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PSY211 Exam 3 Cognitive Learning TERMS
Terms in this set (35)
Internal mental processes
Memory, abstract reasoning, critical, language representation, spatial representation, conceptual/analytical thought, creative thinking, problem solving.
Thinking outside of the box
A problem solving technique that involves the generation of possible solutions and devising a solution plan.
A set of instructions that will guarantee the success of a procedure or the ultimate solution to a problem.
Ex) Pull out every strand of hay until you find the needle in the haystack.
May not be most efficient way.
Short-cute, or rule of thumb, that speeds up the problem solving process by using an educated guess, common sense, or your intuition.
Ex) Google search does not go through the entire internet, but uses intelligent strategies to generate the most likely search candidates.
Does not ensure the right answer.
Rather than trying to find the ideal or optimal solution to many problems, we settle for solutions that are good enough.
Ex) While apartment hunting, all you need to do is locate a place that is convenient, comfortable, and affordable. That should satisfy your wants.
Problem will be solved in a way that you can live with.
Difficulty switching to a new and uncommon use of a tool or object.
Ex) Use box of tacks, matches, and a candle to mount the candle on the wall.
Mental Set (Problem solving set)
Learning to adopt certain strategies for solving past problems that may not be helpful for future problems.
The organism comes equipped with a family of responses that are arranged in a hierarchy of strength. Alternative behavior sequence that lead to the same goal.
Ex) When cat finally pulls string to escape the string pulling is at the top of the hierarchy and is the dominant response in the cat's repertoire behavior.
Gestalt Theory- Insight
A sudden understanding of how all the elements in a problem fit together and form the solution to the problem.
Ex) The chimp stacked boxes on top of each other to get the banana.
Gestalt Theory- Goal Direction
The view that the problem solving is NOT a mechanical process of building behaviors on top of behaviors. Problem solving is a directional process guided by the nature of the problem.
The problem is broken into sub-goals, and devising the means for reaching each sub-goal (ends) brings the problem closer and closer to a final solution.
Ex) Travel plans (booking connecting flights)
Planning strategy (Planning process)
When faced with a problem, find another (perhaps simpler) problem that you can solve, and then use this to guide you to the solution for the original problem.
The ability to generate many possible approaches or potential solutions to a problem.
The approaches or potential solutions are unusual, novel, or "off-the wall."
The ability to recognize and give up on a bad idea. The ability to let go and not fixate on a approach or solution.
The ability to think of useful, practical, worthwhile ideas and not fanciful or silly notions.
Creative ideas or products that flourish and extend from a single source.
Ex) How many ways can you use a paperclip?
Creative ideas that coalesce around a single point of origin.
Ex) Given 3 words and told to think of a 4th word that is related to the other 3.
We must learn to identify the relevant attributes of the concept.
Ex) Relevant features of cars= big, solid, wheels, doors, moves/ Irrelevant= color
Discovering the rule that applies to combining the attributes.
The concept has a single attribute that is either present or absent
Ex) Speed limit= 65 MPH
The concept has two or more attributes and all must be present
Ex) Car= big AND wheels AND doors AND moves
Women= adult AND female
Bachelor= male AND unmarried AND adult
The concept has two or more attributes; either or both can be present.
Ex) Road= asphalt OR gravel
Doctor= PhD OR MD OR both
The concept has two or more attributes defined by a conditional "if then" rule
Ex) School zone= IF SIGN is posted THEN DRIVE BELOW posted speed/ IF NO SIGN is posted THEN DRIVE AT 25 mph
Subject is shifted to a new problem in which a whole new dimension is now relevant.
Ex) Squares=no Circles=yes
Shifted to a new problem in which the same dimension is relevant, but the proper response is now reversed.
Ex) White objects= yes Black objects= no
Understands the world in sensory inputs and motor outputs. Sensory and motor coordination and egocentrism.
Ex) Hide an object under a blanket and the child thinks it has vanished.
Acquires representational thought and begins the process of verbal communication. Object permanence and simple classification.
Ex) Show a child an object and then hide it from them, they will actively look for it.
Concrete operational thought
Start to manipulate the internal representations that began in the preoperational stage. Complex classification (i.e. use of dimensions, hierarchies) and reversibility (i.e. conservation problems).
Marks the stage of abstract reasoning. Abstract, hypothetical reasoning.
Balance between searching for alternative solutions (moves) and scanning the consequences of a solution.
Ex) the game of chess
Start with a known solution and then follow steps backwards to the problem state (i.e. math problems).
Language symbols, images, prototypes.
Recommended textbook explanations
E Bruce Goldstein
COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY CONNECT MIND/RESRCH/EVERYDY EXPER
E Bruce Goldstein
Cengage Advantage Books: Cognitive Psychology
E Bruce Goldstein, Robert Hershberger
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
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