Upgrade to remove ads
psy 365 quiz 5
Terms in this set (52)
1. What is the difference between reactive depression and a major depressive episode?
Reactive depression happens after something bad happens in your life (ie: a pet dying) and you feel depressed for (usually) a short time. Situation-based; usually because something happened. Able to get over it in a couple of months and mood improves
A major depressive episode has no specific reason and is recurrent. 5 or more o f these need to occur within a 2 week period.
• depressed mood
• significant weight loss
• insomnia or hypersomnia
• thoughts of suicide
• decreased ability to concentrate or think
• diminished interest or pleasure
• feeling of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt
• psychomotor agitation or retardation
1. A period of stress can trigger____
Major depressive disorder
1. Average age of MDD diagnosis is?
1. ___% of people will have MDD at one point in their life.
___% of the population suffers from MDD
2. ____ block the MAO enzyme.
MAO is a degrading enzyme that breaks down_____
serotonin, norepi and dopamine.
2. When MAOI's are taken, what happens to MAO? and how does this affect the corresponding neurotransmitters?
MAOI's block MAO from breaking down serotonin, norepi and dopamine. This leads to an increase in these NT's in the synapses
2. Tricyclic antidepressants block/slow the reuptake of ____, which results in?
serotonin and norepinephrine. more of these in the synapse.
2nd generation antidepressant
2. 2nd generation antidepressants are what? and block what?
ssri's that block serotonin reuptake
3. Why are MAO-I drugs not used very much anymore?
Terrible side effects. Causes Tyramine effect. MAO breaks down tyramine so when it is inhibited by MAO-I the liver cannot break it down which leads to GI discomfort.
weight gain- crave and over eat carbs
increase nor epi and stimulates sympathetic nervous system (fight or flight)
4. Which two parts of the brain were suggested to be involved in anxiety disorders such as panic attacks and post traumatic stress disorder?
Anxiety: orbitolfrontal cortex plays a role in emotional regulation. amygdala and hippocampus
PTSD: body continuously releases cortisol, which the hippocampus is very sensitive to.
5. Which neurotransmitter(s) is(are) affected by each of the different antianxiety drugs discussed in class? (barbiturates, benzodiazaprene, 2nd generation and ambien)
barbituates have their own binding site on GABA receptor which makes it function more efficiently.
benzodiazaprene: keep GABA channels open longer.
2nd generation (BuSpar): serotonin agonists
Ambien: gaba agonist.
6. What are some side effects associated with barbiturates? Barbiturates all affect the ___ nervous system and activate the ____ nervous system
- Reduces REM sleep
- Mental clouding, slowed reflexes
- respiratory depression
- effect with alcohol
- liver enzymes: tolerance and decreased margin of safety
- physical dependence
- rebound effect can cause seizures
- if mixed with heavy drinking, can cause death
sympathetic nervous system, empathetic nervous system.
7. Which disorders are benzodiazepines used to treat?
anxiety and mild seizures
- causes less sedation and cloudiness
2. What is the mechanism of action for third generation antidepressants? (remeron, zyban, etc)
act on serotonin but not exclusively- they also act on norepi
8. How is BuSpar different from other antianxiety drugs?
- 5-HT (instead of GABA) and serotonin 1A receptor agonist
- milder side effects
-works on amygdala and prefront. cort.
- takes several weeks to kick in
- LOWERED risk for abuse
- not given for seizures
9. Antipsychotic: Risperdal inhibits ____ receptors.
9. Antipsychotic: Abilify is a partial agonist for ___ receptors and antagonist for ___ receptors while also being an agonist for ____ all over the brain.
-agonist: serotonin 1
antagonist: serotonin 2
9. Antipsychotic: Zyprexa affects ____ at low doses and __(2)__ at high doses
considerable weight gain
serotonin AND dopamine
9. Antipsychotic: Clozaril blocks ____ receptors. Can cause ____ which can increase susceptibility to infections
agranulocytosis: decreased WBC
Anhedonia is the inability to...?
9. Thorazine blocks which receptors?
10. Which antipsychotic drugs are first generation, second generation, and third generation? Only worry about the major ones we discussed in class.
(Butyrophenones) Haloperidol aka Haldol
11. What is the dopamine hypothesis? Evidence for it? Evidence against it? Conclusion?
-Increased dopamine levels are responsible for schizophrenia symptoms.
For it: if you give patients thorazine and it blocks dopamine- symptoms improve. In Amphetamine psychosis there are high levels of dop and patient's have symptoms that mimic schizo. In parkinson's L-Dopa converts to dopamine which "results" in schizo-like symptoms
Against: Autopsies of schizo patients show normal levels of dop. Homovanilic acid (dop's active metabolite, was normal in urine samples)
Conclusion: high levels of dop did not cause Schizophrenia. However, high levels of dop receptors caused schizophrenia.
12. What is the law of thirds?
A third of the patients will:
1. respond really well- able to live relatively normal life
2. not respond or do well at all- hospitalized, poor social function...
3. in between- may improve a little but still need assistance in daily activities
--> patients may have to experiment with right medication
13. What are Parkinsonian symptoms associated with the use of first generation antipsychotic drugs?
severe motor movement: stiff, shuffling walk, lack of spontaneity, restlessness, fixed facial expression and loss of coordinated movements such as swinging arms while walking
14. What is tardive dyskinesia? It is a side effect of what?
Increase in involuntary motor movements.
lip smacking, jaw movements
**side effect of chronic schizo treat with 1st generation drugs
15. Which antipsychotic drugs treat mostly positive symptoms but have less effect on negative symptoms?
First generation drugs: Haloperidol and Thorazine.
16. Which antipsychotic drugs treat positive and negative symptoms?
Second generation drugs: Clozapine, Olanzapine, Risperidone. Quetiapine
17. What are some positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia?
Type I/positive symptoms: additional behaviors
-hallucinations: auditory, vision, tactile, smell
-Thought disorders: unorganized
- delusions: thoughts/ beliefs that are not real.
Persecution: people out to get them
Grandeur: thinking you are grand
Control: being controlled by external source
Type II/negative symptoms: loss of behaviors
-flat affect: no emotional expression
-poverty of speech: one word response to questions
-lack of initiative: withdrawn
-anhedonia: inability to experience pleasure
Most drugs are good at treating type I
18. What is agranulocytosis?
Side effect of Clozapine (Clorazil)
- Low WBC which lowers immunity
19. What are the four basic effects of NSAIDs? Nonnarcotic Anti-inflammatory analgesics
- Reduce inflammation in the body
- Reduce body temperature (antipyretic)
- Relieve pain (analgesia)
- Thins the blood (anticoagulant)
19. Not all NSAIDs implement the 4 basic effects... what does aspirin do?
anti inflammatory, antipyretic and anticoagulant but only treats minor pains.
19. Not all NSAIDs implement the 4 basic effects... what does Acetaminophen (tylenol) do?
analgesic and antipyretic
19. Not all NSAIDs implement the 4 basic effects... what does Ibuprofen (advil) do?
anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic
19. Not all NSAIDs implement the 4 basic effects... what does Naproxen do?
20. What is a risk associated with high doses of acetaminophen?
Liver toxicity if taking too high of a dose and/or for an extended period of time.
low margin of safety
21. Which over-the-counter chemical is often abused by adolescents to get high?
What effects can this drug have on the brain?
Antitussive agents. Blocks glutamate and serotonin receptors and acts like PCP.
Can cause OLNEY LESIONS=scarring of the brain.
22. How do NSAIDs work as an analgesic (how do they reduce pain)?
NSAIDs block cyclooxygenase so no prostaglandins are made (prostaglandins cause pain at site of injury and are released by the hypothalamus when tissue is stretched or burned)
They block the COX enzyme stopping conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins and work at the site of the injury (not the brain).
23. Who in the population should not take aspirin?
Children and pregnant women. Children can get Reye's syndrome; nausea, severe vomiting, disorientation and coma. Can cause liver and brain damage.
23. What are 2 signs of asprin overdose?
ringing of ears and rapid respiration
24. What type of drug is dextromethorphan (e.g. what does it do)?
Antitussive- for cough and cold
25. What is diphenhydramine and what is it used for in over-the-counter drugs?
Antihistamine meant to treat allergies.
Chemical found in benadryl, it's only in OTC sleeping aids. It makes you feel drowsy and sleepy.
26. Review the basics of the FDA approval process. (4)
Preclinical research and development phase:
-1-3yrs animal testing.
-Then submit to FDA, which decides if they should test it on humans.
Clinical research and dev (7rs):
-Phase 1: very first tests on healthy humans - 100 people (students)
-Phase 2: start to recruit those who have this disorder
-Phase 3: large scales of people with the disorder (1000-3000)
About 7 yrs of testing on humans
They measure absorption
-Submit new drug application of NDA
- NDA reviews data and info (1yr process for approval)
Post-marketing surveillance (indefinite time):
-Adverse rxn, reporting, surveys/sampling
-Enters phase 4 (inspections)
27. Which chemical is found in over-the-counter stimulants?
28. What are some of the risks discussed in class associated with the use of herbal supplements?
-production and marketing have very little oversight because they have not passed through the FDA
Can contain other compounds (impure)
- "natural" doesn't mean safe; people are more likely to dismiss concerns about drug interactions, liver damage, etc.
29. Which neurotransmitters are affected by ephedrine and what basic effect does it have on the brain?
Norepi, dopamine and adrenaline (epinephrine). increases the release of these.
psycho stimulant that can cause heart attack, stroke, seizure...
30. What do companies who market ginkgo biloba claim it does?
Cognitive function, mental sharpness, and many many others. Is a blood thinner, but not as effective as asprin.
31. What is St. John's wort used for? What does it do in the brain?
Depression, anxiety, and insomnia. More effective than a placebo but significantly inferior to SSRI drugs.
Blocks reuptake of serotonin. Potentially dop and norepi.
32. What is kava used for and what is a major concern associated with its use?
It's put into a drink and has been reported to reduce anxiety. Can lead to hepatotoxicity. Very bad to combine with acetaminophen, alc or tylenol.
33. What do companies who market echinacea claim it does?
Believed to help the common cold and potentially flu. But there is no proof that it actually works. Not harmful.
34. What is Zicam used to treat?
Used to treat the common cold- contains zinc. Zinc is very toxic to olfactory receptors, kills them and they never return.
35. What is melatonin and what is it suggested to do by companies who market it?
Released from pineal gland-synthesized from serotonin. It is thought to regulate sleep rhythms in humans. The clinical trials argue both sides; that it works and that it doesn't work. The issue with this drug is that it can cause hormonal problems.
Potentially helps decrease the affects of jet lag.
You might also like...
Psy 365 quiz 5 sdsu
PSYC 365 EXAM 5
PSY 365 Drugs & Behavior - Quiz 5
PSY365 Exam 5
Other sets by this creator
MCAT hormones of endocrine sys
Vert quiz 1&2
psy 365 quiz 4
Other Quizlet sets
Test #2 - Safety: radiation protection & physics
Midterm Earth Science
The AD-AS Model