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187 terms

Government test 2

STUDY
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What is public opinion?
Attitudes that citizens had about political issues, even and people
What is political ideology?
a cohesive set of beliefs that form a general philosophy about government/ offers a negative view of the present and a positive view of the future
What causes differences in political differences?
political socialization, gender gap, liberal v conservatives
What manipulates public opinion?
Public opinion polls,
True or False: Ideologies are always mass directed and uses simple language
True
What determines ideology?
the demographics (race, religion, economics, profession, region
Who supports social welfare?
the poor
What is the purpose of political ideologies in government?
survive and repoduce
What shapes people's values?
family, media, school, social groups (religious groups)
Which aspect of people's lives influence their political views and values the most?
family
True or False: Men are more likely to support social welfare
False
What are liberal's general view of people?
people are generally rational/ want to help you to be all that you can be
What are conservatives' general view of people?
people are inherently bad and need intervention (keep govt out)
What did the Depression encourage?
government intervention- public works
True or False: Conservatives like the idea of Medicare for all
False
True or False: Republicans and Democrats will say whatever they can to get the support of the people
True
What are the conservatives view on shaping behavior?
Stronger institutes shape behavior
True or False: Conservatives are people of appetite and they tend to be emotional based.
True
What is the famous quote that associates with conservative view?
"If ain't broke don't fix it" "it ain't broke"
Famous quote that associates with liberal's view?
"If its broke, fix it, it's always broke"
True or False: Liberals tend to favor to side with the people
True
What is the political view of most Americans?
middle of the road (polarized), which means they sway conservative or liberal with each issue
True or False: a single poll result can be meaningful
False: a single poll result is virtually meaningless
What is the Enthusiasm Gap?
When one party is not in public opinion's favor and the opposing side becomes enthusiastic for the upcoming election, whereas the current party is less than enthusiastic
(example republican and tea party joined forces to do more, Obama not thriving in public praise)
When looking at a poll, what should you look at to ensure its validity of the results?
representative sample, how big is the sample, who what when, margin of error
True or False: A margin of error of +/- 4 is valid
False less than 3 makes it valid, anything above that is invalid
What is selection bias?
when polling asks a certain group of people to get the results they want/ make adjustments to get the poll to do what they want them to do
What were Mark Twain's 3 Truths concerning govt?
1)lie 2) d. lies 3) statistics
What is push polling?
structures the question to get the results they want
Which president went against bad polling and went on a whistle train voyage to improve his reputation?
President Truman
Which president relied on polls too much that the press actually announced him president before looking at the voting results and discovered he didn't win?
President Dewey
What are forms of media?
newspaper, radio, tv, internet, magazines, newsletters, books, billboards
What are the forms that reach the public the most?
newspaper, radio, tv, and internet
Back in the day who owned the media?
it was locally owned
Who owns the media today?
big institutions like: Comcast, Disney or rich entrepreneurs.
What form of media is most used, but gives the least information?
television
Why is radio and headline news so repetitive?
so everyone is able to listen or see it when they tune in/ radio- most people listen to it when they are in the car, people are not in the car more than 30 minutes, so it is a drop in drop out media
Which group is most popular on talk radio?
Conservatives (Glenn Beck) ... why? older viewers listen to radio (many older viewers are conservatives)
What are the main benefits of on-line news coverage?
instant access, immediacy, cheap
Describe the relationship between government and media?
FFCC- regulates offensive material tv and radio
What is the equal-time rule?
look it up
Which demographic is the news media most responsive to?
higher income, education, men, older
(they are the ones that are involved), they are the ones the news appeals to in tv
What is democracy based on, which is enabled by many media?
discussion
Why are newspapers and magazines going broke?
internet and television have become increasingly popular as it provides free coverage of news
Although its availability is a plus, what is the primary weakness of internet news?
The validity of it, the site may not contain true news
What kind of control does government have on media?
billboard, internet, and newspaper regulative (
prior restraint- stop before releasing news)
True or False: Supreme Court ruled money is speech is unconstitutional
False
What have large news conglomerates have lead to?
to the homogenization of news
What are sound bites?
small clips that the news uses to convey an idea (often taken out of context to attract viewers) / photo op's are also a form of sound bites
What are news leaks?
political anonymously leak high level ino/ discolor of confedential material to news media
What is agenda setting?
news media has the power to bring attention to certain issues that might not be on the top, but make on the top
framing?
is how media sets up a particular issue/ power to influence interpretation
priming?
sources of media power- preparing a public of a particular person (setting an image)
advantage of media for politicians?
go directly to public
What explains various levels of political participation?
...
Why has it declined over time?
...
True or False: American people have a nationalization of political views/ we see politics in the same general way
True
Conservative type of news?
narrowed minded,( more emotional and angrier) type news generally
Blogs are what type of political media?
commentary- you get support on what you believe f for a specific topic
What quotes are the determining factor for what media views as news worthy?
"dog bites man"- no news
"man bites dog"- news
Why do politicians leak information to reporters?
to cultivate a relationship with them, so they have pull with them in reelections or take make them look good in public's eyes
What happens after a few legible leaks that the politicians gives to the reporters after they ensure an understood agreement with them?
they begin to give them falsehoods
What is an informed citizen capable of?
understanding the needs in his society
What impact does media have on voting?
spins stories or concentrates on a particular candidate or emphasizes the weakness of a candidate
What are protests categorized in media?
attention-grabbers
What is the purpose of most protest?
to simply obtain information from the media.
a neutral frame?
shows the truth( both sides to the story)
What are some forms of political participation?
lobbying, voting, litigation, giving money to candidate, protest, fun for office, putting up a sign
What is the most direct and effective way of political participation?
voting
What explained the generally low level of voter turnout?
people forget to register/ they don't care, campaigns are long and people tend to grow tired of them/ don't think they can make a difference politically
True or False: Factors vary due to levels of participation among various demographics
true
What were some ways that early voting polls prevented blacks to vote?
poll taxes, literacy tests, resident requirements, grandfather clause
What is the most recent group of people that were allowed to vote?
18-21 age group, " if i'm old enough fight, why can't i vote?"
Which group tends to vote more and which tends to vote less?
higher econ/ higher education- vote higher
lower econ/ lower education- vote lower
What racial background votes the highest?
whites, but latino with the high income level is the same number as whites with high income
True or False: Class trunks race
True
Which group is increasing more each year in voting?
women
What do women tend to be?
Democrat
Approximately what percentage of eligible American voters have voted in recent presidential elections?
62.6%
What is the main difference between voting and lobbying?
Unlike voting, lobbying involves an attempt to directly influence a government
official.
Litigation is a form of participation in which people do what?
file lawsuits in order to change public policies.
What is a poll tax?
a tax on polls that prevent blacks from voting
Non-electoral forms of participation usual require more______ than voting
time, money and effort
What bloc of voters has recently been called the "sleeping giant"?
Latinos
The political power of Asian Americans has recently been hindered because of the
diversity of national backgrounds and cultures.
What was the Supreme Court case that ruled prayers in public school unconstitutional?
Engel v. Vitale
The power of the Christian Coalition in the 1990's in the 1990's was due to (its ability to do what)?
its success in mobilizing a large grassroots base.
Participation in politics depends on what factors?
...
what tendency of Americans did the nineteenth century writer Alexis de Tocqueville identify as distinctive of our democratic culture?
tendency to protest policies through riots and other forms of violence
A political _____ is the process by which large numbers of people are organized for political action.
moblization
a political institution can be best defined as
any organization that connects people to politics
the socioeconomic status model explains political participation by examining an individuals (What)?
level of education, income, and occupational status.
the strongest critique of the socioeconomic status model for explaining political participation is that?
education levels are rising while rates of participation are falling.
James Madison and other framers of the Constitution thought that____ would always be the most important source of conflict in political life
inherent gulf between the rich and poor
The _________ are among the most powerful forces operating in the marketplace of ideas.
communication media
One major difference b/w college graduated and other Americans can be seen in levels of
political participation; college graduated participate more in politics than Americans with less education
People's underlying beliefs and ideologies
color their perceptions so that often make make automatic judgement on particular issues
What error is present in this poll question: " Do you think it was appropriate for President Bush to lie to get us into war with Iraq?"
push polling
The processes through which underlying political beliefs and values are formed are collectively called
political socialization
Recent studies by political scientists have shown
the average American exhibits knowledge of political institutions, processes or leaders
How did the framers of the Constitution affect the power of public opinion on government policy?
by creating a system that did not let popular opinion translate into public policies
The practice of push polling involves
the technique of asking loaded questions in order to subtly shape the respondent's opinion.
What is the likely cause for the differences of opinion of African- Americans and white American concerning the OJ Simpson trial?
black and whites have different perspectives and experiences with the criminal justice system
"The south's move from the Democratic to the Republican camp took place because of white southern opposition to the Democratic Party's racial policies."
how politics conditions affect political beliefs.
The ability of the government to shape public opinion is
limited by other sources of information
College graduates are
are more likely to participate in politics
In many respects schooling in the US
helps determines a person's success, a great equalizer, teaches children a common set of civic values
According to the text, which type of equality is most prominent in the US?
Equality of opportunity
An examples of social groups
females, labor unions, political parties
People are more likely to change their opinions when they are
don't have any strong feelings about the issue
Although political color our political perspectives, they seldom fully determine our views. Why?
most people have at least some conflicating underlying attitudes/ individuals may have difficulty linking particular issues of personalities to their own underlying beliefs/ most individuals' ideologies contain internal contradictions
Which variables is likely to affect public opinion?
race, income, education
Who support the social/political status quo and who is suspicious of govt. regulation of business, favors govt involvement in social issues and believe the govt should promote prayer in school
a conservative
who supports political and social change, government intervention in economy and expansion of federal social services, mistrusts the government involvement in personal issues, such as to tell how or when children should pray
a liberal
The ______ is the interplay of opinions and views that takes placed as competing forces attempt to persuade as many people as possible to accept a particular position on a particular event
marketplace of ideas
What is the gender gap?
Political difference b/w men and women
What can contribute to a lack of consistency between opinion and governmental policy?
a committed minority that can override the viewpoint of the majority
______ are scientific instruments for measuring public opinion
public opinion polls
a public opinion sample must
be representative
term used to denote the beliefs that people have issues, events, and personalities is
public opinion
_________ is the ability to influence govt. and politics
politcal efficacy
set of underlying orientations, ideas, and beliefs through which individuals come to understand and interpret politics is called
public opinion
What mechanism is currently used by many states to allow public opinion to directly control policy?
initiatice and referendum
On average, Americans knowledge of politics
very low
impression conveyed by polls that something is important to the public when it actually is known as the
illusion of saliency
government actions are _____ with citizen's preferences
consistent
What is not important agent of socialization?
partisanship
The FFC requires broadcasters to provide individuals the right to respond to personal attacks, which is known as the
right of rebuttal
What percentage of young people cite the Internet as their main source of news?
46%
Today most publishers
are business people and are more concerned with business operation than editorial content
What is federally licensed media outlet?
The NBC network
The process by which a relatively similar picture of events, issues, and problems are presented to the entire nation is referred to as
nationalization of the news
According to the text, what must Americans tolerate to guarantee the maintenance of a democratic society?
the media will occasionally abuse their power
What factors influences the interpretation a news story receives from the media?
audiences of the news, journalist and producers, the sources or topics of the news
What event do authors not use to illustrate the power of the media in US politics?
savings and loan scandal
According to the authors, which media outlet tended to cover international news most thoroughly?
Times of London
Although they represent only a small percentage of the population, individuals under the age 50 whose family income is in the 80th percentile or better account for the nearly 50 % of the retail dollars spent on consumer goods in the US." this supports
print and broadcast media cater to the preferences of consumers/ media cater to the upscale segment of their audience/ the media attempt to understand the tastes and preferences of consumers
The new liberal network Air American Radio was created in order to
combat conservative dominance of talk radio
The decline of party organization since the 1970's has increased the dependence that politicians have on
the media
most of news on the internet is
electronic versions of what is already in print
In 2004 Democratic primary, Al Sharpton's efforts to force the issue of poverty the level of a major issue
did not succeed because the journalists did not consider it to be a major issue
Slate magazine, ActBlue, and Facebook illustrate
The growing influence of the internet in american media
what happened to the adversarial relationship b.w the press and the govt. in the aftermath of 9/11 attacks?
the media openly supported the Bush administration in the aftermath of the attacks but has recently begun to criticize P. Bush's approach to Iraq
Media frenzy over the Monica Lewinsky scandal is evidence that
the media's bias is more oriented to entertainment than ideology
Broadcaster must provide candidates for the same political office equal opportunities to communicate their messages to the public. this is the
equal time rule
FCC's fairness doctrine
is no loner in effect
media has become
more partisan, more ideological, more diverse
the US there are only 3 truly national newspapers, which is not
the Washington post
why did howard stern move to satellite radio?
it isn't regulated by the FCC
American radio and tv are regulated by
fcc
process by which a relatively similar picture of events, issues, and problems are presented to the entire nation is referred to as
nationalization of news
who are the ultimate beneficiaries of a free and active media?
the people
What best describes the relationship bw the govt and the media in the US today
the govt does not own but regulates the content and the ownership of broadcast media
Telecommunications Act of 1996
...
Media coverage heavily influenced public opinion in which event?
Watergate, negotiations by P. Nixon to end V. War/ forced the other candidate to make poverty a major issue in their campaigns
The media's adversarial posture toward govt may
decrease the levels of political participation
more than ___ of the daily newspapers in the US are owned by large conglomerates as the Hearst or gannet corporations
3-quarters
advertising in the mass media is heavily skewed toward
upscale, well-educated, and affluent consumers because they have the money
As Americans are becoming more educated,
we are seeing an overall tendency for political participation to decline
American women go the right to vote
1920
In terms of mobilizing their constituents political parties
are beginning to reemphasize direct voter mobilization
What was the effect of the Motor Voter Registration Act in the first Presidential election after it passed?
voter registration rose, but voter turnout didn't
citizens who engage in letter writing, signing petitions and other forms of political activity usually focus their efforts on
local and state level
most recent expansion of the suffrage in the US took place in 1971 when the
voting age reduced to 18
Americans are taught to equate citizenship with
voting
over years, the power of labor leaders and machine politicians has
declined
Voting qualifications are determined by the
states, subject to certain federal rules and limits
What does not reduce voter turnout in the US today
poll taxes
when income and education are taken in account Latinos and African American vote at
same or slightly higher than white ethnics
the phenomenon called "gender gap" refers to the fact that
women are more likely to vote democrat than men are
Which group is mostly likely to vote for Republicans candidates?
whites
the debate over____ provokes questions about whether we need more direct participation to promote political equality and a vibrant democracy
checkbook democract
which of the following is most likely to vote
a 70 year old middle class retired person
voter turnout is highest for which level of govt.
national elections
in general, voter turnout over the last 50 years has
declined
participation that involves assembling crowds to confront a govt or other official organization is considered
protests
checkbook democracy rises when
theres' a decline in political participation/ fund raising becomes the most important task for political organizations/ participation levels take on a unequal economic bias
why do some argue that the secession of the rich from public institutions is weakening democracy
b/c by not participating in public institutions the rich don't have a stake in what happens to them
registration requirements were instituted in the early 20th century
to make voting more difficult, to reduce multiple voting and other corruption, as well as to reduce lower-class voting
Which is not an obstacle voting in the US?
vote by mail
which country has higher voter turnout than US
germany, spain, italy
After hurricane katrina, bush's approval rating among blacks
was only at 2 percent
approx what % of senators and representatives in the US congress are women
16%
african american voting rates increased substantially
after voting rights act of 1965
which group is the least likely to vote
young adults
_____ is the strategy by which organized interests seek to influence the passage of legislation by exerting direct pressure on members of the legislature
lobbying
registering to vote in the US
harder than in EUROPE