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study of inheritance.

purebred organism

one in which the traits have remained the same for many generations.

mating specific organisms to test how traits are inherited is the act of a:



when the ancestors are not alike .

give an example of a hybrids ancestors

a pea plant parent was tall, and another pea plant parent was short.


has more influence on a trait than a recessive factor does,refers to the characteristic that is expressed,even when a recessive gene is present.


refers to the characteristic that is masked when a dominant gene is expressed.


the way a plant or organism looks-its physical characteristics.


the specific factors an organism possesses .


the cell formed when two reproductive cells,(such as egg and pollen) unite.

punnett squares,

what many people use to visualize the way mendels theories work.


special reproductive cells designed to transfer or receive the chromosomes.

incomplete dominance

when two traits combine or blend together to produce a different trait.


a pattern where both the dominant and recessive traits are expressed.

multiple gene inheritance

when two or more genes are responsible for producing a single trait.

X chromosome

in a female there are two of these sex chromosomes.

Y chromosome

smaller than the X chromosome and has very few genes. only expressed in males.

sex-linked traits

inherited trait that has a gene on the X chromosome but no corresponding gene on the Y chromosome.


people who have the gene for a trait but do not express the trait for themselves.

inherited disorders

abnormal traits that are passed on through genes.


any change in an organisms genetic material.

lethal mutations

causes the organism to die before it is born.

gene mutation

occurs when there are changes in the sequence of bases on the segment of DNA that makes up a gene.

somatic mutation

Are not passed on to future generations.

germ mutations

may not affect the organism in which it occurs, but it can affect the organisms offspring.

chromosomal change

a change involving the number of chromosomes or the number or location of genes on a chromosome.


known as "bleeders" disease, or the "disease of royalty"

Duchenne muscular dystrophy

causes the muscles to enlarge and swell and then shrink and waste away.

cystic fibrosis

affects both the mucous and sweat glands of the body. and instead of producing normal,free-flowing mucus,a child with cystic fibrosis produces thick,sticky mucus that plugs the glands.

tay sachs

children with this disease lack a special enzyme that breaks down fatty substances.

malignant hyperthermia

caused by the dominant gene.


causes the leg bones in the arms and legs to stop growing before they should.

selective breeding

choosing certain organisms with desirable traits to breed in the hope that their offspring also will have desired traits.


the mating of an organism with its close relatives.


involves breeding individuals from different varieties to produce offspring that have the traits of both parents.


a group of organisms that is purebred for certain characteristics.

genetic engineering

using special techniques to control the genetic makeup of an organism.

human genome project

to create a map of the human genome.

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