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55 terms

Chapter 11-12 quizzes

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clavulanic acid
A chemical that inhibits beta-lactamase enzymes is ____ ____; is a inhibit bacterial beta-lactamase, treat with Amoxicillin or Ticarcillin
superinfection
A results from decrease in most normal flora with overgrowth of an unaffected species; infection that occurs while you are being treated for another infection
dead
A microorganism that is not motile and has stopped metabolizing could be considered ______ .
Acyclovir
_______is used to treat shingles, chickenpox, and genital herpes;
naked viruses
Alcohols are more effective at inactivating enveloped viruses than ____ ____ .
benefits of food irradiation
It can kill bacterial pathogens, and insects on the food. It can also inhibit the sprouting of white potatoes as well as reduce the number of food-borne deaths each year.
allergic reactions
The drug acts as an antigen.
Hives may be the result after the drug is taken.
Anaphylaxis can occur.
These are all _____ ______.
iodophors
These are complexes of iodine and a neutral polymer.
this formulation allows a slow release of free iodine and increases its penetration.
it is less prone to staining or irritating tissue.
Lysol, hexachlorophene, triclosan, and cresols.
these are phenols or phenolics
fluoroquinolones
This is a broad spectrum that includes ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, thats used to treat respiratory, urinary, and sexually transmitted infections by inhibiting bacterial DNA replication.
hypochlorites
These release hypochlorous acid in solution and cause denaturation of enzymes. It is found in common household bleach and used to disinfect dairy, restaurant, and medical equipment.
detergents
A cleansing substance that acts similarly to soap but is made from chemical compounds rather than fats and lye
Aminoglycosides
Which drugs bind to the 30S ribosomal subunit and interfere with the initiation complex, causing a misreading of mRNA?
blocks DNA replication
An antiviral that is a guanine analog would have an antiviral mode of action that ____ _____.
Aniline dyes
are very active against gram-positive species of bacteria and various fungi, used for antisepsis and wound treatment
Penicillium, Bacillus, Streptomyces, Cephalosporium.
These are all derived from antibiotics
broad-spectrum drugs
Antimicrobics effective against a wide variety of microbial types are termed ____ _____.
narrow-spectrum drugs
Antimicrobics effective against only gram positive bacteria would be termed ____ ____.
HIV
Antivirals that target reverse transcriptase would be used to treat ___.
Chlorine dioxide
a gas used to sterilize objects or instruments
Ciprofloxacin
an oral antibiotic (trade name Cipro) used against serious bacterial infections of the skin or respiratory tract or urinary tract or bones or joints
Drug susceptibility testing
determines the pathogen's response to various antimicrobics.
hepatotoxic
toxic to the liver
Dry heat
This is less efficient than moist heat
Ethylene oxide
gas used to sterilize heat sensitive ingredients
Filtration
an effective method to remove microbes from air and liquids
HEPA filters
are used to remove microbes from air.
antimicrobic drugs
These important characteristics readily delivered to the site of infection, high toxicity against microbial cells, do not cause serious side effects in humans, and remains active in body tissues and fluids, refer to_____.
Betadine
(an iodophor used in bacterial control) damages granulation tissue only use on intact skin.
refrigeration
decreases chemical reactions/ bacteriostatic, food, drug and culture preservation
ultraviolet radiation, boiling wate, HEPA filters, and pasteurization.
Physical agents for controlling microbial growth include:
transformation, transduction, and conjugation
Resistance factor plasmids are transferred to other bacterial cells during
degermation
Scrubbing or immersing the skin in chemicals to reduce the numbers of microbes on the skin
Sterilization
the procedure of making some object free of live bacteria or other microorganisms (usually by heat or chemical means)
antibiotics
Substances that are naturally produced by certain microorganisms that can inhibit or destroy other microorganisms are called ______.
Sulfonamides
metabolic analogs of PABA and block folic acid synthesis
MIC
Minimum Inhibitory Concentration
Chlorhexidine
The compound that is an organic base containing chlorine and two phenolic rings, and is used increasingly for handscrubbing, neonatal washes, wound degerming, and prepping surgical skin sites is _______.
metronidazole
The drug used for several protozoan infections is ______.
amphotericin B
The most versatile and useful antifungal drug that is used to treat serious systemic fungal infections is ______.
disinfectants
agents that destroy pathogens other than spores
flora
all the plant life in a particular region
aminoglycosides
This drug is used to treat cases of tuberculosis
trimethroprim
Which antimicrobic does not interfere with protein synthesis?
Tetraclycline
Which antimicrobial is contraindicated for children due to permanent tooth discoloration?
hydrogen peroxide
Which chemical is a disinfectant for soft contact lenses?
AZT
it directly binds to reverse transcriptase and prevents reverse transcription of HIV RNA, The drug ________seems to slow down the AID's infection by inserting itself into a growing DNA chain of HIV and terminating synthesis.
antivirals
inhibit viral DNA or RNA replication in the virus, treat viruses
glutaraldehyde
officially accepted as a sterilant and high-level disinfectant.
fungal spores
These microbial forms have the highest resistance to physical and chemical controls
Alcohol
This type of agent targets protein conformation
protein conformation
The structure of a protein
bactericide
any drug that destroys bacteria or inhibits their growth
Liver
Which organ is responsible for metabolizing and detoxifying foreign chemicals in the blood, including drugs?
Ultraviolet Light
denatures proteins; damages DNA, perm destroys important molecules; treat sewage, make raisins (sun)