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Acute gouty arthritis

condition where uric acid crytals accumulate in the joints of the big toes, ankles, wrists, fingers, knees, or elbows, resulting in red, swollen, or inflammed tissue


proteins called rheumatoid factors released by B lymphocytes that tear down the body's own tissue


accumulation of nitrogenous waste products in the kidneys that can result in death if untreated


class of drugs that block bone resorption by inhibiting osteoclast activity

Bone deposition

opposite of bone resorption; the process of depositing mineral components into bone

Bone resorption

process of bone demineralization or the breaking down of bone into mineral components


substance formed in the first step of vitamin D formation


hormone secreted by the thyroid gland that increases the deposition of calcium in bone


substance that is transformed in the kidneys during the second step of the conversion of vitamin D to its active form


vitamin D3 formed in the skin by exposure to UV light

Disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD)

drugs from several classes that modify the progression of rheumatoid arthritis; include hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil), methotrexate (Rheumatrex), or sulfasalazine (Azulfidine)


metabolic disorder characterized by the accumulation of uric acid in the bloodstream or joint cavities


an elevated blood level of uric acid, which causes gout


disorder characterized by degeneration of joints, particularly the fingers, spine, hips, and knees


rickets in children; caused by vitamin D deficiency characterized by softening of the bones without alteration of basic bone structure


condition in which bones lose mass and become brittle and susceptible to fracture

Paget's disease

disorder of bone formation and resorption characterized by weak, enlarged, and deformed bones

Rheumatoid arthritis

systemic autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation of multiple joints

Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM)

drug that produces an action similar to estrogen in body tissues; used for the treatment of osteroporosis in postmenopausal women

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