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Chapter 3 Ocean Motions
Wave Action - Tides - Ocean Water Chemistry - Current & Climate
Terms in this set (38)
The movement of energy through a body of water.
Usually begins with wind.
Most waves form when winds blowing across the water's surface transmit their energy to the water.
Depends of the strength of the wind and on the length of time it blows. It also depends on the distance over which the wind blows. Winds blowing larger distances build up bigger waves.
The energy of the wave moves toward shore, but the water itself remains in place.
As the wave passes, water particles move in a circular path. They swing forward and down with the energy of the wave, then back up to their original position.
The highest part of the wave.
Is the horizontal distance between crests.
Are long rolling waves with lots of space between crests.
These have shorter wavelengths.
Is the number of waves that pass a point in a certain amount of time.
Is the lowest part of the wave.
Is the vertical distance from the crest to the trough.
The white-capped waves that crash onto shore.
In deep water waves travel as long, low waves.
Near Shore Waves
Wave height increases, and wavelength decreases.
When the wave reaches a certain height the wave length breaks.
How does a wave break?
1. It continues to move forward.
2. The breaker surges up the beach.
3. Gravity slows it down, eventually stopping it.
4. The water that had rushed onto the beach then flows back out to sea.
Is the undertow that carries shells, seaweed, and sand away from the beach.
Is a type of wave usually caused by an earthquake beneath the ocean floor.
As waves come into shore, water washes up the beach at an angle, carrying sand grains. The water and sand then run straight back down the beach.
A rush of water that flows rapidly back to sea through a narrow opening.
Waves & Beach Erosion
Waves shape a beach by eroding the shore in some places and building it up in others.
A natural landform that protects shorelines from wave action occurs along low-lying beaches.
Are hills of windblown sand which can make a beach more stable and protect the shore from erosion.
It is a method of reducing erosion along a stretch of beach. It is a wall of rocks or concrete built outward from the beach.
The daily rise and fall of Earth's waters on its coastlines, they are caused by the interaction of Earth, the moon and the sun.
A tide with the greatest difference between high and low tide that occurs when the sun and the moon are aligned with Earth at the new moon and the full moon.
A tide with the least difference between low and high tide that occurs when the sun and moon pull at right angles to each other at the first and third quarters of the moon.
The total amount of dissolved salts in a water sample.
An underwater vehicle built of strong materials to resist pressure.
- Affect water to a depth of several hundred meters.
- Are driven mainly by winds.
- It warms or cools the air above it influencing the climate of the land near the coast.
- Are caused by differences in the density of ocean water.
- They move and mix water around the world.
- They carry cold water from the poles toward the equator.
Brings up tiny ocean organisms, minerals and other nutrients from the deeper layers of the water.
The effect of Earth's rotation on the direction of winds and currents.
The pattern of temperature and precipitation typical of an area over a long period of time.
A large stream of moving water that flows through the oceans.
An abnormal climate even that occurs every two to seven years in the Pacific Ocean, causing changes in winds, currents and weather patterns for one to two years.
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