13 terms

Counter-apologetics

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Ontological Argument
An ontological argument for the existence of God attempts the method of a priori proof, which uses intuition and reason alone.[1] The argument examines the concept of God, and states that if we can conceive of the greatest possible being, then it must exist. The argument is often criticized as committing a bare assertion fallacy, as it offers no supportive premise other than qualities inherent to the unproven statement.
Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
"If A and C are each in thermal equilibrium with B, A is also in thermal equilibrium with C."
First Law of Thermodynamics
Energy can be neither created nor destroyed. It can only change forms.
In any process in an isolated system, the total energy remains the same.
For a thermodynamic cycle the net heat supplied to the system equals the net work done by the system.
Second Law of Thermodynamics
No process is possible whose sole result is the transfer of heat from a cooler to a hotter body.
Third Law of Thermodynamics
As a system approaches absolute zero, all processes cease and the entropy of the system approaches a minimum value.
Axiology
The study of quality or value. It is often taken to include ethics and aesthetics[1]
Helen Ukpabio
Helen Ukpabio is the founder and head of African Evangelical franchise Liberty Foundation Gospel Ministries based in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. She caused a dramatic increase of accusations of witchcraft through her Gospel.
Moral Majority
The Moral Majority was a political organization, founded by Jerry Falwell, which had an agenda of evangelical Christian-oriented political lobbying. It was founded in 1979 and dissolved in the late 1980s.
Vicarious Redemption
Substitutionary Atonement
Augustine of Hippo
(November 13, 354 - August 28, 430), also known as Augustine, St. Augustine, St. Austin,[3] Blessed Augustine, or St. Augustine the Blessed,[4] was Bishop of Hippo Regius. He was a Latin-speaking philosopher and theologian who lived in the Roman Africa Province. His writings were very influential in the development of Western Christianity. He believed that the grace of Christ was indispensable to human freedom, and he framed the concepts of original sin and just war.
Teleological Argument
A teleological argument, or argument from design[1][2][3], is an argument on the existence of God or a creator based on perceived evidence of order, purpose, design, or direction — or some combination of these — in nature. The word "teleological" is derived from the Greek word telos, meaning "end" or "purpose". Teleology is the supposition that there is purpose or directive principle in the works and processes of nature. Immanuel Kant called this argument the Physico-theological proof[4].
Cosmological Argument
The cosmological argument is an argument for the new existence of a First Cause (or instead, an Uncaused cause) to the universe, and by extension is often used as an argument for the existence of an "unconditioned" or "supreme" being, usually then identified as God. The basic premise of all of these is that something caused the Universe to exist, and this First Cause must be God. It has been used by various theologians and philosophers over the centuries, from the ancient Greek Plato and Aristotle to the medieval St. Thomas Aquinas and the 20th century Frederick Copleston.
Kalam Cosmological Argument
The Kalām cosmological argument is a variation of the cosmological argument that argues for the existence of a personal First Cause for the universe. Its origins can be traced to medieval Jewish, Christian and Muslim thinkers, but most directly to Islamic theologians of the Kalām tradition.[1] Its historic proponents include John Philoponus,[2] Al-Kindi,[3]Saadia Gaon,[4]Al-Ghazali,[5] and St. Bonaventure.[6] Its most vocal contemporary proponent is William Lane Craig.