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Chapter 1-4 Astronomy Review (past quizzes Q&A)
Terms in this set (74)
Our solar system consists of __________.
the Sun and all the objects that orbit it
A typical galaxy is a __________.
collection of a few hundred million to a trillion or more stars, bound together by gravity
The number of stars in the Milky Way galaxy is approximately __________.
a few hundred billion
Where is our solar system located within the Milky Way Galaxy?
roughly halfway between the center and the edge of the visible disk of the galaxy
About how many galaxies comprise the Local Group that contains our own Milky Way galaxy?
Which sequence is in the correct order from smallest to largest?
Earth, Moon's orbit, Sun, Pluto's orbit
Which of the following best describes what we mean by the universe?
the sum total of all matter and energy
The term "observable universe" refers to __________.
that portion of the universe that we can see, in principle, given the current age of the universe
What do astronomers mean by the Big Bang?
the event that marked the beginning of the expansion of the universe
Based on observations of the universal expansion, the age of the universe is about __________.
14 billion years
The light year is a unit of __________.
An astronomical unit (AU) is __________.
the average distance between the Earth and the Sun
Jupiter's average distance from the Sun is 5.2 AU. Which of the following statements is true about light leaving the surface of the Sun?
Light reaches Earth first.
When we look at an object that is 1000 light years away, we see it __________.
as it was 1000 years ago
If a technologically advanced civilization in a nearby star system transmitted messages intended for us, how long would it take for the messages to reach us?
Photographs of distant galaxies show them as they were when they were much younger than they are today.
About how long does it take light from the Sun to reach Pluto?
About how long does it take light from the Sun to reach Alpha Centauri, the next closest star system?
The earliest radio broadcasts on Earth were transmitted about 100 years ago. Traveling at the speed of light, where would these radio waves be now?
just passing nearby stars in our galaxy
What type of motion causes the daily sunrise and sunset seen from North America?
the spin of the Earth on its rotational axis
Which of the following statements does NOT use the terms angular size or angular distance correctly?
The angular distance between those two bright stars in the sky is about 2 meters.
You are standing on Earth's equator. Which way is Polaris, the North star?
on the northern horizon
When it is summer in North America, what season is it in Australia?
How does the Earth's Varying Distance from the Sun affect the Seasons?
The Variation in Earth-Sun Distance over the course of each year has virtually no effect on the seasons
Which of the following planets would you expect to have seasons most like Earth's?
Mars (axis tilt = 25 degrees)
Suppose the Moon is rising in the East, just as the Sun is setting in the West. What phase would be looking at?
How much of the Moon is receiving direct sunlight at any particular time?
Which of the following alignments can result in a lunar eclipse?
Moon - Earth - Sun
Why do we see essentially the same face of the Moon at all times?
because the Moon's rotational and orbital periods are equal
An observer in Canada sees a third quarter Moon on a particular day. What will an observer in Australia see on the same day?
third quarter Moon
From the Earth we always see the same side of the Moon. If you were an astronaut stationed at a base on the near side of the Moon, what view of Earth would you have?
The Earth would always be visible in the sky above the Moon.
The main stars in the constellation Orion are all about the same distance from Earth.
What makes the North Star (Polaris) so special?
It appears very near the north celestial pole.
Why do stars appear to rise in the east and set in the west?
the daily rotation of the Earth
When traveling north from the Unites States into Canada, you'll see the North Star getting __________.
higher in the sky
The names of the days of the week are based on _______________.
the seven naked-eye objects that appear to move among the constellations
The ancient Greeks get a lot of attention for their contribution to science because _______________.
they were the first people known to try to explain nature with models based on reason and mathematics, without resorting to the supernatural
Copernicus was the first person to explore the idea that the Sun was the center of the solar system.
The __________ of its elliptical orbit is the average distance of a planet from the Sun.
The point in an orbit where a planet is closest to the Sun is called __________.
Who discovered that the planets travel in elliptical orbits around the Sun, not circular orbits?
The great contribution of Nicholas Copernicus was to __________.
create a detailed model of our solar system with the Sun rather than Earth at the center
Which of the following factors affect the period of an orbit (that is, how long it takes a planet to orbit the Sun)?
the average distance from the Sun
If an astronomer claims to have discovered an object with a very eccentric orbit, the orbital trajectory of the object __________.
looks like a very squashed oval
Which one of the following is not consistent with the major hallmarks of science?
Science consists of proven theories that are understood to be true explanations of reality.
What practical value did astronomy offer to ancient civilizations?
It helped them keep track of time and seasons, and it was used by some cultures for navigation.
Imagine a new planet is discovered in our solar system located about 3 AU from the Sun. What would its approximate orbital period be?
The point in an orbit where a planet is farthest from the Sun is called __________.
Which of the following was NOT observed by Galileo"?
Why were ancient observers unable to detect stellar parallax?
They did not have the ability to measure very small angles.
According to Newton's law of gravity, if you double the masses of both attracting objects, then the gravitational force between them will __________.
increase by a factor of 4
If a planet has the same radius as Earth, but twice Earth's mass, how much would you weigh on that planet?
twice what you weigh on Earth
If you drop a heavy object near the surface of the Earth, approximately how fast would it be falling after 2 seconds?
If your mass is 60 kg on Earth, what would your mass be on the Moon?
In which of the following cases would you feel weightless?
while falling from a roof
It is possible for a planet's gravitational influence to alter the orbit of a comet.
The energy attributed to an object by virtue of its motion is known as __________.
What does temperature measure?
the average kinetic energy of particles in a substance
Suppose you drop a 10-lb weight and a 5-lb weight on the Moon, both from the same height at the same time. What will happen?
Both will hit the ground at the same time
Suppose the Sun were suddenly to shrink in size, but that its mass remained the same. According to the law of conservation of angular momentum, what would happen?
The Sun would rotate faster than it does now.
Suppose that the Sun shrank to half its current size, but its mass remained the same. What would happen to Earth's orbit?
Earth's orbit would not be affected.
Speed and velocity are the same thing.
Linear momentum is defined as __________.
mass times velocity
The allowed shapes for orbits due only to gravity are __________.
ellipses, parabolas, and hyperbolas
The force of gravity is an inverse square law. This means that, if you double the distance between two large masses, the gravitational force between them __________.
weakens be a factor of 4
The kilogram is a measure of an object's __________.
How many high tides occur at Myrtle Beach each day?
What is happening to the Moon's orbit around the Earth?
It is slowly spiraling away from Earth.
What would happen if a spaceship were launched with a speed greater than Earth's escape velocity?
It would travel away from Earth into the solar system.
Which of the following temperature scales is used most often in science?
Which of the following is responsible for Earth's tides?
Both Moon and Sun
Why are astronauts weightless in the Space Station?
because the Space Station is constantly in free-fall around the Earth
Why is Newton's form of Kepler's third law so useful to astronomers?
It can be used to determine the masses of planets (and other orbiting objects)
The number of stars in the Milky Way galaxy is approximately __________.
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