs away, turns self in, slave religious leader, 3 years to plan rebellion, hammers and pitchforks the whole plantation family, moved to other plantation
how many master family members were killed in battle of natt turner?
70
date of natt turner
late august 1831
When is natt captured?
end of october, tried nov 5 sentenced to death nov 11
how did natt turner die?
skinned, quartered, and remains were burned
what is quartered?
4 horses pull human apart
what happened to remaining slaves after natt turner?
lined up and killed every 7th slave
free blacks have to wear what?
a badge
how many slaves successfully ran away?
10,000 to 12,000
Harriet tubman returns how many times to lead slaves to freedom?
19
Did all escape routes go north?
no some went by ship
Henry brown
the slave mailed to abolitionist
What are some sabotages used?
poison food, pee in cotton to rot it
what did work songs communicate?
births, deaths, underground railroad
know nothings
believed immigrants were dangerous to society (prostitution, drugs, religions, job stealing)
American party
wanted to limit govt offices to american born, education to protestant only, must be 21 years old to become a citizen, restrict sale of alcohol, divided on slavery so it breaks up
compromise of 1850
Includes California admitted as a free state, the Fugitive Slave Act, Made popular sovereignty in most other states from Mexican- American War
charles sumner
gave a speech in may 1856 called " the Crime Against Kansas" militant opponent of slavery, beat with a cane by Preston Brooks after the speech, collapsed unconscious and couldn't return to senate for 4 years, symbol throughout the north.
preston brookes
Who beat Charles Sumner with a cane?
dred scott vs. sanford
an 1856 supreme court case in wich a slave, dred scott, sued for his freedom because he had been taken to live in territories where slavery was illegal ; court ruled against scott
"Bloody Affair"
- Most die in field hospitals (conditions are poor)
- Is injured or wounded...most often lose that limb
o Infection is the #1 killer
Andersonville Prison
i. Operated by the Confederate army
ii. Disease, overcrowding, nasty -
1. (Union prisons are very similar)
POW
prisoners of war
b. America's First Modern War / Total
a. Collateral damage ...society v. society
Who is in the Election of 1860?
Abraham Lincoln, Bell, Stephen Douglas, Breckenridge
Abraham Lincoln
Republican Party (GOP) -
i. "Free Soiler" platform - any land acquired will be free
Bell
Const. Union - looking for compromise
Stephen Douglas
Northern Democrat
i. Stressed popular sovereignty
Breckenridge
Southern Democrat
i. Pro-Slavery + property travel (Dred Scott)
What happens after Electoral College- clear victor was Lincoln?
South Carolina - secedes immediately 20 December 1860
By Lincoln's inauguration six other Deep South states secede
Corwin Amendment
ghost Amendment, Adopted, never ratified, Would have made it illegal to outlaw slavery - to change the Constitution
Fort Sumter
which is loyal to the Union, Kind of awkward situation as it is located in enemy territory...eventually runs out of supplies, Governor want to enter into negotiations with Lincoln and that if Lincoln attempts to resupply the fort he will take that as an act of war
First Major Decision for Lincoln
Cannot enter into negotiations with Confederacy...would be recognizing their legality and so would Europe, Secession is also not allowed in the eye of the Union
Union: "Keeping the Union Together" is original reason/ message of Civil War - 1861,
Lincoln wants to punish the south...corrupt, rebellious, South---not the states, just its individuals
Lincoln does not negotiate so what happens?
The fort is attacked by SC militia 14 April, 1861
Confederacy fired first...then more states secede. whats the order?
Ark, NC, TN and 2/3 of VA ...creation of West Virginia which is loyal to the Union; MO is loyal to the Union even though it is a slave state...
VP of Confederacy
A. Stevens - Cornerstone Speech, War also about slavery (state's rights)
Emancipation Proclamation
Keeping the Union together AND ending slavery
Advantages of Union
70% pop., 70% industry, 70% wealth
Advantages of Confederacy
Slave pop (can't utilize of liquidate), Have land, Short on funds, better generals!, Robert E. Lee
Lincoln struggles with finding General Until...
1863...Grant: Understand conflict
conscription
If you have $300 (yearly income) you can buy yourself out, Poor man's war to fight, If equal number of deaths - north still wins because they have a larger population, Grant understands he can always resupply troops
Whats the Union strategy?
Anaconda Plan, Naval blockade around Confederacy...then move to divide 1863-64, Control MS River
When and where was Battle of Bull Run?
May 1861, Outside Washington, D.C. - First battle and thought to be only battle
Call for volunteers (both sides), Initial term of service in army is?
3 months
Armies sizes are?
30,000 U. v. 22,000 C
How many americans die?
600,000 Americans die
Who is the clear victor of the first battle?
Confederacy
Union begin possible victory...Battle of ?
Antietam
Lee attempts to invade the north...from Maryland to Pennsylvania
50,000 C v. McClellan 90,000 U
Battle of Antietam
Who was leading the Army of the Potomac?
McClellan
Antietam is the single bloodiest day during war, why?
4,000 soldiers killed, 18,000 are wounded; Battle is enough of a non-loss for Lincoln to push for the Emancipation Proclamation in order to isolate the Confederacy, As well as change the main reason for conflict
When is the Battle of Gettysburg, what are the troop numbers, hows it turn out?...
3rd of July, 75,000 C v. Meade 85,000 troops, Meade is too cautious so Lee escapes, Lincoln needs a general who can get the job done
What happens on July 4th, 1863?
"saving grace", Lincoln hears word of a victory in Vicksburg, MS, Control the high ground with limited number of cannons, Grant is in charge "unconditional surrender", Cuts =Vicksburg off - no negotiations so the city surrenders, Not pretty but Grant gets it done...this is Lincoln's best general, Tenacious and okay with losing soldiers for the cause
Spring 1864, Wilderness Campaign
64-65 Lee troops are diminishing quickly...and he can't replace, desertion rates increase
Grant doesn't let Lee have any rest
Grant also has a secret weapon?
William Tecumseh Sherman
Lincolns reconstruction policy
reintroduce states into union; 10% plan, about individuals living in states
Individuals no in high rank can take what?
loyalty oath
When state has 10% of the population take the loyalty oath what happens?
state can make constitution and send delagates
Congress can deny what?
representative seats
Lincoln assassinated so who takes over?
Johnson
Johnson uses 10% plan but adds what?
Anyone who owned $20,000 worth of land had to beg for forgiveness
Freedman's bureau
The bureau's focus was to provide food, medical care, administer justice, manage abandoned and confiscated property, regulate labor, and establish schools.
13th admendment
abolished slavery, except for crimes
black codes
slaves may be taken from jail and be put to work on plantations
reading contracts
insures slaves are not taken advantage of
Civil rights act 1866
provided guarantees for African-American voting rights in the South
14th admendment
Guaranteed citizenship to former slaves and protected the rights of all citizens. Equal protection under the law.
Ways to not allow slaves to vote
grandfather vote, literacy tests, poll tax $20
kkk
Stands for Ku Klux Klan and started right after the Civil War in 1866. The Southern establishment took charge by passing discriminatory laws known as the black codes. Gives whites almost unlimited power. They masked themselves and burned black churches, schools, and terrorized black people. They are anti-black and anti-Semitic.
compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river; This settled the election of 1876, troops were removed from Louisiana and South Carolina and concessions for building a southern transcontinental railroad made U
jim crow laws
The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965
compromise of 1850
harsher slave codes
popular sovrienty
end slave trade in DC
CA=free state
cell system
underground railroad
emancipation proclamation
Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free by jan 1, 1863
secession
south carolina first then florida to texas
anaconda plan
Union war plan by Winfield Scott, called for blockade of southern coast, capture of Richmond, capture Mississippi R, and to take an army through heart of south.
william t sherman
total war-unconditional surrender
conscription
draft
corwin admendment
would have been the 13th admendment. made illegal to change constitution (can't ban slavery)
chivington
leader of the attack at sand creek massacre
outcome of dred scott vs sanford
declare compromises are unconstitutional; builds up civil war
Nat turner did what?
killed 60 to 70
dog soldiers
indians
gang system
work in a group until told to stop working
task system
stop working when task is finished
know nothings
anti immigrant-nativist movement- in crease naturalization period
dred scott vs sanford
scott was a slave willed to sanford. goes to original master to free areas. judge taney
appomattox courthouse
Lee surrenders April 1864 ends civil war
14th amendment
due process, equality
compromise of 1877
dealt with election of 1876. President Hayes- Republican
Carlisle Indian School
W. Pratt assimilate indians
Carnegie Steel
Company of Andrew Carnegie, started in business with Thomas Scott, invested in steel
vertical integration
owns everything from raw material to end product
JD Rockefeller
Invests in alternative fuel (oil); doesn't believe in competition, buys it all out; lobbied train companies to only transport his oil
horizontal integration
eliminate competition owning many companies (pac man)
standard oil of ohio
1882, stock holders surrenders power to a band of directors managed by 9 trustees
cleveland massacre
JD buys 22 of 26 oil refining businesses, says hes "the man of oil" remaining competitors says that is not fair
monopoly
Capitalism eats its own tail without competition there is no free enterprise
Price war Rock vs scott
Rock withholds oil, and he has more resources so he cut wages which made a strike; Scott Penn. RR invests oil
Sherman Antitrust act 1890
enforced in 1910s; protect/encourage competition; No monopoly
unions
a corporation of labor; early unions were local/regional and for skilled only; labor is a form of property and government should protect property
knights of labor
1869- started skilled only then vertically integrated; skilled, unskilled, blacks, white, women, etc
terrance powderly
elected president in 1879, catholic which led to the knights open membership; secret society which led to his decline in 1886
american federation of labor
led by Gompers; cigarette roller;most skilled workers; union; company did well because most were skilled
Samuel Gompers
leader of AFL; skilled cigarette roller; horizontally integrated
strike
large number of people refused to work; 23,000 strikes 1880-1900
great railroad strike of 1877
scott vs rock; rock halts distribution (by railroad) of oil because scott gets involved in oil
haymarket square riot
demonstration and march for a 40 hour work week in chicago; pipe bomb thrown at end and killed police officers ( was peaceful) made unions look violent
pullman strike 1893
owned facories, jobs, and everything in town; cut wages 4 times but didn't cut cost of living
united railway workers union
go on strike led by debs because of pullman situation
eugene debs
arrested for organizing the strike
in re debs
supreme court rules the strike is a restraint to free trade and breaks the sherman antitrust act
trust
corporations of corporations
standard oil trust
committee of 9 that oversaw 4 businesses and guided and directed activities
holding company
role is to own other companies. Rock owns 25% of stock
Sherman Antitrust act
1890 presents monopoly constraints on free trade
Granges-farmers
try to produce as much as possible so crop prices would go down, went into debt so they blamed on circumstances
patron saints of husbandry 1867
started out at a social gathering to complain but turned to an economic concept so they could get seeds and grain for cheaper prices
OH Kelley
founded sts
storing/hauling of grain
unevern charges; more grain stored = lower price; patron saints of husbandry; combined and stored grain together
Munn V IL 1877
allowed state regulation of grain elevators as long as it was devoted for a public use; decided state rights because grain was a communal good
communal good
a product in which a state needs to function
Wabash v IL 1886
illinois couldn't regulate the railroad because it crossed state lines; decided wabash wins
interstate commerce commission
regulates innerstate trade
people's party
leads to populism; strong presence in south
Ocala demands
reduce tariff, regulate railroad, secret gallot, federal income tax, direct election of senators, FUCS, inflation to assist farmers; all became future practices; farmers=pay debt, miners=work
Sherman silver purchase act 1890
attempted and failed
jim crow laws
intended to separate the races, maternity to morgue
plessy v ferguson
seperate but equal
New Orleans in Plessy v Ferguson
challenged railroad seperating the races
Homer Plessy
octoroon, tried and fined $25
Judge ferguson
fined homer $25
Justice Harlan
"no superior race"
Brown v Board of Education
court found that segregation was a violation of the Equal Protection clause "separate but equal" has no place
Booker T Washington
Born a slave then freed; was patient and funded legal challenges against the jim crow laws; went to Tuskegee Institute (vo tech school)
W.E.B Dubois
Went to Fisk Univeristy first
1st black to earn Ph.D. from Harvard, encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create NAACP in 1910
Talented tenth
top 10% of black population wanted to become lawyers and doctors
Agitate change
take freedom, dont wait for it to come to you
The Crisis
journal by NAACP
NAACP
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional
The Souls of Black Folk
WEB DuBois 1903 - blacks should not be treated bad, they should be aggressive rise up for equality
B. T. Washington rate of change
patient; had a more conservative approach
Dubois rate of change
had a more liberal approach; wanted to take freedom
Sectionalism
loyalty to one's own region of the country, rather than to the nation as a whole
The Peculiar Institution
what white southerners referred to slavery as, meaning that the institution was odd but that it was distinctive, special, since the South was one of the few places in the Western World where slavery still existed, and isolated the South from the rest of American society.
Apologists
"defenders of the faith." Christians who worked hard to dispel the false rumors about Christianity and to make Christianity appear both reasonable and acceptable to non-Christians.
Henry Clay
Senator who persuaded Congress to accept the Missouri Compromise, which admitted Maine into the Union as a free state, and Missouri as a slave state
Henry "box" Brown
US Representative from SC's 1st Congressional District
Harriet Tubman
United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913)
Stephen A. Douglas
Senator from Illinois who ran for president against Abraham Lincoln. Wrote the Kansas-Nebreaska Act and the Freeport Doctrine
Kansas Nebraska Act
This Act set up Kansas and Nebraska as states. Each state would use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery. People who were proslavery and antislavery moved to Kansas, but some antislavery settlers were against the Act. This began guerrilla warfare.
Bleeding Kansas
A sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory. The dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making civil war imminent.
Dred Scott v. Sanford
Supreme Court case that decided US Congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in federal territories and slaves, as private property, could not be taken away without due process - basically slaves would remain slaves in non-slave states and slaves could not sue because they were not citizens
Sumner/ Brooks
Congressman Preston Brooks severely beat Senator Charles Sumner in the senate chambers.

Sumner (from Massachusetts) was vocally anti-slavery. Brooks (South Carolina) took offense at an earlier speech made by Sumner, feeling it was anti-southern and libel against his home state. He approached Sumner, who was seated at a desk in a nearly empty chamber, and after a brief expression of his feelings on the matter, began to attack Sumner with his heavy cane. He continued to assault Sumner the Senator tried in vain to escape up the aisle, blinded by his own blood.
Radical Republicans
These were a small group of people in 1865 who supported black suffrage. They were led by Senator Charles Sumner and Congressman Thaddeus Stevens. They supported the abolition of slavery and a demanding reconstruction policy during the war and after.
John Brown
abolitionist who was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harper's Ferry, Virginia (1800-1858)
Abraham Lincoln
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)
general strategies and trends of the Civil war
...
Reconstruction
the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union
Freedman's Bureau
a U.S. federal government agency that aided distressed refugees and freedmen (freed slaves) in 1865-1872, during the Reconstruction era of the United States.
13th Amendment
This amendment freed all slaves without compensation to the slaveowners. It legally forbade slavery in the United States.
14th Amendment
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
15th Amendment
citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
Draft Riots
were a series of violent disturbances in New York City that were the culmination of discontent with new laws passed by Congress to draft men to fight in the ongoing American Civil War
Andrew Carnegie
Creates Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist. Was one of the "Robber barons"
Horizontal Integration
Type of monopoly where a company buys out all of its competition. Ex. Rockefeller
Vertical Integration
Practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution
J.D. Rockefeller
He was a highly-valued pioneering figure: an American industralist and philanthropist. He revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy. He founded "Standard Oil". His 40 oil companies owned about 90% of the nation's pipelines and refined 84% of the nation's oiil. His fortune was mainly used to create the modern systematic approach of philanthropy with foundations that had a major effect on medicine, education, and scientific reserach. He was a horizontal integrationer (joining competiting businesses in one area).
Industrial Revolution
the change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
Agricultural Revolution
A time when new inventions such as the seed drill and the steel plow made farming easier and faster. The production of food rose dramatically.
Jim Crow
Laws written to separate blacks and whites in public areas/meant African Americans had unequal opportunities in housing, work, education, and government
Black Codes
Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves
Unions
Low wages and unsafe working conditions cause workers to revolt and group together. (Ex. American Railway Union, Child Labor Movement, Women Labor Movement, Industrial Workers of the World, Social Gospel Movement)
Strikes
The unions' method for having their demands met. Workers stop working until the conditions are met. It is a very effective form of attack.
Eugene Debs
Prominent socialist leader (and five time presidential candidate) who founded the American Railroad Union and led the 1894 Pullman Strike
American Federation of Labor
Federation of craft labor unions lead by Samuel Gompers that arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor
Haymarket Square
Labor disorders had broken out and on May 4 1886, the Chicago police advanced on a protest; alleged brutalities by the authorities. Suddenly a dynamite bomb was thrown that killed or injured dozens, including police. It is still unknown today who set off the bomb, but following the hysteria, eight anarchists (possibly innocent) were rounded up. Because they preached "incendiary doctrines," they could be charged with conspiracy. Five were sentenced to death, one of which committed suicide; the other three were given stiff prison terms. Six years later, a newly elected Illinois governor recognized this gross injustice and pardoned the three survivors. Nevertheless, the Knights of Labor were toast: they became (incorrectly )associated with anarchy and all following strike efforts failed.
Pullman Strike
in Chicago, Pullman cut wages but refused to lower rents in the "company town", Eugene Debs had American Railway Union refuse to use Pullman cars, Debs thrown in jail after being sued, strike achieved nothing
The Noble Order of the Knights of Labor
The first improtant national union, it reached its peek in 1886. It tried to bring together the entire working class, both skilled and unskilled. It was unsuccessful, however, due to the many disagreements between skilled and unskilled workers.
"Social Darwinism"
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
International Workers of the World
1905 - Also known as IWW or Wobblies - created in opposition to American Federation of Labor
Populists
a party made up of farmers and laborers that wanted direct election of senators and an 8hr working day
Progressives
reformers who worked to stop unfair practices by businesses and improve the way grovernment works
Reform Impulse
...
The Jungle
This 1906 work by Upton Sinclair pointed out the abuses of the meat packing industry. The book led to the passage of the 1906 Meat Inspection Act.
Booker T. Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
W.E.B. DuBois
1st black to earn Ph.D. from Harvard, encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create NAACP in 1910
Homestead Act
Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25.
Pacific Railroad Act
Called for the building of the Transcontinental Railroad to stretch across America connecting California and the rest of America.
political machines
Corrupt organized groups that controlled political parties in the cities. A boss leads the machine and attempts to grab more votes for his party.
immigration
migration into a place (especially migration to a country of which you are not a native in order to settle there)
Sand Creek Massacre
In Colorado territory in 1864, U.S army colonel John M. Chivington led a surprise attack on a peaceful Cheyenne settlement along Sand Creek River. The Cheyenne under Chief Black kettle tried to surrender. First he waved the America Flag and the White flag of surrender. Chivington ignored the gestures. The U.S army killed about 200 Cheyenne during the conflict
Fetterman Massacre
Fetterman's army led into wilderness and ambushed by Sioux, 82 soldiers killed, sparked public debate over Indian policy
Treaty of Fort Laramie
Treaty under which government agreed to close Bozeman trail, and Sioux agreed to live on reserve along Missouri River. The Sioux were forced into this treaty. The treaty was only a temporary to warfare between Native Americans and Whites.
Dawes Act
1887 law which gave all Native American males 160 acres to farm and also set up schools to make Native American children more like other Americans
Wovoka
He was a new prophet, who promised to restore the Sioux to their original dominance on the Plains if they performed the Ghost Dance
Dawes Act
An act that removed Indian land from tribal possesion, redivided it, and distributed it among individual Indian families. Designed to break tribal mentalities and promote individualism.
"To jump over a broomstick" in slave culture was to ...
marry
Who is the best known member of the Underground Railroad?
Harriet Tubman
The term "popular sovereignty" means ____________________________________ and was a main section found in the Compromise of 1850.
power in decision making
______________________ was arrested after the Pullman Strike...charged for organizing the strike.
Eugene Debs
What the remaining three components of the Compromise of 1850?
- harsher fugitive slave laws enforced
- California entered as a free state
- Popular sovreignty
Slave trade was abolished in District of Columbia
Another application of popular sovereignty could be found in 1854 by the ________________________________Act to determine the status of slavery.
Kansas-Nebraska
The _______________________________ to the United States Constitution ratified in December 1865 abolished slavery throughout the Union.
13th admendment
8. The _______________________________Act took effect in January of 1863 and offered 160 acres of free public land to settlers in the West.
Homestead
During the Bleeding Kansas era... after such violence in the Midwest about the issue of slavery another event was taking place in D.C. between which two Congressmen. _____________________________
Preston Brooks and Charles Sumner
At Vicksburg in July 1863, the Union under __________________________'s leadership was victorious.
Ulysses S. Grant
Abraham Lincoln's January 1, 1863 Emancipation Proclamation freed _________________________________________________________________
slaves in confederate states
The Emancipation Proclamation was issued immediately after ____________________________
battle of antietam
The 15th Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibited federal and state governments from denying any citizen the right to _________________because of race.
vote
As a result of the _________________________________riot in 1886, which transformed from a peaceful rally to an issue with a pipe bomb, unions loss sympathy because of their oftentimes violent nature.
Haymarket Square
The __________________________ were laws that sought to regulate the lives of former slaves.
black codes
The political "boss" of New York City in the early 1870s was ____________________________
William Marcy Tweed (political machine)
What was the name of the organization that sought to organize both skilled an unskilled workers women as well as men, blacks along with whites, and achieved a membership of nearly 800,000 in 1886 __________________________________________
The Nobel Order or Knights of Labor
The 1886 case Wabash v. IL attempted to challenge a state law regulating the ____________________________. The following year the Interstate Commerce Commission was created.
hauling of grain
What was the name of the railroad car company against which workers struck in 1894?
Pullman
What was the name of the labor organization of principally white, male, skilled workers that arose in the 1880s and was headed by Samuel Gompers? __________________________
American Federation of Labor
he following were devices used by Southern whites to keep blacks from exercising suffrage
- poll taxes
-grandfather clauses
-__________________________________
literacy test
Who was the African-American leader who delivered a speech in 1895 at the Atlanta Cotton Exposition urging black Americans to adjust to segregation and stop agitating for civil and political rights? _______________________________________
Booker T. Washington
In the mid- 1850s the Republican Party sought to...
prevent the spread of slavery
In the mid- 1860s the Republican Party sought to...
abolish the institution of slavery (1863 emanc. proc)
The following is true of the Battle of ____________________________, September 17, 1862?
- It was the bloodiest day of fighting in American history; more died at Antietam than at D-Day in World War II.
- 4,300 men were killed that day in fighting and 2,000 of those wounded later died.
- ______________ is located in Maryland, and southern forces under the command of General Robert E. Lee, having crossed into Maryland, were repelled in their northern advance by General McClellan and the Army of the Potomac.
Antietam
One of the main purposes of the _____________________________was to ensure a fair and viable system of labor relations between former slaves and former slave owners
Freedman's Bureau
In ________________________________ of 1877 a grain operator challenged a state law about the regulation. The SC decided that it was a communal good and this upheld the law.
Munn vs. IL
All of the following were Captains of Industry except:
John D. Rockefeller.
Andrew Carnegie.
Samuel Gompers.
J.P. Morgan.
Samuel Gompers.
_________________________ was notorious for his creative route of escaping slavery to a Northern abolitionist's house.
Henry "box" Brown
What was the name of the organization that advocated a workers' revolution to seize control of the means of production and abolish the state, and which organized women, blacks, as Asian-Americans, as well as white men? ________________________________________
Industrial Workers of the World
The largest citizens' movement of the 19th century was the ______________________ Alliance
Farmers (grange"
The Congressman from Nebraska, William Jennings Bryan ,was the Democratic Party nominee for president in 1896 who was calling the free "_______________________" of silver
coinage
The following was the main component of the ____________________ Demands.
ocala
The ________________________________________ of 1851 pushed several Indian tribes onto reserves and caused major uprooting. Then in 1868 the government agreed to abandon forts as long as the tribes agreed safe passage.
Treaty of Ft Laramie
What landmark United States Supreme Court decision gave approval to state laws requiring separate facilities for whites and blacks? __________________________________
Plessy vs Ferguson
Laws that enforced segregation were also known as _______________________________
Jim Crow
The immigrants facing the harshest reception in late-nineteenth-century America were those arriving from __________________________
China
Gang vs. Task Labor
Gang: cotton, sugar ; Task: rice
The nineteenth-century view that there should be an immediate end to slavery and incorporation of the freed persons into the republic as equal citizens is called _____________________________
abolitionism
In the eyes of Lincoln the action of _________________________ or withdrawing formally from membership from the Union was illegal.
secession
Describe the main components of the Dred Scott v. Sanford case.
Scott : slave then Emerson dies, he is willed to Sanford, he sues because he was in a free state with Emerson so Scott should be free. Judge Taney decides against Scott : not a citizen, slave, deems compromises unconstitutional.
One of the leading figures of the Democratic party in the 1850s was________________________
Stephen Douglass
The ____________________________ platform called for the government to bar slavery from the western territories and provide land free in the territories to people who wanted to homestead there.
Free Soil Party
JD Rockefeller practiced _________________________________ integration.
horizontal
Winner of the 1860 election..._______________________________
Abraham Lincoln
Black Americans who refused to sign labor contracts to work for whites during Reconstruction were often convicted of ________________________________ and fined; oftentimes they were then auctioned to the person who paid the fine.
vagrancy
Reconstruction began even before the Civil War ended...with the creation of the _________________________.
10% plan
__________________________ called for a more radical approach to dealing with segregation and equality among black Americans... "Talented Tenth"
WEB Dubois
President Johnson never fully supported ______________________________________ whose purpose for to acquire equal rights for newly freed slaves
radical republicans
Kansas abolitionist _____________________________led a brutal raid on Harpers Ferry.
john brown
Vertical Integration in which every aspect of production is owned (raw material to finished product) was practiced by ___________________________________________
Andrew Carnegie
________________________ was responsible for leading guerilla-style ambushes on the US militia. Also responsible for the Fetterman Massacre which resulted in 82 US deaths.
Red Cloud
The 1887 ______________________ Act which distributed land to speculators led to the loss of tribal lands and the erosion of Indian cultural traditions.
Dawes
The ___________________________Act of 1863 encouraged transcontinental rail lines in which the government would pay a selected sum of money to companies depending on the terrain.
Pacific Railway
Wovoka is accredited to creating and practicing the _____________________________ which was later outlawed by the US militia
ghost dance
Candidates in the 1860's election
Lincoln:
Bell: constitutional union
Breckenridge: Southern democrats
Douglass: Northern democrats