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Biology Mod 4

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Are Stolons in the mast majority of fungi?
No
What do Biologists mean when they say that a mushroom is like an iceberg?
They mean that because the main part of an iceberg is under the surface of the water, that the main part of the mushroom is underground, The mycelium.
What is a non septate hyphae?
It is a Hypha that has no separation by cell walls
What is a septate hyphae?
It is a hypha that is separated by cell walls
What is the function of a Stolon?
To sexually reproduce
What is the function of a rhizoid hyphae?
To support the fungus and digest the food
What is the function of sporophores?
To produce spores
What is the function of a haustorium?
To absorb nutrience from the cytoplam of cells
What are the five features common to most fungi?
Extracellular Digestion, Mycelium, hyphae, rhizoid hyphae, cell walls of chitin
What do hypha have in which they exchange cytoplasm?
Pores
All fungi are assumed to have what?
Some sexal mode of spore formation
Sexual reproduction in fungi usually involves forming what?
Fruiting bodies
Members of phylum Basidiomycota form sexual spores on clublike what?
Basidia
One mode of sexual reproduction involves lenthening what?
The Stolon
Members of phylum Ascomycota form sexual spores in what?
Saclike asci
Members of phylum Zygomycota form what sexual spores?
Zygospores
Members of phylum Chytridiomycota form spores with what?
Flagellums
Members of phylum Deuteromycota have no what?
They have no known sexual mode of reproduction
Members of Myxomycta are placed in what kingdom by some biologists, for what reason?
They are placed in kingdom Protista because they resemble protozoa for much of their lives.
Mushrooms make up most of the organisms in what phylum?
Basidiomycota
In the mushroom life cycle, Mycelia grow from what?
Spores
What happens for sexual reproduction of mycelia?
Two mycelia fuse together
What is the button stage of the mushroom?
When many hyphae enclose themselves in a membrane
What emerges from the membrane after the button stage?
The stipe, cap and gills
What are in the gills?
The basidia
What do the basidia do?
Form spores which form new mycelia
The mycelium of a mushroom grows outward in dense patches. What does this form and why?
It forms Fairy Rings because when new myceliums form on the outside, the myceliums in the inside run out of food and die. Thus they form a ring
What phylum are Puffball Fungi a part of?
Basidiomycota
How do Puffball fungi form their spores?
Inside the membrane
Shelf Fungi are part of what phylum and what do they grow?
Basidiomycota and they grow shelflike structures on both dead and living wood
What are Rusts and Smuts examples of?
Parasitic fungi in phylum Basidiomycota
What two hosts does a parasitic fungus spend its life on?
A Main Host and An Alternate Host
What members of phylum Ascomycota are single celled and reproduce by budding?
Yeast
What phylum do morels fungi cup fungi belong?
Ascomycota
What are two pathogenic fungi and what maladies do they cause?
Claviceps purpurea (ergot of rye) is deadly to humans and Chyphonectria Parasitica causes chestnut blight
When a slime mold is a plasmodium, what Kingdom does it resemble?
Kingdom Protista
To remove slime molds what should you do?
Dry the area
What are two forms of mutualism that fungi participate in?
lichens and mycorrhizae
What is a soredium?
A specilized spore produced by most lichens and it contains spores from both the fungus and the algae.
What belongs in phylum Zygomycota?
Bread mold
Phylum Zygomycota form asexual spores in what?
Sporangiophores
What produced the first antibiotic ever discovered?
Fungi in Genus Penicillium which are in phylum Deuteromycota
What are members of phylum Myxomycota called?
Slime molds
What do slime molds resemble during their feeding stage?
Protozoa
What do slime molds resemble during their reproductive stage?
Algae
There is no such thing as a what kind of scientist?
Objective
A lichen is what?
A mutualistic relationship between a fungus and an alga
What do the alga do in lichen?
Produces food for itself and the fungus by means of photosynthesis
What does the fungus do in a lichen?
It gives support and protection to the algae
How do most lichens reproduce?
by releasing a dust-like substance called a soredium
What is a Mycorrhiza?
A mutualistic relationship between a fungus and a plant root.
What does the fungus of a mycorrhiza do?
Absorbs nutrients from the roots and gives the plant minerals in return
How is budding different thatn asexual reproduction in bacteria?
The difference is that the offspring stays attatched to the parent cell until it is fully grown
Does Extracellular digestion exist for the vast majority of fungi?
Yes
Does chitin exist for the vast majority of fungi?
Yes
Do Caps and Stalks exist for the vast majority of fungi?
No
Do Mycelia exist for the vast majority of fungi?
Yes
Do hyphae exist for the vast majority of fungi?
yes
Do Sporangiophores exist for the vast majority of fungi?
No
Does Haustoria exist for the vast majority of fungi?
No
Do motile spores exist for the vast majority of fungi?
No
Do speptate hyphae exist for the vast majority of fungi?
No
Do cells exist for the vast majority of fungi?
Yes
Do rhizoid hyphae exist for the vast majority of fungi?
Yes