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Psychology 206 chapter 2 and 3
Terms in this set (64)
a branch of psychology that studies the links between biological (including neuroscience and behavior genetics) and psychological processes
how the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences
a specialized cell transmitting nerve impulses; a nerve cell.
neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord
a neuron that sends an impulse to a muscle or gland, causing the muscle or gland to react
Largest part of a typical neuron; contains the nucleus and much of the cytoplasm
a neuron's bushy, branching extensions that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands
cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons
A layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next.
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
the minimum level of stimulation required to activate a particular neuron
A junction where information is transmitted from one neuron to the next.
chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons
A neurotransmitter associated with voluntary movement, sleep and wakefulness.
A neurotransmitter associated with movement, attention and learning and the brain's pleasure and reward system.
A neurotransmitter that affects hunger,sleep, arousal, and mood.
A neurotransmitter involved in arousal, as well as in learning and mood regulation
the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems
Central nervous system
consists of the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body
Somatic nervous system
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles
Autonomic nervous system
A subdivision of the peripheral nervous system. Controls involuntary activity of visceral muscles and internal organs and glands.
Sympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
Parasympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues
The endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress.
the brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience
A large structure of the hindbrain that controls fine motor skills. balance and coordination
the two sections of the cortex on the left and right sides of the brain
the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them
a neural center located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage
the brain's sensory control center, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
a neural structure lying below the thalamus; directs eating, drinking, body temperature; helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion
A limbic system structure involved in memory and emotion, particularly fear and aggression.
a surgical procedure that involves cutting the corpus callosum
the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment
the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events
specialized cells that detect stimulus information and transmit it to sensory (afferent) nerves and the brain
the minimum intensity of stimulation that must occur before you experience a sensation
The minimum amount of difference that can be detected between two stimuli
tendency of sensory receptor cells to become less responsive to a stimulus that is unchanging
the processing of information by sensory systems without conscious awareness
retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. The cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.
retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond
the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain
a variety of disorders marked by inability to distinguish some or all colors
A unit used to compare the loudness of different sounds.
sense of smell
sense of taste
sense of the location of body parts in relation to the ground and each other
the analysis of the smaller features to build up to a complete perception
the use of preexisting knowledge to organize individual features into a unified whole
a psychological approach that emphasizes that we often perceive the whole rather than the sum of the parts
the scientific investigation of claims of paranormal phenomena and abilities
the organization of the visual field into objects (the figures) that stand out from their surroundings (the ground).
the ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two-dimensional; allows us to judge distance
perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent lightness, color, shape, and size) even as illumination and retinal images change
illusion of line length that is distorted by inward-turning or outward-turning corners on the ends of the lines, causing lines of equal length to appear to be different
a predisposition or readiness to perceive something in a particular way
The process of learning to control bodily states by monitoring the states to be controlled
the practice of inserting fine needles through the skin at specific points to cure disease or relieve pain
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