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Arts and Humanities
AP Lang Rhetoric Nomenclature
Terms in this set (43)
A type of sentence in which the main idea (independent clause) comes first, followed by dependent grammatical units such as phrases and clauses. If a period were placed at the end of the independent clause, the clause would be a complete sentence.
The opposite of loose sentence, a sentence that presents its central meaning in a main clause at the end. This independent clause is preceded by a phrase or clause that cannot stand alone. The effect of a periodic sentence is to add emphasis and structural variety. It is also a much stronger sentence than the loose sentence a sentence that builds toward and ends with the main clause.
Similarity of structure in a pair of series of related words, phrases, or clauses.
The juxtaposition of contrasting ideas, often in parallel structure.
Repetition of words, in successive clauses, in reverse grammatical order.
A sentence in which the verb precedes the subject.
Repetition of the same word or group of words at the beginning of successive clauses.
Repetition of the same word or group of words at the ends of successive clauses.
Repetition of the last word of one clause at the beginning of the following clause.
Leaving out conjunctions between words, phrases, clauses.
The use of a conjunction between each word, phrase, or clause.
Asking a question, not for the purpose of eliciting an answer but for the purpose of asserting or denying something obliquely; used for effect, emphasis, or provocation, etc...
Raises one or more questions and then proceeds to answer them, usually at some length. (A common usage is to ask the question at the beginning of a paragraph and then uses a paragraph to answer it.)
Chaismus ('the criss-cross')
Reversal of grammatical structures in successive phrases or clauses.
Includes several similar rhetorical devices, all involving a grammatically correct linkage of two or more parts of speech by another part of speech. (Examples of ___ usage include one subject with two or more verbs, a verb with two or more direct objects, two or more subjects with one verb, etc..)
Repetition of words derived from the same root.
An explicit reference to a particular meaning or to the various meanings of a word, in order to remove or prevent ambiguity.
A word or phrase that links different ideas. Used especially, although not exclusively, in expository and argumentative writing, ___ effectively signal a shift from one idea to another. A few commonly used ___ words or phrases are furthermore, consequently, nevertheless, for example, in addition, likewise, similarly, on the contrary, etc. More sophisticated writers use more subtle means of ___ (conceptual links, word chains, etc...).
Repetition of initial or medial consonants in two or adjacent words.
The repetition of similar vowel sounds, preceded and followed by different consonants, in the stressed syllables of adjacent words.
A short, astute statement of a general truth (If the authorship is unknown, the statement is generally considered to be a folk proverb.) An ___ can be a memorable summation of the author's point.
The use of slang or informalities in speech or writing. Not generally acceptable for formal writing, ___ give a work a conversational, familiar tone. ___ expressions in writing include local or regional dialects.
A use of words peculiar to a given language; a manner of speaking that is natural or native speakers of a language.
From the Greek for "good speech," ___ are a more agreeable or less offensive substitute for a generally unpleasant word or concept. The ___ may be used to adhere to standards of social or political correctness or to add humor or ironic understatement. Saying "earthly remains" rather than "corpse" is an example of ___.
From the Greek, ___ literally means "teaching." ___ words have the primary aim of teaching or instructing,especially the teaching of moral or ethical principles.
An adjective that describes words, phrases, or general tone that is overly scholarly, academic, or bookish (language that might be described as "show-offy"; using big words for the sake of using big words).
Deliberately expresses an idea as less important than it actually is, either for ironic emphasis or for politeness and tact.
Deliberate use of understatement, generated by denying the opposite or contrary of the word which otherwise would be used.
Language deliberately designed to arouse the emotions.
An abusive verbal attack.
The multiple meanings, either intentional or unintentional, of a word, phrase, sentence, or passage.
The device of using character and/or story elements symbolically to represent an abstraction in addition to the literal meaning. In some ___, for example, an author may intend the characters to personify an abstraction like hope or freedom. The ___ meaning usually deals with moral truth or generalization about human existence.
A direct or indirect reference to something which is presumably commonly known, such as an event, book, myth, place, or work of art. ___ can be historical, literary, religious, topical, or mythical. There are many more possibilities, and a work may simultaneously use multiple layers of ___.
A similarity or comparison between two different things or the relationship between them. An ___ can explain something unfamiliar by associating it with or pointing out its similarity to something more familiar. ___ can also make writing more vivid, imaginative, or intellectually engaging.
A figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or a personified abstraction, such as liberty or love. It is an address to someone or something that cannot answer. The effect may add familiarity or emotional intensity.
Artful diction; the use of language in a non-literal way; also called a figure of speech.
A term from the Greek meaning "changed label" or "substitute name," ___ a figure of speech in which the name of one object is substituted for that of another closely associated with it.
Generally, anything that represents itself and stands for something else. Usually a ___ is something concrete--such as an object, action, character, or scene--that represents something more abstract. However, ___ and ___ can be much more complex.
Objects and occurrences from nature to ___ ideas commonly associated with them (dawn symbolizing hope or a new beginning, a rose ___ love, a tree ___ knowledge).
Those that have been invested with meaning by a group (religious __ such a cross or Star of David; national ___, such as a flag or an eagle; or group ___, such as a skull and crossbones or pirates or the scale of justice for lawyers).
Sometimes also conventional in the sense that they are found in a variety of works and are more generally recognized. However, a work's ___ may be more complicated, as is the jungle in "Heart of Darkness".
A figure of speech in which a part of something is used to represent the whole or, occasionally, the whole is used to represent a part.
When one kind of sensory stimulus evokes the subjective experience of another.
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