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microorganisms or their products

All infectious diseases are caused by_____ ______.

pathoginic flora

________ _____ is not terminology used for resident flora

the patient's own normal flora

Endogenous infectious agents arise from microbes that are

during, and immediately after birth

The human body typically begins to be colonized by its normal flora

skin, mouth, nasal passages, and large intestines

Resident flora are found in/on the


Resident flora of the intestines include


Which genus is resident flora of the mouth, large intestine, and from puberty to menopause the vagina?


Which genus is the most common resident flora of mouth surfaces?

large intestine

The body site with resident flora that produces beneficial body products, including vitamin K and several other vitamins is the

infections of the fetus and neonate

STOCH is an acronym that represents the most common


Microbial hyaluronidase, coagulase, and steptokinase are examples of

virulence factors, toxins that target the intestines, proteins, and exotoxins

Entertoxins are:

incubation period

The time from when the pathogen first enters the body and begins to multiply, until symptoms first appear is the _____ ______.


the objective, measurable evidence of disease evaluated by an observer is termed ____.


The primary, natural habitat of a pathogen where it continues to exist is called the _____.


Someone who inconspicuously harbors a pathogen and spreads it to others is a _______.


An animal, such as an arthropod, that transmits a pathogen from one host to another is a ______.

humans, animals soil, and water

Reservoirs include:


A laboratory technologist splashed a blood specimen onto his face, eyes, nose, and mouth. This specimen was from an HIV positive patient. If this blood exposure leads to HIV infection in the technologist, the transmission route is _____.

medical personnel

Nonsocomial infections are only transmitted by _____ _____.


This is a mixture of amines and gases that gives feces it's characteristic stench

forest ranger

A person with this occupation is most at risk for a zoonotic disease.

urinary tract

Marion is going to the hospital for a triple bypass operation. She will have greater anesthesia, intravenous catheter, surgical wounds, and a urinary catheter. Which nosocomial infection is she at greater risk for contacting?

phagocytic white blood cells

Components of the first line of defense include-

lysozyme, lactic acid and electrolytes of sweat, skin's acidic pH and fatty acids, and stomach hydrochloric acid

Nonspecific chemical defenses include:


The chemical found in tears and saliva that hydrolyzes the peptidoglycan in certain bacterial cell walls is ______.


This body region is protected by fatty acids, acidic pH, lactic acid, and a tough cell barrier with its own normal flora


This is an example of GALT


The blood cells that particularly target parasitic worms and fungi are ______.


The clearance of pus, cellular debris, dead neutrophils, and damaged tissue after inflammation is performed by ______.


The most numerous WBC's, that have multilobed nuclei and are very phagocytic are ______.


The production of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets is called _______.


Plasma cells produce and secrete ______.

reticuloendothelial system

The _________ system is a support network of CT fibers, that originates in the cellular basal lamina. It provides a passageway within and between tissues and organs. It is also heavily populated with macrophages.


Which gland shrinks in size during adulthood, and has hormones that function in maturation of T-lymphocytes?


The lymphoid tissues of the intestinal tract are collectively refferred to as ______.

interferon alpha and beta

This inhibits viral replication

vasoactive mediators

Histamine, serotonin, and bradykinin are all _____ ______.

membrane attack

The ____ _____ stage of the complement cascade involes a ring-shaped protein digests holes in bacterial cell membranes and virus envelopes.


Joe cut his finger on a sharp twig and is now experiencing dolor. This means ____.


Maria was scratched on her arm by her cat and the site is experiencing rubor. This means _____.

neutrophils and macrophages

The key pathocytic cells of the body are the ____ _____.


Joan's inflamed and painful joints are likely due to the chemical ______.


This composition is made mostly of water and is similar to plasma. It transports numerous white blood cells in vessels simmilar to blood vessels.

virulence factors

The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its _____ _____. That is, virulence is the degree of pathogenicity of an organism: the relative ability of a pathogen to cause disease.

incubation period

the period between infection and the appearance of symptoms of the disease

bone marrow

B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes mature in _____.


These are molecules shared by many microorganisms but not present in mammals.

inflamation and phagocytosis

Certain complement components stimulate ____ _____.


Endotoxin and exogenous can be classified as a _____; which is a trigger of the fever.


stimulate T cell mitosis and B cell antibody production


causes smooth muscle contraction

tumor necrosis factor

increases chemotaxis and phagocytosis

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