How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

Public Policy 2010 Inclusive

basic public policy terms.
STUDY
PLAY
coincide
to be exactly the same
adequate
enough, sufficient
essential
basic, fundamental
intend
to plan, to have in mind
eliminate
to get rid of, to remove
embody
to incorporate, to include
pattern
a model, a design
assumption
something accepted as true
enforce
to make sure something is done according to a law
enact
to make (a bill) into law
statute
a law passed by a legislature
distinct
not the same, different
anticipate
to expect, to predict
subsequent
coming after
framework
the underlying structure
identify
to recognize as being a particular thing
agenda
a list of things to be done or considered
interest group
an organization of individuals who share a common political goal and unite for the purpose of influencing government decisions
entail
to require as a necessary consequence, to involve
implementation
the process of putting a law into practice through bureaucratic rules or spending.
application
the action of putting a theory to practical use
elaborate
to work out in detail
alter
to change, to modify
evaluate
to make judgement about the strengths and weaknesses of something
biased
prejudiced, not neutral
impact
an effect or result
assign
to give a specific role, responsibility
sequential
in a certain order
Civil Liberties
The legal constitutional protections against government. Although our civil liberties are formally set down in the Bill of Rights, the courts, police, and legislatures define their meaning.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution, which define such basic liberties as freedom of religion, speech, and press and guarantee defendant's rights
Incorporation Doctrine
The legal concept under which the supreme court has nationalized the Bill of Rights by making most of its provisions applicable to the states through the Fourteenth Amendment
Establishment Clause
Part of the First Amendment stating that "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion"
Free Exercise Clause
A First Amendment provision that prohibits government from interfering with the practice of religion
Prior Restraint
A government preventing material from being published. This is a common method of limiting the press in some nations, but it is usually unconstitutional in the United States, according o the First Amendment and as confirmed in the 1931 Supreme Court case of Near V. Minnesota
Libel
The publication of false or malicious statements that damage someone's reputation
Symbolic Speech
Nonverbal communication, such as burning a flag or wearing an armband. The Supreme Court has accorded some symbolic speech protection under the First Amendment.
Commercial Speech
Communication in the form of advertising. It can be restricted more than many other types of speech but has been receiving increased protection from the Supreme Court.
Probable Cause
The situation occurring when the police have reason to believe that a person should be arrested. In making the arrest, police are allowed legally to search for and seize incriminating evidence.
Unreasonable searches and seizures
Obtaining evidence in a haphazard or random manner, a practice prohibited by the Fourth Amendment. Probably cause and or a search warrant are required for a legal and proper search for and seizure of incriminating evidence.
Search Warrant
A written authorization from a court specifying the are to be searched and what the police are searching for.
Exclusionary Rule
The rule that evidence, no matter how incriminating, cannot be introduced into a trial if it was not constitutionally obtained. The rule prohibits use of evidence obtained through unreasonable search and seizure/
Self Incrimination
The situation occurring when an individual accused of a crime is compelled to be a witness against himself or herself in court. The Fifth Amendment forbids self-incrimination
Plea Bargaining
A bargain struck between the defendant's lawyer and the prosecutor to the effect that the defendant will plead guilty to a lesser crime (or fewer crimes) in exchange for the state's promise not to prosecute the defendant for a more serious (or additional) crime.
Cruel and Unusual Punishment
Court Sentences prohibited by the Eighth Amendment. Although the Supreme Court has ruled that mandatory death sentences for certain offenses are unconstitutional, it has not held that the death penalty itself constitutes cruel and unusual punishment.
Right to Privacy
The right to a private personal life free from the intrusion of government.
Civil Rights
Policies designed to protect people against arbitrary or discriminatory treatment by government officials or individuals
Fourteenth Amendment
The constitutional amendment adopted after Civil War that states "no state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws."
Equal Protection of the Laws
Part of the Fourteenth Amendment emphasizing that the laws must provide equivalent "protection" to all people
Civil Rights Act of 1964
The law that made racial discrimination against any group in hotels, motels, and restaurants illegal and forbade many forms of job discrimination
Suffrage
The legal right to vote, extended to African Americans by the Fifteenth Amendment to women by the 19th Amendment, and to people over the age of 18 by the 26th Amendment
Poll Taxes
Small taxes levied on the right to vote that often fell due at a time of year when poor African-American sharecroppers had the least cash on hand. This method was used by most Southern States to exclude African Americans from voting. Poll taxes were declared void by the 24th Amendment in 1964.
White Primary
One of the means used to discourage African-American voting that permitted political parties in the heavily Democratic South to exclude African Americans from primary elections, thus depriving them of a voice in the real contest. The Supreme Court declared white primaries unconstitutional in 1944.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
A law designed to help end formal and informal barriers to African-American suffrage. Under the law, hundreds of thousands of African-American elected officials increased dramatically
Equal Rights Amendment
A constitutional amendment originally introduced by Congress in 1972, stating that "equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex." Despite public support the amendment failed to acquire the necessary support from 3/4 if the state legislatures
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA)
A law passed in 1990 that requires employers and public facilities to make "reasonable accommodations" for people with disabilities and prohibits discrimination against these individuals and employment
Affirmative Action
A policy designed to give special to or compensatory treatment for members of some previously disadvantaged group.
Comparable Worth
The issue raised when women who hold traditionally female jobs are paid less than men for working at jobs requiring compatible skill
public policy
a law, rule, statue, or edict that expresses the government's goals and provides for rewards and punishments to promote their attainment
expropriation
confiscation of property with or without compensation
eminent domain
the right of government to take private property for public use, with reasonable compensation awarded for the property
categorical grants-in-aid
grants by Congress to states and localities given with the condition that expenditues be limited to a problem or group specified by the national government
antitrust policy
government regulation of large businesses that have established monopolies
deregulation
a policy of reducing or eliminating regulatory restraints in the conduct of individuals or private institutions
monetary policies
efforts to regulate the economy through manipulation of the supply of money and credit; Federal Reserve Board
Federal Reserve System
consisting of 12 Federal Reserve Banks, an agency that facilitates exchanges of cash, checks, and credit; it regulates member banks; and it uses monetary policies to fight inflation and deflation
discount rate
the interest rate charged by the Federal Reserve when commercial banks borrow in order to expand their lending operations; an effective tool of monetary policy
reserve requirement
the amount of liquid assets and ready cast that the Federal Reserve requires banks to hold to meet depositors' demands for their money
open-market operations
the buying and selling of government securities to help finance government operations and to loosen or tighten the total amount of credit circulating in the economy
federal funds rate
the interest rate on loans between banks that the Federal Reserve Board influences by affecting the supply of money available
progressive/regressive taxation
taxation that hits the upper income brackets more heavily or the lower income brackets more heavily
budget deficit
the amount by which government spending exceeds government revenue in a fiscal year
mandatory spending
Federal spending that is made up of
uncontrollables
budgetary items that are beyond the control of budgetry committees and can be controlled only by substantive legislative action in Congress; some are the debt because it is beyond the power of Congress because the terms of payments are set in contracts
discretionary spending
Federal spending on programs that are controlled through the regular budget process
contributory programs
social programs financed in whole or in party by taxation or other mandatory contributionsby their present or future recipients; social security, which is financed by a payroll tax
Social Security
a contributory welfare program into which working Americans contribute a percentage of their wages, and from which they receive cash benefits after retirement
indexing
periodic adjustments of welfare payments, wages, or taxes, tied to the coast of living
Medicare
National health insurance for the elderly and for the disabled
noncontributory programs
social programs that provide assistance to people based on demonstrated need rather than any contribution they have made
Aid to Families with Dependent Children
Federal funds, administered by the states, for children living with persons or relatives who fall below state standards of need; abolished in 1996
Temporary Assistance to Needy Families
a policy by which states are given block grants by the federal government in order to create their own programs for public assistance
means testing
procedure by which potential beneficiaries of a public assistance program establish their eligibility by demonstrating a genuine need for the assistance
Medicaid
a federally financed, state-operated program providing medical services to low-income people
Supplemental Security Income (SSI)
a program providing a minimum monthly income to people who pass a "means test" and who are 65 or older, blind, or disabled; financed from general revenues rather than from Social Security contributions
food stamps
coupons that can be exchanged for food at most grocery stores; the largest in-kind benefits program
in-kind benefits
goods and services provided to needy individuals and families by the federal government
entitlement
eligibility for benefits by virtue of a category of benefits defined by legislation
promotional technique
a technique of control that encourages people to do something they might not otherwise do, or to continue an action or behavior; subsidies, contracts, and licenses
subsidies
government grants of cash or other valuable commodities, such as land, to individuals or organizations; used to promote activities desired by the government, to reward political support, or to buy off political opposition
contracting power
the power of govenment to set conditions on companies seeking to sell goods or services to government agencies
license
permission to engage in some activity that is otherwise illegal, such as hunting or practicing medicine
regulatory techniques
techniques that government uses to control the conduct of the people
police power
power reserved to the state to regulate the health, safety, and morals of its citizens
administrative regulation
rules made by regulatory agencies and commissions
spending power
a combination of subsidies and contracts that the government can use to redistribute income
Propaganda
the art of persuation
Testimonial
The use of well-known respected people to endorse a product or sevice
Glittering Generalities
The act of refering to words or ideas that evoke a positive emotional response from an audience
Transfer
The act of relating something or someone we like or respect with a product.Symbols are constantly used. Flags.
Plain Folks
The use of everyday people to see a product or service.Speakers and asd appear to make the person to be "one of the people"
Bandwagon
Attepts to persuade the target audience to take a course of action anyone else is taking "Join the crowd"
Name Calling
The use of names to evoke fear ot hatred in the viewer links a person os idea to a negative symbol
Card Stacking
The strategy of showing the products best features telling half truths and omiting or lying about it potential problems
Requirement
You must...
Incentive
If you do, you will get...
Prohibition
This is banned...
Disincentive
If you do, you must...
Service
The government will...
Federalist 10
Constitution protects against factionalism.
Federalism
Both national and state governments derive independent legal authority from their own citizens.
Public Policy Definition
What governments choose to do or not do; regulate behavior, organize bureaucracies, distribute benefits, or extract taxes (Dye)
Action versus Inaction
attempt to change status quo VERSUS accepting it
Policy Analysis Definition
finding out what governments do, why, they do it, and what difference, if any, it makes (Dye)
Power
ability to alter or influence a course of action; relevance to public policy: 1) The Influence on decision making: 2) The ability to set the agenda and: 3) The ability to persuade and alter perceptions
Authority
disparity in the power relationship between the actor trying to influence and the target
Legitimacy
those who possess the power to make policy decisions do so under some public ascension of right; public willingly grants right to influence
Representation
officials will be elected by the people to serve their interests and the interests of the state; people govern indirectly
Public Interest
what is in the best interests of the nation; public policy imposes definition of public interest on society
Politics
dynamics and exchanges that interweave institutional determination of public policies; competitive communication, exchange, discussion, and debate
Pluralism versus Elitism
political competition and conflict among groups ensures a path by which consensus, compromise, and negotiation can permit a variety of constituent groups to check the influence of other groups VERSUS political and policy process as dominated by the few rather than the many
Private versus Public
government has no responsibility or role VERSUS government attempts to dictate (en/discourage; prohibit/prescribe) behavior
Needs versus Rights
fundamental to human survival, essential to one's existence, and critical to the sustenance of life VERSUS moral entitlement that one expects to be treated by others and the state in a certain manner, check against power of the state
Equality versus Justice
foundational (protection), opportunity (footing), outcome (critical needs and rights) VERSUS equality across society that alleviates obstacles and removes harmful forces
Efficiency versus Effectiveness
program or service operating at most optimal resource level VERSUS program or service is achieving desired effects
Human Nature
essential and immutable character of all human beings enabling us to generalize expected behavior; justify public policies
Rational Model of Policy Process
problem identification, agenda setting, policy formulation, policy legitimation (adoption), policy implementation, policy evaluation, policy change or termination
Types of Policy
Substantive, Procedural, Distributive, Re-distributive, Regulatory, Self-regulatory, Material, Symbolic
Substantive Policy
deals with a particular policy problem; specific actions, with costs and benefits, advantages and disadvantages
Procedural Policy
set of legislative criteria that prescribe the conditions, actors responsible for action; determine which institutional or bureaucratic actors are responsible
Distributive Policy
assignment of goods and services to target populations specified by the government; "win-win"; pork-barrel
Re-Distributive Policy
shift resources, material benefits, rights, and privileges among the various population segments; reallocation of public or private resources from one particular class to another
Regulatory Policy
mandated rules on the actions of specific target populations; mandated rules on the actions of specific target populations with negative effects
Self-Regulatory Policy
an attempt to self-manage rules that restrict or control behavior by the actual target population; benefits regulated group because it preempts degree of gov't regulation
Material Policy
provides tangible benefits or substantive power to beneficiaries, or imposes disadvantages on others
Symbolic Policy
principally rhetorical and seek to inform or persuade the population, often by presenting a particular point of view; may attempt to appeal to the emotional or patriotic nature of the population
in conflict with
the constitution established a political system that is essentially __________ itself.
to be inefficient
, the legislative structure of American government is designed _________ to promote government stability
federal versus state sovereignty
The un-resolvable issue of the founding era was _______
freedom and power
The Framework of the U.S. Constitution is comprised of ________ and ________
expansion, contraction
Americans have been raised to believe that every ________ of the government's power involves a _________ of personal freedom
Institutions
________ exist as society's means of maintaining order and predictability through routines, customs, shared values
Public Arena
republic, not direct democracy; indirect and direct nature of representation insures nat'l gov't legitimacy and mitigates power of the masses
Separation of Powers; Checks and Balances
national policy making involves a series of institutional partners; crisis can overcome these and lead to efficient policy making
Fiscal Federalism
federal government public policy administered at the state level
toward the national level
the fiscal role of the Federal government represents a powerful force in ensuring that the legislative center remains somewhat skewed ____________
Policy Arenas or Sub-Governments
legislative centers of policy development that extend beyond specific institutions or levels of government outlined by the Constitution: iron triangles, policy sub-systems, issue networks, advocacy coalitions
Iron Triangle
congressional committees, executive branch agencies, organized interests: jointly control policy making
Issue Networks
constant flow of participants in and out of the decision-making arena
Institutional Actors
members of congress, congressional staff, president and inner circle, executive office of the president, cabinet, federal courts, bureaucracy
Non-institutional Actors
interest groups, lobbyists, media, think tanks, the public
The Stages-Heuristic (Policy Cycle) Model
pre-decisional: problem id, agenda, formulation; decisional: policy legitimation (adoption); post-decisional: implementation, evaluation, termination or change
Rational Choice Models
assumptions of rationality; institutional rational choice, public choice, game theory, expected utility
Institutional Rational Choice
actor-centered institutionalism; the policy process can be understood as an interaction between rational actions of individuals and groups
Public Choice
collective decisions made by groups of individuals through the political process to maximize their own self-interest
Game Theory
interdependent decisions - when the decisions of two or more individuals jointly determine the outcome of a situation
Advocacy Coalition Framework
both traditional and non-traditional actors who share beliefs (deep core, policy core, secondary) and engage in a "non-trivial degree of coordinated activity over time"
Incrementalism
policy process operates within an inefficient political and institutional environment where policy decisions naturally favor minimal over dramatic policy change; "successive limited comparisons" (Simon); satisficing
Multiple Streams
context of 3 central dynamics: problems, policies, politics; policy windows, policy entrepreneurs
Punctuated Equilibrium
dramatic changes in policy can occur, even though the policy process can also be characterized as incremental and relatively stable in nature; bounded rationality; new information/images
public importance
Public policies are developed to address some identified issue, social ill, or problem of __________
Social Construction
refers to the simple realization that our reality is not the product of objective analysis or perfect understanding
Causality, Severity, Incidence, Proximity, Crisis
factors influencing problem identification
Scope
percentage of the public affected by an issue of concern within the greater society
Cost
the sum of negative consequences that develop, are associated with, and persist because of the existence of the problem
Agenda
represents those issues that gain specific attention from the various institutional and non-institutional actors
Issue Attention Cycle (Downs)
the central dynamic by which a private issue gathers increasing attention and is transformed into a public issue demanding some kind of policy action; 5 stages: pre-problem, alarmed discovery, realization of cost, gradual decline, post-problem
Multiple Streams (Kingdon)
highlights role of timing in policy process, confluence of specific issues and solutions to capture the agenda at a particular time often with the support of a "policy entrepreneur"; problem, policy, and political
Agenda-Setting Model (Cobb and Elder)
two broad categories of agendas - the systemic and the institutional - by which issues evolve from obscurity into a wider public agenda, and then can enter into a narrower policy-making agenda; 4 stages: issue of concern, systemic agenda, institutional agenda, policy formulation
Policy Formulation
development of remedies that deal with a specific problem or address a particular issue within the institutional agenda; characterized by bargaining and compromise
multiple actors, different remedies
There can be _________ designing _______ or mechanisms for solving the same problem at the same time.
a long period of time
Policy formulation can occur over _____________.
result in adoption
formulation does not necessarily _____________.
achieve policy goals, alter the behavior
Policy solutions or instruments are meant to ________ and are mechanisms by which government seeks to ___________ of specified target popu
politically feasible
Even if the policy solution is technically feasible is it _____________?
implement the solution
Are there sufficient resources available to carry out the proposed course of action, that is, to ___________?
administratively feasible
Can the program be successfully established, is it _________?
the target population
Is the policy solution acceptable to _________? (If policy fails to change their behavior, it fails by definition.)
Actors Involved in Policy Formation
President, Congress, Interest Groups, Bureaucracy, Think Tanks, Policy Entrepreneurs
social construction (social construct), invention or artifact
A ________________ is a concept or practice which may appear to be natural and obvious to those who accept it, but in reality is an _______________ of a particular culture or society.
reason, evidence, choose the best policy
Policy analysis provides the use of _________ and ________ to allow decision makers to _____________ from a number of alternatives.
Policy Analysis
body of concepts and principles aimed at helping decision makers make more intelligent, more ethical, more effective, and more efficient choices.
Steps of the Policy Process
Problem Definition, Establishing Evaluation Criteria, Developing Alternatives, Comparing Alternatives, Selecting Alternatives, Evaluation
Policy formulation
___________________ represents the proposed solution to the identified problem.
always identified correctly, as effective
Real-world politics often ensure that because problems are not ________________________, proposed policy solutions are not always ____________ as they could be!
political feasibility
The key to adoption is _______________________.
Political feasibility
_________________ can be defined as a policy that has a consensus of support behind it.
policy legitimation
Policy adoption is the formal approval by institutional actors of a policy proposal - also referred to as _____________________.
Policy Adoption Decision Criteria
Values: organizational, professional/personal, policy/ideological; Political Party Affiliation; Constituency Interests; Deference
Influencing Policy Adoption
Mobilizing Members and Votes, Direct Lobbying, Focused Mail and Telephone Campaigns, Aggressive Multimedia Campaigns
a majority coalition
Crucial to policy adoption is whether ____________ can be put together to support one particular proposal.
NOT limited
Policy adoption is _________ to a single institution or policy actor.
diverse and pluralistic, non-institutional
The _______________________ nature of American government provides the opportunity for a variety of ______________ actors to directly influence and affect the decisions that determine what policy action is adopted.
Policy Implementation
the stage where government executes an adopted policy as specified by the legislation or policy action.
formally made responsible
various government agencies and departments, responsible for the respective area of policy, are ________________ for implementation.
policy action
Policy implementation is the stage in the policy process where ___________ occurs to address a recognized policy problem.
instruments
In implementation, selected _________ are applied reflective of the legislative mandate, bureaucratic interpretation, and capacity.
tangible effects
In implementation, Specified target populations, and the society, experience the first ____________ of the policy
constraints and challenges
Effective and efficient policy actions require consideration be given to the ___________________ of implementation.
Bureaucracy
The major policy implementation actor.
Rule-Making
process through which broad and ambiguous statutory mandates are made more specific (hint: proposed, interim, final)
Theories of Policy Implementation
top-down, bottom-up and synthesis approaches
Challenges to Policy Implementation
Clarity of Policy Goals, Information Intelligence, Strategic Planning:
Steps to Strategic Planning
Statement of agency goals, mission, or vision; Adoption of a time frame; Assessment of present capabilities; Assessment of organizational environment; Development of a strategic plan; Organizational integration
translated into action, execution and impact
Policy implementation matters because it is at this stage in the policy process where words get _______________ and where design leads to ___________________.
ends
Throughout the implementation process policy designers and implementers must stress the importance of ________.
doing what it is supposed to
The purpose of evaluation is to determine whether an implemented program is ________________________.
intended or unintended, positive or negative
Through evaluation we can determine whether a policy's effects are _________________ and whether the results are _______________ for the target population and society as a whole.
quality, goal attainment, program effectiveness, impact, and costs
Policy Evaluation can be better defined as a process by which general judgments about ______________ (5 things) can be determined
Types of Policy Evaluation
Process; Outcome; Impact; Cost-Benefit Analysis
Process
__________ Evaluation: Determine why a program or policy is performing at current levels. Identify any problems. Develop solutions to the problems. Improve program performance by recommending how solutions should be implemented and evaluated once carried out.
Outcome
__________ Evaluation: Legislative Intent Program Goals Program Elements and Indicators Measures of Indicators Program Outcomes (Positive or Negative)
Impact
__________ Evaluation: Theoretical Goals of the Program or Policy The Actual Goals Program or Policy Objectives Program or policy results and whether they are intended or unintended, positive or negative in effect.
Cost-Benefit Analysis
evaluate and assess the effectiveness of a policy's costs, benefits, and outcomes.
goals and objectives
Essential evaluation activity: Identification of __________ of the program or policy to make measurement possible.
mission statement
Essential evaluation activity: Comprehension of the ___________ or noting the absence of one.
analytic model, means-ends
Essential evaluation activity: Construction of an _____________ of what the program or policy is expected to achieve; this includes a set of theoretical propositions about ____________ relationships.
research design
Essential evaluation activity: Development of a ____________ to distinguish program or policy goals from what is actually achieved.
collection, analysis and interpretation
Essential evaluation activity: _____________ of data.
internal or external
Two descriptors of who conducts the evaluation.
policy change
When a policy is replaced or modified in some respect or repealed in parts, then __________ has occurred.
reformulated, and re-implemented
Policies are formulated, adopted, implemented, evaluated, ___________________, and the cycle continues.
Policy Succession
Modification of Existing Practices Enactment of New Legislative Statutes Major Shifts in Goals and Direction of Objectives
Reasons for Policy Change
Changes in societal dynamics. New policies may contradict or invalidate an existing policy. The legality or constitutionality of a policy is challenged. Technological changes alter the feasibility or relevance. New discoveries or revelations alter public support. Economic and political conditions change. Power shift due to election results. The problem is solved. Implementing agencies may lack the skill to manage the policy. Once implemented, policy defects become apparent. Target groups refuse to comply with or mobilize against the policy.
Policy Termination
the deliberate conclusion or cessation of specific public sector functions, programs, policies, or organizations.
survive
Why policy termination is rare: The desire of organizations to ____________.
The creation of new goals
Why policy termination is rare: __________________________ helps legitimize the organization's continued existence.
current laws
Why policy termination is rare: Some programs must exist because of _____________ - i.e. public education.
cheaper
Why policy termination is rare: It is often __________ to keep a program going than it is to terminate it.
Reasons for Policy Termination
The policy is no longer effective. The need for the program no longer exists. Budgetary requirements force the end of the policy or program. An evaluation study makes the case that the policy is unsatisfactory in impact or outcome. The political environment may no longer support the goals of a policy. Some policies or programs are terminated purely for ideological reasons.
Types of Policy Termination
Functional, Organizational, Policy, Program
Functional Termination
a dramatic and complete ending of government responsibility as stipulated in a particular policy or program. Example: Program Privatization.
Organizational Termination
elimination of an entire agency. Example: The elimination of the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment in 1995.
Policy Termination
the complete abandonment because the underlying principles no longer have common societal agreement. Example: Abandonment of Jim Crow Laws in the South during the 1960s.
Program Termination
elimination of a particular aspect of a policy that is implemented. The overall policy remains in effect. The most common type of termination because the number of actors involved or affected is limited. Example: In 1986 Reagan terminated Revenue Sharing adopted during the Nixon administration.
political agenda
deciding what to make public policy about
public policy legitimacy
influenced by: shared political values, customs and traditions, impact of events, changes in what political elites think
cost
the perceived burden that a policy will create
benefit
the perceived satisfaction that a policy will create
majoritarian politics
policies that promise benefits to many at a cost to many
interest group politics
policies that promise benefits to a small group at a cost to a small group
client politics
policies that promise benefits to a small group at a cost to many
entrepreneurial politics
policies that promise benefits to a large group at a cost to a small group
pork barrel legislation
gives benefits to a small group of constituents while being paid for by federal tax dollars in the hopes of votes for a legislator
logrolling
Mutual agreement to vote for legislation for one in return for the vote for an other's legislation
Superfund sites
toxic waste sites that are an example of entrepreneurial politics
process regulation
rules aimed at improving consumer or worker safety and reducing environmental damage
sequester
automatic, across the board cuts in certain federal programs when Congress and the President can't agree on spending
deregulation
The "letting go" of the government control over prices for industries. A classic case of entrepreneurial politics. Regulation would be client.
relative deprivation
Being deprived of something one perceives as being entitled to.
majoritarian controversies
arise over matters of cost or ideology
media and public policy
choose which public policy proposals to cover
courts and public policy
force action by other branches of government to enact policies
monetarists
recommend that government increase the money supply at a rate equal to the growth in productivity
pocketbook issue
preoccupies politicians just before an election
Reagan lower taxes and increased spending
He stimulated the economy and created large deficits
Gramm-Rudman Balanced Budget Act of 1985
Called for cutting the budget automatically until the deficit was eliminated
means test
income qualification that determines whether one is eligible for benefits under government programs reserved for lower income groups
Presidential Powers
Negotiate treaties and appoint ambassadors, thus greater in foreign affairs than in domestic ones
Congressional control over purse strings
Most important check on the presidential power in foreign affairs
Foreign Policy
Became the first item on the president's agenda during and after WWII
military budget
covers... big ticket hardware (bombers), readiness items (food), and military personnel
personnel
the most expensive big ticket item in the defense budget
big ticket item cost overruns
Military officials want the best that $$$ can buy!
Joint Chief of Staff
Include the uniformed heads of each branch of the military service.
Policy Analysis
concerned with "who gets what", "why", and what difference does it make" Not only concerned with what policies govt pursue, but why, and the concequences.
Public Policy
what the goverment does or does not do
Distributive Policy
provides benifits for those who behave in a manner described by the agency. Often called subsitites or grants. No "needy", just a need to participate in the program.
Redistributive Policy
shifts pulic tax dollars in an attempt to alleviate poverty. Must be poor by goverment definition. (Ex. Tax Credit, Income Deductions)
Substantive Policy
refers to the "what," particularly if a good or service is delivered. It can be distributive or redistributive in its content though. It is written by legislators, Congressional members, or council/board members and takes the form of bills, acts or ordinances.
Procedural Policy
refers to the "how" of policy and it is regulatory in nature. It is written by bureaucrats after they have been assigned a policy to implement. It is what 'breathes life' into policies and create programs.
Symbolic Policy
It neither gives benefit or punishes. Generally, it appears in the form of resolutions. Here, legislators or council members resolve to 'feel' a certain way about some thing, or might recognize through a private bill, some individual for something he or she did. Keep in mind though, this type of policy does NOTHING materially.
General Regulation
impose a standard of conduct or a method for engaging in a particular profession or occupation. For example, you cannot wake up tomorrow and start selling hot dogs on the street corner. You are required to apply for a business licenses, a tax identification number and a health certificate.
Protective Regulations
are intentionally sought out by certain professions to regulate their occupation. (Ex. Bar exams for lawyers.)
Adjudication
is the legal process by which an arbiter or judge reviews evidence and argumentation including legal reasoning set forth by opposing parties or litigants to come to a decision which determines rights and obligations between the parties involved.
Iron Triangle
an alliance of sub-governmental units along some mutually beneficial line.
Models
are a way to simplify the complicated.
Oversight
Congress checks the bureaucrats and makes sure that in fact, they are implementing the law as Congress would like.
Systems Model
According to Easton, "The political system is that group of interrelated structures and processes which function authoritatively to allocate values for a society." System theory portrays public policy as an output of the political system.
Pluralist Model
It is also referred to as group theory model. It begins with the proposition that the interaction among groups is the central fact of politics.
Elite Model
suggests that "the people" are apathetic and ill-informed about matters of policy, that wealthy actually shape mass opinion on policy more than the masses shaping higher up opinion.
bipartisanship
support from both parties for policy (ex: a bipartisan foreign policy)
budget deficit
results when federal expenditures exceed federal revenues for a one year period
deficit spending
the federal government's practice of spending more money than it takes in as revenues
deregulation
elimination of federal regulations on private companies
entitlements
federal benefit payments to which recipients have a legal right (ex: social security) aka uncontrollables
fiscal policy
taxing and spending policies
means testing
requiring that those who recieve federal benefits show a need for them
monetary policy
federal reserve board's regulation of the supply of money in circulation
national debt
total debt owed by the federal government due to past borrowing aka public debt
subsidy
federal financial aid to individuals (ex: welfare, food stamps, agricultural subsidies)
Public Policy
the course of action the goverment takes in response to an issue or problem
Gross Domestic Product
the dollar amount of all final goods and services produced within a country's borders in a year.
Federal Reserve Board
Executive agency that is largely responsible for the formulation and implementation of monetary policy. By controlling the monetary supply, the Fed helps maintain a stable economy.
Fiscal Policy
The federal government efforts to keep the economy stable by increasing or decreasing taxes or government spending
Monetary Policy
domestic government policies affecting interest rates and the supply of money available within an economy
Sixteenth Amendment
granted congress the power to levy taxes based on an individual's income
Federal Budget
the document that details how much money the government collects and spends in a given year.
Congressional Budget and Impoundment Act
congress regains control of the budget; creates the congressional budget office, required president to submit requests for recissions of appropriations
Mandatory Spending
money that must be spent but Congress has no control over the spending rate; interest on national debt, social security,
Discretionary Spending
Spending set by the govt through appropriations bills, including operation expenses & salaries of govt employees
Entitlements
government benefits that are distributed automatically to citizens who qualify on the basis of a set of guidelines set by law; for example, americans over the afe of 65 are entitled to medicare coverage
Deficit Spending
Government spends more than it recieves in taxes, increases national Debt
Balanced Budget Act
The 1997 law that promised to balance the budget by 2002
Poverty Line
the federal government's calculation of the amount of income families of various sizes need to stay out of poverty
Social Security act
guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health
Medicare and Medicaid
Health benefits for the elderly and poor
Family and Medical Leave Act
1993 legislation that allows an employee to take unpaid leave due to illness or to care for a sick family member or to care for a new son or daughter including by birth, adoption or foster care.
Clean Air Act
1970- law that established national standards for states, strict auto emissions guidelines, and regulations, which set air pollution standardds for private industry
Global warming
A gradual increases in average global temperature.
War Powers Act
('73) required the president to consult Congress whenever possible before committing troops, to send an explanation for his actions within 2 days, and to withdraw any troops after 60 days unless Congress voted to retain them
fastest growing area of public spending
Education Policy Problem Identification: Since 1945, education expenditures have represented the ____________________________________.
resolve racial conflict and inspire respect for diversity | provide values, aspirations, and a sense of identity to disadvantaged children | offer various forms of recreation and mass entertainment (football games, bands, choruses, cheerleading, etc) | reduce conflict in society by teaching children to get along well with others and to adjust to group living | reduce the highway accident toll, by teaching students to be good drivers | fight disease and poor health through physical education, health training, and even medical treatment | eliminate unemployment and poverty by teaching job skills | end malnutrition and hunger through school lunch and milk programs | fight drug abuse and educate children about sex | act as custodians for teenagers who have no interest in education
Education Policy Problem Identification: Examples of the many things schools are expected to do today.
a way to solve society's most pressing problems
Education policy objective: Promote education reform which many politicians and corporate leaders believe is _________________________________.
existing social and economic inequalities, universal access to education at all levels
Education policy objective: Many individuals believe that education can compensate for _____________________________- therefore, the call for _____________________________.
to be financially autonomous from the state
Education policy objective: To provide citizens with skills that allow them ________________________________.
competitive a nation will be
Education policy objective: The more educated the workforce, the more ________________________ in the international marketplace.
only basic provision, offered as a right of American citizenship
Education is the ________________________ of an advanced welfare state that is ________________________________.
state and local
Education is a ___________________ responsibility!
15,000
How many local school boards in 50 states?
local property taxes
Most school revenues are derived from _______________.
A Nation at Risk, in a state of crisis
Education Policy Problem Stream: The 1983 National Commission on Excellence in Education Report "__________________" claimed that American public education was _____________________.
Teachers | Tax Payers | School Board Members | School Administrators | Parents | Racial and Religious Groups | Teacher Unions | Students
Education policy interest groups.
a minimum high school curriculum of 4 years of English, 3 years of math, 3 years of social science, and .5 years of computer science | 4 to 6 years of foreign language study beginning in elementary grades | Standardized tests for achievement for all of these subjects | More homework, a 7 hour school day, and a 200 to 220 day school year | Reliable grades and standardized tests for promotion and graduation | Performance-based salaries for teachers and rewards for superior teaching
Education Policy Problem Stream: Some recommendations contained in "A Nation at Risk."
contentious national debate
Immigration Problem Identification: Immigration policy has been the subject of a ________________ for well over a century.
historical and cultural, short and long-term economic
Immigration Problem Identification: Pro-immigration Perspective: Emphasizes the ___________________ value of immigration, as well as the __________________________ benefits.
economic and cultural strengths, failings and costs of both legal and illegal immigration
Immigration Problem Identification: Pro-immigration Perspective: Immigration is said to add to the ____________________________ of the nation and that the ________________________________ are exaggerated.
substantial socioeconomic, social and budgetary, potential threats to national security
Immigration Problem Identification: Anti-immigration Perspective: Perceives a _________________________ problem, highlights the increasing _____________________ costs, and especially the _______________________________ of both legal and illegal immigration.
manage their population, control access to their borders, shape their national identities
Immigration Problem Identification: In general, the basis for immigration policy reflects a common desire among all nation-states to _____________________, __________________________, as well as to ____________________________.
what type of nation the state will be, who should be invited into the state
Immigration Problem Identification: Immigration policy is as much about defining _____________________________, as it is about ______________________________.
foreign nationals, what is lawful immigrant status,
Immigration Problem Identification: Determining which ____________________, and how many, should be permitted to immigrate, as well as defining ___________________________, is central to the debate.
entered the U.S. without inspection or with fraudulent documentation, entered legally, the terms of their visa status, remained in the U.S. without authority
Immigration Problem Identification: Illegal Alien: Foreign born national who __________________________________; or a foreign national who _________________, violated ______________________, and _______________________________.
a lawful permanent resident, privilege of living permanently in the U.S.
Immigration Problem Identification: Legal Immigrant: An alien admitted into the U.S. as _____________________________, accorded the .
control access and entry
Immigration Problem Identification: The underlying goal of all immigration policy is to ______________________, whether legal or illegal, into the United States.
Social | Economic | Moral | Cultural | National and Economic | Security
Immigration Problem Identification: Although control remains the central theme to all immigration policy it is possible to identify five more goals--what are they?
1820 and 2007
Immigration Problem Identification: According to the USCIS immigration to the U.S. between _____________________ was 73,118,778.
relatively steady, the amnesty program of 1986
Immigration Problem Identification: Between 1970 and 2007, legal immigration remained __________________, except for the spike following _______________________, totaling 23,329,466.
played a central role in the growth of this nation's character
Immigration Problem Identification: What is clear is that immigration has _____________________________, unlike any other in the world.
extremely difficult to estimate, 13 million
Immigration Problem Identification: The number of illegal immigrants is ______________________. As of 2007 approximately ___________________ illegal aliens reside in the U.S.
state-to-state responsibility, regulation of immigration is a federal
Immigration Policy Agenda setting: Immigration policy was a __________________________ until the Supreme Court declared, in 1875, that the ___________________________ responsibility.
underlying character of xenophobia, economic and national security
Immigration Policy Agenda Setting: U.S. immigration policy has had a recurrent _______________________________ (an intense fear or dislike of foreign people, their customs and culture, or foreign things) and a concern for ____________________________.
restrict immigration of certain groups through qualitative standards, prevent individuals of specific ethnic backgrounds, certain classes of workers,
Immigration Policy Agenda Setting: Roughly from 1882 to 1921, the primary goal of immigration policy was to ______________________________. The goal of the federal government during this period was to _____________________________, as well as ________________________, from immigrating or remaining with the U.S.
Quantitative restrictions to immigration, Immigration Acts of 1921 and 1924, quota system, national, ethnic, and cultural makeup
Immigration Policy Agenda Setting: ______________________________ were established under the ___________________________. The goal of the _____________________ was to sustain a specific ____________________________________, based on the total number of the group within the U.S.
the context of WWII, threat posed by certain foreign nationals
Immigration Policy Agenda Setting: During the 1940s, immigration policy was redefined within ___________________ and the perceived _______________________ to U.S. national security.
receive refugees and displaced persons, communist states
Immigration Policy Agenda Setting: Following WWII the U.S. became more willing to _____________________________ particularly those from ________________________.
Immigration and Nationality Act, national origins quota system, seven-category preference system, reunite immigrant families
Immigration Policy Agenda Setting: The 1965 ______________________________ repealed the ________________________________ that had been in place since 1920. INA-65 established a ____________________________ to attract a variety of skilled workers and ________________________.
penalize employers for hiring illegal aliens, knowingly hiring undocumented workers
Immigration Policy Agenda Setting: In 1972, as a result of increased illegal immigration that followed the adoption of INA-65 the House of Representatives "made its first attempt to __________________________, imposing mild civil and criminal penalties for ________________________________."
Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA), amnesty program, mandated oversight of the workplace and sanctioning
Immigration Policy Agenda Setting: In 1986 the _______________________________ was passed establishing an _______________________ for illegal aliens and it sought to deter future illegal immigration through the first ______________________________ of employers.
Illegal Immigration Reform and Individual Responsibility Act (IIRIR), limiting access to social services,
Immigration Policy Agenda Setting: In 1996 the ________________________________ was passed and it focused on ____________________________ for the legal and illegal immigrant population.
employers | labor unions | communities that feel strapped by the demands that immigrants put on their services and infrastructure | those who are angered by the presence of millions of illegal immigrants and the fact that those millions are already present in this country
Immigration Policy formulation: Examples of the various constituencies involved in the immigration issue.
U.S. Department of Homeland Security | Center for Comparative Immigration Studies | Center for Immigration Studies | Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR) | Migration Dialogue | Migration Policy Institute | National Immigration Law Center | ACLU | Minuteman Project | National Governors Association | International Cities Managers Association | National Association of Mayors
Immigration policy interest groups and institutions.
most of the costs and risks of control, employers and consumers
Immigration Policy Adoption: The absence of consensus on alternatives locks in the current policy mix, under which unauthorized immigrants bear ______________________________ while benefits flow impressively to ____________________."
define the kind of nation America is and will be
Immigration Policy Evaluation: The area of immigration policy represents a continuing struggle by the public and its decision-makers to _______________________________.
the stage of policy implementation
Immigration Policy Evaluation: In part, the problems with immigration policy reside with ________________________________.
bad policy, ineffective implementation, evaluation of the implementation
Immigration Policy Evaluation: It could be argued that the failures of immigration policy stem not from _______________ but from ________________________ and limited ________________________.
a misunderstanding of the policy problem | perceptions of certain groups | a failure to provide sufficient resources to critical agencies | a disregarding of past failures | a poor understanding of implementation
Immigration Policy Evaluation: When driven by certain political interests, policy makers develop dramatic policy actions that fail to consider how _______________________________________________________________________ lead to poor policy design and execution.
The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965
Education Policy Stream: ___________________________________: Established the single largest federal aid to education programs. Title I provided federal financial assistance to local educational agencies serving areas with concentrations of children from low-income families.
Head Start | Educational Spending and Student Achievement | Educational Block Grants | 1991 America "2000" Plan | 1992 Goals 2000: Educate America Act | 2002 No Child Left Behind Act
Education Policy Stream: Examples of education policies.
Johnson
Education Policy Politics Stream: ________________ Administration: Great Society Programs , War on Poverty
Reagan
Education Policy Politics Stream: __________________ Administration: Vowed to Abolish the Department of Education, Appointed the National Commission on Excellence in Education
Clinton
Education Policy Politics Stream: _____________ Administration: Signed the "Goals 2000: Educate America Act", which provided federal funds to help states develop standards.
Bush
Education Policy Politics Stream: _____________ Administration: No Child Left Behind Act
rational decision making model (5 steps)
step-by-step rational process to make decisions, includes defining problem, gathering facts, construct alternative solutions, analyze alternatives, select best alternative
incremental decision making model
view that most public policy decisions are not made by rational process with total infor but are dependent upon small incremental decisions that tend to be made in response to short-term political conditions
mixed scanning
model that uses both incrementalism and rational comprehensive approaches to problem solving
advantages to rational decision model (4)
more efficient way, not based on short-term solutions to crisis, explores alternative solution instead of immediately jumping to often used solutions, systematic
disadvantages rational model (5)
almost impossible to do b/c requires to gather all info and consider all alternatives which is not in human nature, instead we accept satisfactory amount of info, consequences difficult to predict, people can't foresee their own wants accurately, larger the increments of change the harder it is for superiors to check on subordinates or give instructions, large scale change usually fails b/c the system resists sudden large-scale change
advantages incrementalism (4)
b/c of people's many conflicting goals, a marginal adjustment will bring about a gain in goal achievement, it is easier to verify the results, reversible thus mistakes can be repaired, more flexible
disadvantages incrementalism (3)
usually based on procrastination, idea of ignore till goes away if can't do as little as possible to tweak current system, does not consider new alternatives or explore all options & consequences
advantages mixed scanning (3)
flexible, allows advantages of both systems, saves time in dealing in detail w/ only issues that need attention
disadvantages mixed scanning (2)
based on unrealistic "theory" and not the way the world really works, doesn't take into account outside factors of decision making
market model
public policy model w/ underlying assumption that everyone starts on an equal footing and the winners are determined by who has the best skills/resources/works hardest
polis model
assumption that everyone has inherent advantages and disadvantages and these play a factor in who wins and loses
paradigm
general framework for viewing social reality including assumptions about the nature of reality and individual frames of reference
determinism
all social phenomena are the result of prior causes and that these causes themselves are the product of prior causes, circumstances rules over individual choices
free-will
not all human actions and thought are pre-determined - social phenomena are the product of personal decisions
rationality
reason, logic, sanity, objectivity, evidentiary and data-driven, analytical
emotionality
empathy, affect, subjectivity, adaptive, communal, interpretation, construct
view of human nature
pessimistic- hobbs humans are intrinsically bad, optomistic-humans are intrinsically good
policy process
pattern of governmental activities or decision designed to remedy some public problem, either real or imagined that is formulated, implemented, and evaluated in a political system
government
formal institutions with authority and the processes in these institutions
politics
process of the prioritization of different policy choices conflict will occur and it is managed through a representative/democratic government
public sector
government, agency or organization located within the public domain in which no profits can be retained or distributed and it is subject to legal constraints for public sector operations including citizen scrutiny and citizen participation
private sector
individual, entity or organization legally able to conduct business without the legal constraints associated with either the public or nonprofit sectors, it may retain profits and distribute to owners, and is not necessarily subject to public scrutiny
nonprofit sector
organized for some public good, legally permitted to generate, retain and use profits for organizational mission, prohibited by law from distributing surplus revenues to individuals (no owners), may form subsidiary corporations and engage in commercial activities
public administration
what governments do; the execution of a public law
policy space
judgments about issues, problems, policies and programs that are on the current social and political agenda
stakeholders
individuals/groups/governments who have concerns about the outcome of a policy, includes both now and the future and both in and outside the U.S.
agenda setting
We identify an occasion, event or issue then define it as a problem, then push to get the problem recognized
federalism
a system of government in which a national government shares power with subnational governments
intergovernmental relations
complex network of interrelationships among governments; the political fiscal programmatic and administrative processes by which high units of government share revenues and other resources with lower units, generally accompanied by special conditions that the lower units must satisfy as prerequisites
public policy
what government does and does not do
differences of nonprofit/public/private
goals and objectives sources of funding media and public scrutiny structure/management/outputs legal issues
ethical approach to public policy
using religion and moral teachings to shape public policy, can be influenced by culture
biographical approach
uses life of an individual to illustrate how and why certain policies came to be
case-study approach
using an in-depth analysis of history that offers understanding of dynamic constantly moving and changing processes over time in a single subject.
public law approach
analysis of legislative acts that apply to the citizenry as a whole, refers to the underlying basis of a regime and the character of its government
systems approach
any analytical framework that views situations as systems, any review of a policy that seeks to put it in the context of a larger system
policy paper approach
a formal argument in favor of or against a particular public policy
formal research approach
end product of a formal effort to test the utility of a given policy, reports the result of a formal research involving techniques such as data gathering and analysis, sample surveys, etc. tests the effectiveness of a policy or the cause of policy adoption
model
a simplification of reality, a reduction in time and space that allows for a better understanding of reality
theory
a hypothesis assumed for the sake of argument or investigation
issue attention cycle (5 steps)
model that attempts to explain how many policy problems evolve on the political agenda, includes preproblem stage, alarmed discovery/euphoric enthusiasm, recognition of cost of change, decline of interest, postproblem stage
policy analysis
a set of techniques that seeks to answer the question of what the probable effects of a policy will be before they actually occur
program evaluation
the systematic examination of any activity undertaken by government to make a determination about its effects both short term and long range
policy maintenance
1 of 3 responses to evaluation; maintaining the status quo of a program with only minor tweaks
termination
1 of 3 responses to evaluation; completely stopping a policy because of a bad evaluation
policy succession
1 of 3 responses to evaluation; includes linear, consolidated, splitting, and nonlinear
causality
3 things to take into account when trying to determine a cause of an effect includes: cause must precede effect, cause & effect must have correlation or be empirically related, observed empirical relationship must not be due to intervening variables
similarities of nonprofit/private/public
basic management, resources, design, delivery
steps to determine & set policy (6)
1.identify and define problems 2.push to get problems recognized 3.propose solutions 4.provide support for solutions 5.implement policies that are developed 6.evaluate policies
rational for expansion of government (5)
constantly shifting technology, population increase and urbanization, welfare programs and other social services, special interest advocacy, mandates without money
traditionalistic
paternalistic elite power is limited to "who do you know" or clan/family assignment family obligation to government
moralistic
common public interest government exists to serve the public interest through moral goals government intervention to promote public good
individualistic
politics as a means to advance economic interests Individual with self-interest as motivation influence of Luther contract and individualistic ownership Limited government
3 purposes of policy making
solving social problem (crime rates, teen drinking), countering threats (terrorism, war), pursuing an objective (building highway, curing AIDS)
usual method of policy making
incrementalism - step by step, slow or inaction
issue-attention cylcle
act quick before public loses interest (gas prices)
steps of policy making
defining role of govt., agenda setting (identify social and econ problem, redefine into political issue and rank in order of importance), policy formulation and adoption (leg, exec order, rules reg agencies), implementation, evaluation
policy making centers
because pluralist democracy - local, state, national; because seperation powers - judiciary, exec, and general bureacracy
policy fragmentation
multiple access points cause legislation to deal with only parts policy problem (war on drugs -- 75 committees with jurisdiction to deal with it!)
mixed economy
capitalist free-market system in which both govt and private industry play role
keynesian economists
govt. can smooth our business cylcles by influencing amount of income individuals and businesses spend on goods and services - through fiscal and monetary policy
laissez faire economists
govt shold never become involved in econ issues - free market governed by laws nature
fiscal policy
rasing lowering taxes which results in more or less consumer spending or enacting of governement spending programs
Keynesian - during downturn
gov should spend money on projects to inject money into economy; less worries about deficit spending
Keynesian - when economy is good
surplus taxes (money left over tax revenues) should be saved to pay for govt spending takes place during downtime
deficit spending
funds raised by borrowing rather than taxation
supply side economics
beleive inflation caused by too many dollars chasing too few goods; of supply of goods raised, cost of goods decline; so cut taxes and spending on domestic programs to stimulate greater production
Reagonomics
supply side/trickle down - inflation was brought under control bu huge budget deficit, in part caused by military buildup, raised national debt.
monetary policy
process by which govt controls supply of money in circulation and supply of credit though action of FRB
FED raises reserve (money banks required to keep on hand)
shrinks money available for borrowing, raises interest rates
FED lowers reserve
expands money available for borrowing, lowers interest rates
discount rate
interest banks pay to Fed Reserve banks for borrowing money
FED lowers discount rate
lower intest rates for consumer loans
FED raises discount rate
raise interest rates for consumer loans (higher rate, less ocnsumers purchase0
open market operations
FED buying and selling US government bonds
FEd sells bonds
people withdraw from banks to take advantage higher bond rates, banks less to loan so interest rates go up, which slows consumer spending
FED buys bonds
money flows back to banks, increases money available for loans, interest rates lower, more consumer spending, economic growth
Milton Friedman; monetarists
money supply should be increased at constant rate to accomodate econ growth; dont think manipulating tax rates and interest have much of an impact of economic conditions
Budget Process
OMB initiates, writes presidents budget, submits ot House ways and means Committee (deals with taxing issues), Authorization committees in both houses, and Appropriations committees in both houses
mandatory spending
required by law and includes entitlement programs like SS, veternans pension, medicare
Discretionary spending
not required by law - defense, education, highways etc - usually targe to try to balance budget
balance of trade
ratio of imports to exports
trade deficit
imports exceed exports; cause wealth to flow form nation, response is to place high tarrifs on imported goods, nation facing restrcitions then imposes impose high import taxes or unfair regulations on products to keep out foreign goods
GATT
evolved into WTO- works to lower tarrifs and quotas and reduce unfair trade proctices
Welfare Reform Act 1996
social welfare programs funded by state and federal govt with fed providing most in form of block grant; state administers programs and incentives for finding work and job training
intent of WRA 1996
abolish AFDC, replace with TANF, require adult find job 2 years, place lifetime limit of 5 years, prohibit aliens from recieving assistance
political debate over public assistance: 2 focuses
who pays how much and what is fair standard to be used for recipient
Constitutional Convention
The Constitutional Convention was a secret meeting in philadelphia of 55 delegates whose goal was to revise the weak Articles of Confederation. The Resulting constitution was a "bundle of compromises" including the 3/5 Compromise, the Interstate commerce compromise, and the Great Compromise(aka Connecticut compromise)
Stamp Act Congress
In 1795, delegates from nine colonies met in New York. In this Stamp Act Congress they created a deceleration demanding the repeal of the Stamp Tax, Stating that it was taxation without representation. The tax was repealed in 1766. However, Parliament then passed the Declaratory Act asserting parliaments right to make laws over the colonies "in all cases whatsoever."
Navigation Acts
The Navigation Act,passed by Parliament allowed only english ships to transport goods to or from the colonies. Further certain goods could only be sold to England, including tobacco and sugar. Finally any goods to be sold in the colonies from other european countries had to go trough england and be taxed first. This reinforced mercantilism.
John Rolfe
john Rolfe was a settler in Jamestown Virginia, Who iss credited with creating a more profitable tobacco,which grew into the staple export of virginia. He Later married Pochontas, The daughter of Cheif Powhatan.
Perverse incentives
When government intervention encourages individuals to take actions that are not in the collective interest of the government policy
Symbols
Anything that stands for something else and whose meaning depends on how people interpret it use it or respond to it
Target Populations
The individuals or groups who a policy is supposed to effect both positively and negatively
Direct Government
When the government performs services or benefits like garbage collection street repairs welfare directly rather than through a third party
Condition
An underlying phenomenon with the potential to develop into a problem as evidenced through indicators that measure the underlying phenomenon
Regulation
A type of formal policy making established through the adoption of rules and standards that must be followed
Negative Externalities
The costs resulting from a market transaction that reduce the welfare of a third party who was not involved in or consulted regarding the original market transaction. Examples air pollution noise second hand smoke
Government Failure
When government intervention causes a more inefficient allocation of goods and services than would have occurred if government had not intervened
Subsidy
Funding paid by government to an enterprise which benefits the public. The enterprise receiving the subsidy can be private public an individual or another government
Causal story
A theory about what causes a problem and how particular responses would alleviate that problem
Positive Externalities
The benefit resulting from a market transaction that increase the welfare of individuals who were not involved in the market transaction. Examples clean parks safe schools
Market distortion
When government intervention causes the proper functioning of markets to shift out of balance usually by providing a competitive advantage to some firms over others
Private goods
Goods that are both excludable and rivalrous
Collective Action Problems
When the result of individually rational actions produces unintended negative consequences for society as a whole
Policy Benefits and Costs
The distribution of wins and losses as a result of a policy
Public Information
Activities where the purpose design and plan intends to provide a benefit through the delivery of information to the public or various publics
Policy Problems
Issues that are elevated in the public eye enough to necessitate governmental action
Policy Tools
Instrument that government uses to address or solve a given problem or issue
Fees
When an amount of money is charged to offset the cost of a program or discourage people from doing something that the government wants people to do less often
Underproduction of Public Goods
The insufficient production of a good that is provided collectively for users whose use is not precluded by others
Agency Capture
When the agencies operate in the interest of the industries that they are supposed to regulate rather than the interests of the general public they represent
Grants
An award of cash of goods to an organization for which a service or performance is expected
Market Failure
When the private market is not efficient which is often due to monopolies externalities information failures or underproduction of public good or merit goods
Monopoly
A persistent market situation in which there is only one provider of a product or service
Social construction
The process of defining problems and of selling a broad population on this definition
Electoral incentives
The way in which officials are elected may produce
Information Failure
When markets or government are less efficient than they could be if everyone involved had full information
Public Goods
Goods that satisfy a collective want of the society and from which if any one member of the group reveives the benefit all members of the group benefit
Free riders
Those who receive benefits without paying for them
Rationality
An assumption that individuals know what they want and are capable of choosing the best alternative available to them
Barron v. Baltimore (1833)
Supreme Court decision holding that the Bill of Rights restrained only the national government, no the states and cities
Gitlow v. New York (1925)
Supreme Court decision holding that the freedoms of press and speech are "fundamental personal rights and liberties protected by the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment from the impairment by the states" as well as by the federal government
Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971)
Supreme Court decision that established that aid to church-related schools must 1) have a secular legislative purpose; 2) have a primary effect that neither advances nor inhibits religion; and 3) not foster excessive government entanglement with religion
Zelman v. Simmons-Harris (2002)
Supreme Court decision that upheld a state providing families with vouchers that could be used to pay for tuition at religious schools
Engel v. Vitale (1962)
Supreme Court decision holding that state officials violated the First Amendment when they wrote a prayer to be recited by New York's schoolchildren
School District of Abington Township, Pennsylvania v. Schempp (1963)
Supreme Court decision holding that a Pennsylvania law requiring Bible reading in schools violated the establishment clause of the First Amendment
Near v. Minnesota (1931)
Supreme Court decision holding that the First Amendment protects newspapers from prior restraint
Schenck v. United States (1919)
Supreme Court decision upholding the conviction of a socialist who had urged young men to resist the draft during World War I. Justice Holmes declared that government can limit speech if the speech if the speech provokes a "clear and present danger" of substantive evils
Zurcher v. Stanford Daily (1978)
Supreme Court decision holding that a proper search warrant could be applied to a newspaper as well as to anyone else without necessarily violating the First Amendment rights to freedom of the press
Roth v. United States (1957)
Supreme Court decision ruling that "obscenity is not within the area of constitutionally protected speech or press"
Miller v. California (1973)
Supreme Court decision that avoided defining obscenity by holding that community standards be used to determine whether material is obscene in terms of appealing to a "prurient interest" and being "patently offensive" and lacking in value
New York Times v. Sullivan (1964)
Supreme Court decision that established the guidelines for determining whether public officials and public figures could win damage suits for libel. To do so, individuals must prove that the defamatory statements were made with "actual malice" and reckless disregard for the truth
Texas v. Johnson (1989)
Supreme Court decision that struck down a law banning the burning of the American flag on the grounds that such action was symbolic speech protected by the First Amendment
Miami Herald Publishing Company v. Tornillo (1974)
Supreme Court decision that held that a states could not force a newspaper to print replies from candidates it had criticized, illustrating the limited power of government to restrict the print media
Red Lion Broadcasting Company v. Federal Communications Commission (1969)
Supreme Court decision that upheld restrictions on radio and television broadcasting. These restrictions on the broadcast media are much tighter than those on the print media because there are only a limited number of broadcasting frequencies available
NAACP v. Alabama (1958)
Supreme Court decision that protected the right to assemble peaceably in this case when it decided the NAACP did not have to reveal its membership list and thus subjects its members to harassment
Mapp v. Ohio (1961)
Supreme Court decision ruling that the Fourth Amendment's protection against unreasonable searches and seizures must be extended to the states as well as to the federal government
Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
Supreme Court decision that sets the guidelines for police questioning of accused persons to protect them against self-incrimination and to protect their right to counsel
Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
Supreme Court decision holding that anyone accused of a felony where imprisonment may be imposed, however poor he or she might be, has a right to a lawyer
Gregg v. Georgia (1976)
Supreme Court decision that upheld the constitutionality of the death penalty, stating that "It is an extreme sanction, suitable to the most extreme of crimes." The court did not, therefore, believe that the death sentence constitutes cruel and unusual punishment
McCleskey v. Kemp (1987)
Supreme Court decision that upheld the constitutionality of the death penalty against charges that it violated the Fourteenth Amendment because minority defendants were more likely to receive the death penalty than were White defendants
Roe v. Wade (1973)
Supreme Court decision holding that a state band on all abortions was unconstitutional. The decision forbade state control over abortions during the first trimester of pregnancy, permitted states to limit abortions to protect the mother's health in the second trimester, and permitted states to protect the fetus during the third trimester
Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992)
Supreme Court decision that loosened its standard for evaluating restrictions on abortion from one of "strict scrutiny" of any restraints on a "fundamental right" to one of "undue burden" that permits considerably more regulation
civil liberties
The legal constitutional protections against government. Although our civil liberties are formally set down in the Bill of Rights, the courts, police, and legislatures define their meaning.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution , which define such basic liberties as freedom of religion, speech, and press and guarantee defendant's rights
First Amendment
The constitutional amendment that establishes the four great liberties: freedom of the press, of speech, of religion and of assembly.
Fourteenth Amendment
The constitutional amendment adopted after the Civil War that states, "No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws."
incorporation doctrine
The legal concept under which the Supreme Court has nationalized the Bill of Rights by making most of its provisions applicable to the states through the Fourteenth Amendment
establishment clause
Part of the First Amendment stating that "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion"
free exercise clause
A First Amendment provision that prohibits government from interfering with the practice of religion
prior restraint
A government preventing material from being published. This is a common method of limiting the press in some nations, but it is usually unconstitutional in the United States, according to the First Amendment and as confirmed in the 1931 Supreme Court case of Near v. Minnesota.
libel
The publication of false or malicious statements that damage someone's reputation
symbolic speech
Nonverbal communication, such as burning a flag or wearing an armband. The Supreme Court has accorded some symbolic speech protection under the First Amendment.
commercial speech
Communication in the form of advertising. It can be restricted more than many other types of speech but has been receiving increased protection from the Supreme Court.
probable cause
The situation occurring when the police have reason to believe that a person should be arrested. In making the arrest, police are allowed legally to search for and seize incriminating evidence.
unreasonable searches and seizures
Obtaining evidence in a haphazard or random manner, a practice prohibited by the Fourth Amendment. Probable cause and/or a search warrant are required for a legal and proper search for a legal and proper search for and seizure of incriminating evidence.
search warrant
A written authorization from a court specifying the area to be searched and what the police are searching for
exclusionary rule
The rule that evidence, no matter how incriminating, cannot be introduced into a trial if it was not constitutionally obtained. The rule prohibits use of evidence obtained through unreasonable search and seizure.
Fifth Amendment
The constitutional amendment designed to protect the rights of persons accused of crimes, including protection against double jeopardy, self-incrimination, and punishment without the due process of law.
self incrimination
The situation occurring when an individual accused of a crime is compelled to be a witness against himself or herself in court. The Fifth Amendment forbids self-incrimination.
Sixth Amendment
The constitutional amendment designed to protect individuals accused of crimes. It includes the right to counsel, the right to confront witnesses, and the right to a speedy and public trial.
plea bargaining
A bargain struck between the defendant's lawyer and the prosecutor to the effect that the defendant will plead guilty to a lesser crime (or fewer crimes) in exchange for the state's promise not to prosecute the defendant for a more serious (or additional) crime.
Eighth Amendment
The constitutional amendment that forbids cruel and unusual punishment, although it does not define this phrase. Through the Fourteenth Amendment, this bill of rights provision applies to the states.
cruel and unusual punishment
Court sentences prohibited by the Eighth Amendment. Although the Supreme Court has ruled that mandatory death sentences for certain offenses are unconstitutional, it has not held that the death penalty itself constitutes cruel and unusual punishment.
right to privacy
The right to a private personal life free from the intrusion of government.
exegesis
scholarly explanation or interpretation
hermeneutics
the art of analyzing literary texts or human experience, understood as fundamentally ambiguous, by interpreting levels of meaning.
shibboleth
a manner of speaking that is distinctive of a particular group of people
desideratum
something that is wished for, or considered desirable
ceteris paribus
all other things held constant
nomological
relating to or expressing the general physical and logical laws
nomothetic
relating to the study or discovery of general scientific laws
idiographic
relating to or involving the study of individuals
fissiparous
tending to break up into parts or break away from a main body; factious, separatist
cliometric
the application of methods developed in other fields (as economics, statistics, and data processing) to the study of history
epistemology
the study or a theory of the nature and grounds of knowledge especially with reference to its limits and validity
ontology
the philosophical study of the nature of being, existence or reality in general, as well as of the basic categories of being and their relations
a priori
involving deductive reasoning from a general principle to a necessary effect; not supported by fact
prima facie
before investigation (at first appearance)
modus tollens
(Latin for denial mode.) An inference rule that states that if B is false and A implies B, then A is also false.
fallibilism
the doctrine due to Peirce , that it is not necessary that beliefs be certain, or grounded on certainty.
sacerdotal
associated with the priesthood or priests
seigneurial
associated with a feudal lord: a man of rank in the ancient regime
subaltern
inferior in rank or status
civil rights
policies designed to protect people against arbitrary or discriminatory treatment by the government officials or individuals
14th amendment
"citizenship" no state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunites of citizens of the united states
equal protection of the laws
part of the 14th amendment emphasizing that laws must provide equivalent protection to all people
scott v. sanford
(1857) supreme court ruling that a slave who escaped to a free state enjoyed no right as a citizen and that Congress had no authority to ban slavery in the territories
13th amendment
abolished slavery
plessy v. ferguson
(1896) justified segregation by the ruling that a Louisiana law requiring "equal but seperate" accomodaton. ruled constitutional
brown v. board of education
(1954) holding that school segregation in Kansas was inherently unconstitutional because it violated the 14th admendment guarantee of equal protection
suffrage
the legal right to vote
15th amendment
Extends suffrage to african americans
Poll tax
levied taxes on the right to vote
white primary
whites allowed to vote on political parties which african americans were not allowed to
24th amendment
voided poll taxes
Voting Rights Act of 1965
prohibited any government from using voting procedures that denied a person the vote on the basis of race or color
korematsu v. unted states
ruled constitutional the interment of more than 100,000 americans of japanese descent in encampments during WWII
19th Amendment
guarantees women the right to vote
Equal Rights Amendment
equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the US or by any account of sex
reed v. reed
the first time the supreme court upheld a claim of gender discrimination
craig v. boren
established the "medium scrutiny" standard for determining gender descrimination
comparable worth
issue raised when women who hold traditionally female jobs are paid less than men for working at jobs requiring comparable skill
americans with disabilities act of 1990
law passed that requires employers and public facilities to make reasonable acomodations for people with disabilities and prohibits discrimination against these individuals in employment
affirmative action
a policy designed to give special attention to or compensatory treatment of members of some previously disadvanteged group
regents of the university of california v. bakke
1978 state university couldn't admit less qualified individuals solely based on race; no quotas
adarand consturctors v. pena
1995 federal programs that classify people by race, even for an ostensibly benign purpose such as expanding opportunites for minorities
equal opportunites
american society tends to emphasize
equal protection of the law
allows states to treat citizens differently if the classification is reasonable
jim crow laws
imposed legal segregation on african americans in the south after the civil war
civil rights act of 1964
racial discrimination in public places became illegal
native americans
not protected by public protections against discrimination
protectionism
public policy towards women
the civil rights and women's equity in employment act of 1991
shifted the burden of proof in justifying hiring and promotion practices to employers
gay people
group with the toughest battle
reverse discrimination
how some people see affirmative action
Bounded rationality
realization that individuals may aim to make choices consistent with their self interest but are limited by the information they have and their ability to consider all potential options or outcomes
fragmentation
The way in which our policymaking process is divided across levels of government, branches of government, and specific policy issue networks
Incrementalism
A process of policy change that consists of on-going, small refinements in current policy
Issue Networks
Groups or individuals share common beliefs who integrate their efforts for a specific purpose such as gaining information or achieving a goal
Parallel processing
When many policy areas are advanced at the same time with different units focusing on each area
Punctuated equilibrium
A model of policy change in which policy is characterized by long periods with little or no change interspersed with short periods of rapid or dynamic change
Rational decision making
An organized, comprehensive, step-by-step process by which policymakers weight all possible outcomes and choose the one that best maximizes well-being
Serial processing
When policy is addressed in either a sequential approach - dealing with one issue at a time
civil rights
Policies designed to protect people against arbitrary or discriminatory treatment by government officials or individuals
Fourteenth Amendment
The constitutional amendment adopted after the Civil War that states, "No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws."
equal protection of the laws
Part of the Fourteenth Amendment emphasizing that the laws must provide equivalent "protection" to all people.
Thirteenth Amendment
The constitutional amendment ratified after the Civil War that forbade slavery and involuntary servitude.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
The law that made racial discrimination against any group in hotels, motels, and restaurants illegal and forbade many forms of job discrimination
Scott v. Sandford (1857)
Supreme Court decision ruling that a slave who had escaped to a free state enjoyed no rights as a citizen and that Congress had no authority to ban slavery in the territories
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Supreme Court decision that provided a constitutional justification for segregation by ruling that a Louisiana law requiring "equal but separate accommodations for the White and colored races" was constitutional
Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
Supreme Court decision holding that school segregation in Topeka, Kans., was inherently unconstitutional because it violated the Fourteenth Amendment's guarantee of equal protection. This case marked the end of legal segregation in the United States
suffrage
The legal right to vote, extended to African Americans by the Fifteenth Amendment, to women by the Nineteenth Amendment, and to people over the age of 18 by the Twenty-sixth Amendment.
civil liberties
Legal constitutional protections against government
Bill of Rights
First 10 amendments which define basic liberties
1st Amendment
freedom of: speech, press, assembly, petition, and religion
Barron v. Baltimore (1833)
Bill of Rights only applied to the federal government, not the states
Gitlow v. New York (1925)
Applied 14th Amendment restriction to the states to the Bill of Rights; incorporation doctrine
14th Amendment
Citizenship, equal protection under the law, due process
incorporation doctrine
Legal concept under which the SC has made the Bill of Rights applicable to the states
establishment clause
Prohibits the state sponsorship or preference of any one religion
free exercise clause
Individuals have the right to believe whatever they want, action has time, place, and manner restrictions
Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971)
Aid to church-related schools must have a secular purpose, does not inhibit or promote religion, and does not foster excessive government entanglement with religion
Engel v. Vitale (1962)
NY officials violated establishment clause by writing a prayer for schoolchildren to recite
School District of Abington Township, PA v. Schempp (1963)
Declared PA law requiring Bible reading in schools unconstitutional
prior restraint
A government preventing material from being published
Near v. Minnesota (1931)
Protected newspapers from prior restraint
Schenck v. US (1919)
Government can limit speech if there is a "clear and present danger"
Zurcher v. Stanford Daily (1978)
Search warrants ccan be applied to a newspaper without violating the 1st Amendment
Roth v. US (1957)
Obscenity is unprotected speech
Miller v. California (1973)
Work appealed to to sex, describe in an offensive way sexual or excretory functions, lack serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value
libel
The publication of false or malicious statements that damage someone's reputation
NY Times v. Sullivan (1964)
Public figures must prove statements were made with malice and disregard for the truth
Texas v. Johnson (1989)
Protected symbolic speech under the 1st Amendment
symbolic speech
Nonverbal communication
commercial speech
Communication in the form of advertising; unprotected speech
Miami Herald Publishing Company v. Tornillo (1974)
SC ruled a newspaper could not be forced to print replies from candidates it criticized
Red Lion Broadcasting v. FCC (1969)
Upheld restrictions on broadcast media; broadcast media can be controlled because it is a public good
NAACP v. Alabama (1958)
Protected right to association
probable cause
Police have reason to believe that a person should be arrested
unreasonable search and seizure
Obtaining evidence in a haphazard or random manner
search warrant
A written authorization from a court specifying the area to be searched and what the police are searching for
exclusionary rule
If evidence is unconstitutionally obtained, it cannot be used in a court of law
Mapp v. Ohio (1961)
Applied the 4th Amendment to the states
5th Amendment
Protects the rights of persons accused of crimes: self incrimination, double jeopardy, and punishment without due process
self incrimination
Situation in which an individual is compelled to be a witness against themself in court
Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
Sets guidelines for police questioning to protect accused against self incrimination and for their right of legal counsel
6th Amendment
Right to counsel, confront witness, and speedy and public trial
Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
Reinforced a defendant's right to legal counsel
plea bargaining
Bargain stuck between the defendant's lawer and the prosecutor
8th Amendment
Forbids cruel and unusual punishment, excessive bail
cruel and unusual punishment
Prohibited by the 8th Amendment
Gregg v. Georgia (1976)
Upheld the death penalty, extreme punishment for extreme crimes
McCleskey v. Kemp (1987)
Upheld the death penalty, didn't violate 14th Amendment
right to privacy
Right to a private personal life free from government intrusion
Roe v. Wade (1973)
1st trimester: no state control, 2nd trimester: limited control, 3rd trimester: total control
Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992)
Made it easier to place restrictions on abortion
Fifteenth Amendment
The constitutional amendment adopted in 1870 to extend suffrage to African Americans.
poll taxes
Small taxes levied on the right to vote that often fell due at a time of year when poor African-American sharecroppers had the least cash on hand. This method was used by most Southern states to exclude African Americans from voting. Poll taxes were declared void by the Twenty-fourth Amendment in 1964.
White primary
One of the means used to discourage African-American voting that permitted political parties in the heavily Democratic South to exclude African Americans from primary elections, thus depriving them of a voice in the real contests. The Supreme Court declared White primaries unconstitutional in 1944.
Twenty-fourth Amendment
The constitutional amendment passed in 1964 that declared poll taxes void in federal elections.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
A law designed to help end formal and informal barriers to African American suffrage. Under the law, hundreds of thousands of African Americans were registered and the number of African American elected officials increased dramatically.
Nineteenth Amendment
The constitutional amendment adopted in 1920 that guarantees women the right to vote.
Equal Rights Amendment
A constitutional amendment originally introduced in Congress in 1923 and passed by Congress in 1972, stating that "equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex." Despite public support, the amendment failed to acquire the necessary support from three-fourths of the state legislatures.
comparable worth
The issue raised when women who hold traditionally female jobs are paid less than men for working at jobs requiring comparable skill
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
A law passed in 1990 that requires employers and public facilities to make "reasonable accommodations" for people with disabilities and prohibits discrimination against these individuals in employment.
affirmative action
A policy designed to give special attention to or compensatory treatment for members of some previously disadvantaged group
Korematsu v. United States (1944)
Supreme Court decision that upheld as constitutional the internment of more than 100,000 Americans of Japanese descent in encampments during World War II
Reed v. Reed (1971)
Supreme Court decision that for the first time upheld a claim of gender discrimination
Craig v. Boren (1976)
Supreme Court decision that established the "medium scrutiny" standard for determining gender discrimination
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978)
Supreme Court decision holding that a state university could not admit less qualified individuals solely because of their race
Adarand Constructors v. Pena (1995)
Supreme Court decision holding that federal programs that classify people by race, even for an ostensibly benign purpose such as expanding opportunities for minorities, should be presumed to be unconstitutional
public policy
a law, rule, statute, or edict that expresses the government's goals and provides for rewards and punishments to promote their attainment
Public goods
Goods that, first, may be enjoyed by anyone if they are provided and, second, may not be denied to anyone once they have been provided
externalities
the differences between the private costs and the social costs of economic behavior
Monopoly
the existence in a market of a single firm that provides all of the goods and services of that market; the absence of competition
Market failure
an instance where the market fails to produce an efficient outcome
expropriation
the confiscation of property with or without compensation
Eminent domain
the right of government to take private property for public use
Homesteading
a national policy, also known as squatting, that permitted people to gain ownership of property by occupying public or unclaimed land, living on it for a specified period of time, and making certain minimal improvements on it
Categorical grants-in-aid
Funds given by Congress to states and localities that are earmarked by law for specific categories, such as education and crime prevention
subsidies
Government grants of cash or other valuable commodities such as land to individuals or organizations. Subsidies can be used to promote activities
Contracting power
the power of the government to set conditions on companies seeking to sell goods or services to government agencies
Omnibus
the name given to a bill or an act that is composed of many sections with little substantive or logical connection among them.
Antitrust policy
government regulation of large businesses that have established monopolies
Deregulation
the policy of reducing or eliminating regulatory restraints on the conduct of individuals or private institutions
Regulation
A particular use of governmental power in which the government adopts rules imposing restrictions on the conduct of private citizens
Administrative regulation
the rules made by regulatory agencies and commissions
Monetary policies
the efforts to regulate the economy through manipulation of the supply of money and credit. America's most powerful institution in the area of monetary policy is the Federal Reserve Board
Federal Reserve System
Consisting of twelve Federal Reserve Banks, the Fed facilitates exchanges of cash, checks, and credit; it regulates member banks; and it uses monetary policies to fight inflation and deflation
Discount rate
the interest rate charged by the Fed when commercial banks borrow to expand their lending operations. The discount rate is an effective tool of monetary policy
Reserve requirement
the amount of liquid assets and ready cash that the Fed requires banks to hold to meet their depositors' demands for their money. The ratio fluctuates from above to below 20% of all deposits, with the rest available for new loans
Open-market operations
the process whereby the Federal Open Market Committee of the Federal Reserve buys and sells government securities and the like to help finance government operations and loosen or tighten the amount of credit circulating in the economy
Federal funds rate
the interest rate on the loans between banks that the Federal Reserve Board influences by affecting the supply of money available
Fiscal policies
the use of taxing, monetary, and spending powers to manipulate the economy
Progressive taxation
taxation that hits the upper income brackets more heavily
Regressive taxation
taxation that hits the lower income brackets more heavily
Policy of redistribution
an objective of the graduated income tax whereby revenue is raised in such a way as to reduce the disparity of wealth between the lowest and highest income brackets
Budget deficit
the amount by which government spending exceeds government revenue in a fiscal year
Mandatory spending
Federal spending that is made up of "uncontrollables"
Uncontrollables
Budgetary items that are beyond the control of budgetary committees and can be controlled only by substantive legislative action in Congress. Some uncontrollables, such as the interest on the debt, are beyond the power of Congress because the terms of payments are set in contracts
Discretionary spending
Federal spending on programs that are controlled through the regular budget process
unreasonable search and seizure
obtaining evidence in a haphazard or random manner, a practice prohibited by the 4th Amendment. Both proable cause and a search warrant are required for a legal and proper search for and seizure of incriminating evidence
civil liberties
the legal constitutional protections against government
commericial speech
communication in the form of advertising. It can be restricted more than many other types of speech but has been receiving increased protection from the Supreme Court
cruel and unusual punishment
Court sentences prohibited by the 8th Amendment.
establishment clause
Part of the 1st Amendment stating that "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion."
exclusionary rule
the rule that evidence, no matter how incriminating, cannot be introduced into a trial if it was not constiutionally obtained. The rule prohibits use of evidence obtained through unreasonable search and seizure.
self-incrimination
the situation occurring when an individual accused of a crime is compelled to be a witness against himself or herself in court. The 5th Amendment forbids self-incrimination.
symbolic speech
nonverbal communication, such as burning a flag or wearing an armband. The SC has accorded some symbolic speech protection under the 1st Amendment.
free exercise clause
a 1st Amendment provision that prohibits government from interfering with the practice of religion
incorporation doctrine
the legal concept under which the Supreme Court has nationalized the Bill of Rights by making most of its provisions applicable to the states through the 14th Amendment.
libel
the publication of false or malicious statement that damage someon's reputation
plea bargain
a bargain struch between the defendant's lawyer and the prosecutor to the effecdt that the defendant will plead guilty to a lesser crime(or fewer crime) in exchange for the state's promise not to prosecute the defendant for a more serious(or additional) crime
prior restraint
a government's preventing material from being published. this is a common method of limiting the press in some nations, but it is usually unconstitutional in the US, according to the 1st Amendment and as confirmed in the 1931 SC case of Near v. MN
probable cause
the situation occurring when the police have reason to believe that a person should be arrested. In making the arrest, police are allowed legally to search and seize incriminating evidence.
right to privacy
the right to a private personal life free from the intrusion of government. The right to privacy is implicitly protected by the Bill of Rights
search warrant
a written authorization from a court specifying the area to be searched and what the police are searching for
Affirmative Action
a policy designed to give special attention to or compensatory treatment for members of some previously disadvantaged group
American with Disabilities Act of 1990
a law passed in 1990 that requires employers and public facilities to make "reasonable accommondations" for people with disabilites andprohibits discrimination against these individuals in employment
Civil rights
policies designed to protect people against arbitrary or discriminitory treatment by government officials or individuals
Civil Rights Act of 1964
the law that made racial discrimination against any group in hotels, motels, and restaurants illegal and forbade many forms of job discrimination
Comparable worth
the issue raised when women are paid less than men for working at jobs requiring comparable skill
Equal protection of the laws
Part of the 14th Amendment emphasizing that the laws must provide equivalent "protection" to all people. As one member of Congress said during debate on the amendment, it should provide "equal protection of life, liberty, and property" to all a state's citizens
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
A constitutional amendment originally introduced in 1923 and passed by Congress in 1972 and sent to the state legislatures for ratification, stating taht "equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the US or by any state on account of sex." Despite substantial public support and an extended dealine, the amendment failed to acquire the necessary support from 3/4 of the state legislatures.
15th Amendment
the constitutional amendment adopted in 1870 to extend suffrage to African Americans
14th Amendment
the constitutional amendment adopted after the civil war that states, "no state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the US: nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws"
19th Amendment
the constitutional amendment adopted in 1920 that guarantees woment the right to vote
Poll taxes
small taxes, levied on the right to vote, that often fell due at a time of year when poor African American sharecroppers had the least cash on hand. This method was used by most Southern states to exclude African Americans from voting registers
suffrage
the legal right to vote
13th Amendment
the constitutional amendment passed after the Civil War that forbade slavery and involuntary servitude
24th Amendment
Poll taxes declared void
Voting Rights Act of 1965
a law designed to help end formal and informal barriers to African-America suffrage. Under the law, federal registrars were sent to Southern states and counties that had long histories of discrimination; as a result, hundreds of thousands of African Americans were registered and the number of African-American elected officials increased dramatically
White Primary
one of the means used to discourage African-Americans voting that permitted political parties in the heavily Democratic South to exclude African Americans from primary elections, thus depriving them of a voice in the real contests.
Grandfather clauses
1 of the methods used by Southern staters to deny african amerians the right to vote. In order to exempt illiterate whites from taking a literacy test before voting, the cluase exempted people whose grandfathers were eligible to vote in 1860, thereby disenfranchising the grandchildren of slaves.
Korematsu v. United States
a 1944 SC decision that upheld as constitutional the internment of more than 100,000 Americans of Japanese descent in encampments during WWII
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
a 1978 SC decision holding that a state university could not admit less qualified individuals solely because of their race. The court did not, however, rule that such affirmative action policies and the use of race as a criterion for admission were unconstitutional, only that they had to be formulated differently
Scott v. Sanford
the 1857 SC decision ruling that a slave who had escaped to a free state enjoyed no rights as a citizen and that Congress had no authority to ban slavery in the territories
Formal Policy
Rules that are officially supposed to be followed
Informal Policy
In practice, not all policies are followed (ex. speed limits)
Procedural Policy
How you go about doing stuff (what binds government operations)
Substantive Policy
The actual body of laws (very clear: what is legal and what isn't)
Distributive Policy
Provide more choices and benefits (medicare, public schools etc)
Regulatory Policy
Restricts behavior and options for the benefit of the public (ex safety regulations)
Self-Regulatory Policy
Groups regulate themselves with government authorization (ex lawyers regulate bar association)
Redistributive Policy
One person gets something at the cost of another (moving wealth/power from one group to another)
Material
Alters what you do or do not get from government (health care, taxes)
Symbolic
Little legal or resource allocation impact (abortion, flag burning etc)
Traditional Conservative
Protect status quo
Cultural Conservative
Promote historic family structure and religious values
Fiscal Conservative
Cut public taxes and spending, balance budgets
Business Conservative
Anti-regulation, pro free trade (support business with subsidies)
Labor Conservative
Anti-union, pro lower wages
National Security Conservative (Post-9/11)
Pro war, anti suspect rights
Libertarian Conservative
Minimize government in all aspects
Welfare Liberal
Government can create positive freedom (gives people opportunities they otherwise wouldn't have)
Fiscal Liberal
Government spending is positive, even with deficits (government is countervailing power to the private economy)
Cultural Liberal
Government should not determine private choices unless it negatively affects others
Pragmatism
Use whatever tools are at hand to solve public problems (some problems demand action i.e. bank bailouts)
Laws (Basic Tools of Public Policy)
Formal requirements of behavior enforced by sanctions
Services (Basic Tools of Public Policy)
Altering expectation and choices by providing direct support of opportunities (ex headstart, h1n1 vaccine)
Money (Basic Tools of Public Policy)
Provide economic incentives (spending=grants/subsidies taking=tax [dis]incentives)
Suasion (Basic Tools of Public Policy)
Promoting voluntary behavioral modification (ex anti-smoking campaigns)
Monetary Policy (Economic Tools of PubPol)
Control the overall money supply (by federal reserves/interest rate manipulation)
Fiscal Policy (Economic Tools of PubPol)
Deficit spending stimulates economy, balanced budgets don't
Guarantees and Insurance (Economic Tools of PubPol)
FDIC
Incrementalism
Continuous small changes
Dual Federalism
Division of responsibilities (states do this, feds do that, little crossover)
Cooperative Federalism
Federal government takes over when states fail
Centralized Federalism
Federal government becomes center of policy making
New Federalism
Shift of power back to states
Mandates
Requirements placed on states when they accept federal funds
Revenue Sharing Grant
No strings attached (non-existent these days)
Categorical Grant
Money must be used in a specific manner (or on specific programs)
Block Grant
Money is dedicated to a general policy area (categorical grants are grouped together)
Imperial Presidency
Power infusion into the office because of an event (9/11, Great Depression)
Honeymoon
Early days of office generally lack criticism from opponents
Learning Curve
New president takes time to learn how to use the office
Unilateralism
Each side tries to get their own things done without cooperating
Leadership Dominance
Leaders dominate party (esp Republicans)
bipartianship
support from parties for a policy
budget deficit
results when federal expenditures exceed federal revenues for a one year period
deficit spending
the federal government's practice of spending more money than it takes in
deregulation
elimination of federal regulations on private companies
entitlements
federal benefit payments to which recipients have a legal right
uncontrollables
entitlements
fiscal policy
taxing and spending policies
means testing
requiring those who receive federal benefits show a need for them
monetary policy
Federal Reserve Board's regulation of the supply of money circulation
National Debt
total debt owned by the federal government due to past borrowing
public debt
national debt
subsidy
federal financial aid to individuals like welfare.
*benefit
A satisfaction that people believe they will enjoy if a policy is adopted.
*client politics
A policy in which one small group benefits and almost everybody pays.
*cost
A burden that people believe they must bear if a policy is enacted.
*entrepreneurial politics
A policy in which almost everybody benefits and a small group pays the cost.
*interest-group politics
A policy in which one small group benefits and another small group pays.
*logrolling
A legislator supports a proposal favored by another in return for support of his or her proposal.
*majoritarian politics
A policy in which almost everybody benefits and almost everybody pays.
*policy entrepreneurs
Activists in or out of government who pull together a political majority on behalf of unorganized interests.
*political agenda
Issues that people believe require governmental action.
*pork barrel legislation
Legislation that give tangible benefits to constituents in several districts or states in the hope of winning their votes in return.
*process regulation
Rules governing commercial actions designed to improve consumer, worker, or environmental conditions. Also called social regulation.