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In the beginning where plantations most likely to use indentured servants or slaves?

indentured servants

How many slaves survived the middle passage?

12 million

Most of the slaves going through the middle passage go to...?

South America

How many slaves actually go to the colonies?


Bacons rebellion

A rebellion lead by Nathaniel Bacon with backcountry farmers to attack Native Americans in an attemp to gain more land

1 drop rule

1/32 of dna is black then the person is still considered black

long staple cotton

hard to grow, easy to clean

short staple cotton

easy to grow, hard to clean

planter class

20 or more slaves

Yeoman farmers

0to 10 slaves 80 to 160 acres

Largest population in south

poor whites with no land and no education

Aristocratic Society

birth and wealth determined class landless laborers, slaves

Color line

Below is colored

House closest to house on plantation is...?



"mother" to white children & "head" of the household. Strong role and presence in Southern home and lifestyle.

who was the last slave sold?


what are the two systems of labor?

gang and task

gang labor

group work together until job is done

task labor

when task is done you are done for the day

most often use of punishment


Ways to prevent runaways

bells on collar or cut tendon

What do they never do to punish?

withhold food and water

why is marriage encouraged?

they can make babys which will mean more slaves

how much money goes into a slave if it is worth $100?

$15 (bonnet, hat, shirt, pants or boots)

what is 1 week ration?

1 peck cornmeal 3-4 lbs
back fat 2-3 lbs

how many calories do slaves need a day?

5,000 to 6,000

Slave life expectancy

45 unless female

how many slave children die by age 5?


If a slave tattles what does he/she get?


battle of Nat turner

runs away, turns self in, slave religious leader, 3 years to plan rebellion, hammers and pitchforks the whole plantation family, moved to other plantation

how many master family members were killed in battle of natt turner?


date of natt turner

late august 1831

When is natt captured?

end of october, tried nov 5 sentenced to death nov 11

how did natt turner die?

skinned, quartered, and remains were burned

what is quartered?

4 horses pull human apart

what happened to remaining slaves after natt turner?

lined up and killed every 7th slave

free blacks have to wear what?

a badge

how many slaves successfully ran away?

10,000 to 12,000

Harriet tubman returns how many times to lead slaves to freedom?


Did all escape routes go north?

no some went by ship

Henry brown

the slave mailed to abolitionist

What are some sabotages used?

poison food, pee in cotton to rot it

what did work songs communicate?

births, deaths, underground railroad

know nothings

believed immigrants were dangerous to society (prostitution, drugs, religions, job stealing)

American party

wanted to limit govt offices to american born, education to protestant only, must be 21 years old to become a citizen, restrict sale of alcohol, divided on slavery so it breaks up

compromise of 1850

Includes California admitted as a free state, the Fugitive Slave Act, Made popular sovereignty in most other states from Mexican- American War

charles sumner

gave a speech in may 1856 called " the Crime Against Kansas" militant opponent of slavery, beat with a cane by Preston Brooks after the speech, collapsed unconscious and couldn't return to senate for 4 years, symbol throughout the north.

preston brookes

Who beat Charles Sumner with a cane?

dred scott vs. sanford

an 1856 supreme court case in wich a slave, dred scott, sued for his freedom because he had been taken to live in territories where slavery was illegal ; court ruled against scott

"Bloody Affair"

- Most die in field hospitals (conditions are poor)
- Is injured or wounded...most often lose that limb
o Infection is the #1 killer

Andersonville Prison

i. Operated by the Confederate army
ii. Disease, overcrowding, nasty -
1. (Union prisons are very similar)


prisoners of war

b. America's First Modern War / Total

a. Collateral damage ...society v. society

Who is in the Election of 1860?

Abraham Lincoln, Bell, Stephen Douglas, Breckenridge

Abraham Lincoln

Republican Party (GOP) -
i. "Free Soiler" platform - any land acquired will be free


Const. Union - looking for compromise

Stephen Douglas

Northern Democrat
i. Stressed popular sovereignty


Southern Democrat
i. Pro-Slavery + property travel (Dred Scott)

What happens after Electoral College- clear victor was Lincoln?

South Carolina - secedes immediately 20 December 1860
By Lincoln's inauguration six other Deep South states secede

Corwin Amendment

ghost Amendment, Adopted, never ratified, Would have made it illegal to outlaw slavery - to change the Constitution

Fort Sumter

which is loyal to the Union, Kind of awkward situation as it is located in enemy territory...eventually runs out of supplies, Governor want to enter into negotiations with Lincoln and that if Lincoln attempts to resupply the fort he will take that as an act of war

First Major Decision for Lincoln

Cannot enter into negotiations with Confederacy...would be recognizing their legality and so would Europe, Secession is also not allowed in the eye of the Union

Union: "Keeping the Union Together" is original reason/ message of Civil War - 1861,

Lincoln wants to punish the south...corrupt, rebellious, South---not the states, just its individuals

Lincoln does not negotiate so what happens?

The fort is attacked by SC militia 14 April, 1861

Confederacy fired first...then more states secede. whats the order?

Ark, NC, TN and 2/3 of VA ...creation of West Virginia which is loyal to the Union; MO is loyal to the Union even though it is a slave state...

VP of Confederacy

A. Stevens - Cornerstone Speech, War also about slavery (state's rights)

Emancipation Proclamation

Keeping the Union together AND ending slavery

Advantages of Union

70% pop., 70% industry, 70% wealth

Advantages of Confederacy

Slave pop (can't utilize of liquidate), Have land, Short on funds, better generals!, Robert E. Lee

Lincoln struggles with finding General Until...

1863...Grant: Understand conflict


If you have $300 (yearly income) you can buy yourself out, Poor man's war to fight, If equal number of deaths - north still wins because they have a larger population, Grant understands he can always resupply troops

Whats the Union strategy?

Anaconda Plan, Naval blockade around Confederacy...then move to divide 1863-64, Control MS River

When and where was Battle of Bull Run?

May 1861, Outside Washington, D.C. - First battle and thought to be only battle

Call for volunteers (both sides), Initial term of service in army is?

3 months

Armies sizes are?

30,000 U. v. 22,000 C

How many americans die?

600,000 Americans die

Who is the clear victor of the first battle?


Union begin possible victory...Battle of ?


Lee attempts to invade the north...from Maryland to Pennsylvania
50,000 C v. McClellan 90,000 U

Battle of Antietam

Who was leading the Army of the Potomac?


Antietam is the single bloodiest day during war, why?

4,000 soldiers killed, 18,000 are wounded; Battle is enough of a non-loss for Lincoln to push for the Emancipation Proclamation in order to isolate the Confederacy, As well as change the main reason for conflict

When is the Battle of Gettysburg, what are the troop numbers, hows it turn out?...

3rd of July, 75,000 C v. Meade 85,000 troops, Meade is too cautious so Lee escapes, Lincoln needs a general who can get the job done

What happens on July 4th, 1863?

"saving grace", Lincoln hears word of a victory in Vicksburg, MS, Control the high ground with limited number of cannons, Grant is in charge "unconditional surrender", Cuts =Vicksburg off - no negotiations so the city surrenders, Not pretty but Grant gets it done...this is Lincoln's best general, Tenacious and okay with losing soldiers for the cause

Spring 1864, Wilderness Campaign

64-65 Lee troops are diminishing quickly...and he can't replace, desertion rates increase
Grant doesn't let Lee have any rest

Grant also has a secret weapon?

William Tecumseh Sherman

Lincolns reconstruction policy

reintroduce states into union; 10% plan, about individuals living in states

Individuals no in high rank can take what?

loyalty oath

When state has 10% of the population take the loyalty oath what happens?

state can make constitution and send delagates

Congress can deny what?

representative seats

Lincoln assassinated so who takes over?


Johnson uses 10% plan but adds what?

Anyone who owned $20,000 worth of land had to beg for forgiveness

Freedman's bureau

The bureau's focus was to provide food, medical care, administer justice, manage abandoned and confiscated property, regulate labor, and establish schools.

13th admendment

abolished slavery, except for crimes

black codes

slaves may be taken from jail and be put to work on plantations

reading contracts

insures slaves are not taken advantage of

Civil rights act 1866

provided guarantees for African-American voting rights in the South

14th admendment

Guaranteed citizenship to former slaves and protected the rights of all citizens. Equal protection under the law.

Ways to not allow slaves to vote

grandfather vote, literacy tests, poll tax $20


Stands for Ku Klux Klan and started right after the Civil War in 1866. The Southern establishment took charge by passing discriminatory laws known as the black codes. Gives whites almost unlimited power. They masked themselves and burned black churches, schools, and terrorized black people. They are anti-black and anti-Semitic.

compromise of 1877

Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river; This settled the election of 1876, troops were removed from Louisiana and South Carolina and concessions for building a southern transcontinental railroad made U

jim crow laws

The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965

compromise of 1850

harsher slave codes
popular sovrienty
end slave trade in DC
CA=free state

cell system

underground railroad

emancipation proclamation

Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free by jan 1, 1863


south carolina first then florida to texas

anaconda plan

Union war plan by Winfield Scott, called for blockade of southern coast, capture of Richmond, capture Mississippi R, and to take an army through heart of south.

william t sherman

total war-unconditional surrender



corwin admendment

would have been the 13th admendment. made illegal to change constitution (can't ban slavery)


leader of the attack at sand creek massacre

outcome of dred scott vs sanford

declare compromises are unconstitutional; builds up civil war

Nat turner did what?

killed 60 to 70

dog soldiers


gang system

work in a group until told to stop working

task system

stop working when task is finished

know nothings

anti immigrant-nativist movement- in crease naturalization period

dred scott vs sanford

scott was a slave willed to sanford. goes to original master to free areas. judge taney

appomattox courthouse

Lee surrenders April 1864 ends civil war

14th amendment

due process, equality

compromise of 1877

dealt with election of 1876. President Hayes- Republican

Carlisle Indian School

W. Pratt assimilate indians

Carnegie Steel

Company of Andrew Carnegie, started in business with Thomas Scott, invested in steel

vertical integration

owns everything from raw material to end product

JD Rockefeller

Invests in alternative fuel (oil); doesn't believe in competition, buys it all out; lobbied train companies to only transport his oil

horizontal integration

eliminate competition owning many companies (pac man)

standard oil of ohio

1882, stock holders surrenders power to a band of directors managed by 9 trustees

cleveland massacre

JD buys 22 of 26 oil refining businesses, says hes "the man of oil" remaining competitors says that is not fair


Capitalism eats its own tail without competition there is no free enterprise

Price war Rock vs scott

Rock withholds oil, and he has more resources so he cut wages which made a strike; Scott Penn. RR invests oil

Sherman Antitrust act 1890

enforced in 1910s; protect/encourage competition; No monopoly


a corporation of labor; early unions were local/regional and for skilled only; labor is a form of property and government should protect property

knights of labor

1869- started skilled only then vertically integrated; skilled, unskilled, blacks, white, women, etc

terrance powderly

elected president in 1879, catholic which led to the knights open membership; secret society which led to his decline in 1886

american federation of labor

led by Gompers; cigarette roller;most skilled workers; union; company did well because most were skilled

Samuel Gompers

leader of AFL; skilled cigarette roller; horizontally integrated


large number of people refused to work; 23,000 strikes 1880-1900

great railroad strike of 1877

scott vs rock; rock halts distribution (by railroad) of oil because scott gets involved in oil

haymarket square riot

demonstration and march for a 40 hour work week in chicago; pipe bomb thrown at end and killed police officers ( was peaceful) made unions look violent

pullman strike 1893

owned facories, jobs, and everything in town; cut wages 4 times but didn't cut cost of living

united railway workers union

go on strike led by debs because of pullman situation

eugene debs

arrested for organizing the strike

in re debs

supreme court rules the strike is a restraint to free trade and breaks the sherman antitrust act


corporations of corporations

standard oil trust

committee of 9 that oversaw 4 businesses and guided and directed activities

holding company

role is to own other companies. Rock owns 25% of stock

Sherman Antitrust act

1890 presents monopoly constraints on free trade


try to produce as much as possible so crop prices would go down, went into debt so they blamed on circumstances

patron saints of husbandry 1867

started out at a social gathering to complain but turned to an economic concept so they could get seeds and grain for cheaper prices

OH Kelley

founded sts

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