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Chapter 4 Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity
Terms in this set (27)
every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us
the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that containthe genes
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein
twins who develop from a single fetrilized gg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms
twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs. They are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment.
a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
the interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity).
the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes, using the principles of natural selection
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will mostlikely be passed on to succeeding genereations
a random error in gene replication that leads to a change.
in psychology, the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe "proper" behavior.
the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies.
giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personla attributes rather than group identifications
giving priority to group goals (often those of the extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly
physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone
the sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two X chromosomes; males have one. an X chromosome from each parent produces a female child.
the sex chromosome found only in males. when paired with an X chromosome from the mother, produces a male child.
the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in male stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.
a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.
a set of expected behaviors for males or for females
our sense of being male or female.
the aquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
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