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Terms in this set (29)
prominent physical bodily symptoms associated with significant impairment or distress (they do not have any apparent medical cause)
somatic symptom disorder (SSD)
what are some disorders related to somatic symptom disorder?
- Illness anxiety disorder
- conversion disorder (functional neurological symptom disorder)
- factitious disorder
- psychophysiological disorders
DSM-5 criteria for somatic symptom disorder
at least one distressing somatic symptom and one of the following:
- persistent thoughts
- high anxiety
- excessive time devoted to symptoms
describe somatic symptom disorder (SSD)
- people with this disorder will show a pattern of reporting and reacting to pain or other distressing symptoms. This pattern occurs for
at least six months,
and involves persistent thoughts or high anxiety about the symptoms.
- the person remains convinced they have a serious disease, even when tests rule out illness.
describe the course of somatic symptom disorder
tends to be chronic and co-morbid with depression
what are some common SSD symptoms?
DSM-5 criteria for illness anxiety disorder
- preoccupation with health and excessive worry about serious illness
- no somatic symptoms or very mild symptoms
- excessive health anxiety
- repeatedly checks for signs of illness or avoids medical contact for fear that illness will be confirmed
- this pattern must be present for at least six months
describe the course of illness anxiety disorder
- begins in adulthood
- considered chronic
DSM-5 criteria for conversion disorder
- motor, sensory, or seizure-like symptoms
- symptoms incompatible with any recognized medical disorder
- individuals are not consciously faking symptoms (they believe the problem is genuine)
describe the course of conversion disorder
- substantial minority stay the same or get worse
- prognosis better for children
DSM-5 criteria for factitious disorder
- symptoms of physical or mental illness are deliberately induced or simulated in oneself or others with no apparent incentive
- presents self or others as ill or injured
- absence of external rewards for illness
what is the difference between factitious disorder and malingering?
people with factitious disorder have no motive to induce or fake symptoms. Malingering is when people fake a disorder to achieve some identifiable goal, such as an insurance settlement
describe the course of factitious disorder
varies from single episode to persistent or chronic
describe somatic symptoms from the psychodynamic perspective
in psychodynamic theory, somatic symptoms serve the purpose of defending against the awareness of unconscious emotional issues. This view suggests that two mechanisms produce and then sustain somatic sxs. The first provides a
for the person by protecting them from the anxiety associated with unacceptable desires or conflicts; the need for protection gives rise to the physical symptoms. This focus on the body keeps the person from becoming aware of the underlying conflict. Then a
accrues when the person's dependency needs are fulfilled through attention and sympathy.
list some dissociative disorders
- dissociative amnesia
- depersonalization/ derealization disorder
- dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality disorder)
list DSM-5 criteria for dissociative amnesia
sudden inability to recall information of specific events or on one's identity or life history - results from stress or a traumatic event
describe the course of dissociative amnesia
acute forms may remit spontaneously, although may become chronic
list and describe the different types of dissociative amnesia
- inability to recall a specific event or events. Often begins and ends very abruptly.
- involves the loss of memory for certain categories of information (eg. memories of family of of a particular person)
- inability to remember certain details of an incident
a man remembered being in an automobile accident, but does not recall that his child had died in the crash. This is an example of ____
an 18 year old woman who survived a dramatic fire claimed not to remember it or the death of her family in the fire. She claimed her relatives were lying about the fire. She became agitated and emotional several hours later when her memory returned. This is an example of ____
shortly after the sudden death of her only daughter, an elderly woman appeared to have no recall of having had a daughter, but other memories were unaffected. This is an example of ___
in some cases of localized amnesia, the amnesia comes to light only after the individual begins to recall details of a traumatic event - a ____ memory.
describe dissociative fugue
confusion over personal identity, characterized by complete loss of memory of ones entire life, unexpected travel to a new location, or partial/complete assumption of new identity.
_____ is the most common dissociative disorder
describe depersonalization/derealization disorder
characterized by feelings of unreality or being detached from oneself and the environment. During an episode, the person remains in contact with reality. Symptoms cause significant impairment or distress.
describe dissociative identity disorder
formerly known as multiple personality disorder, this is a disruption of identity as evidenced by two or more distinct personality states
explain biological explanations for dissociative disorders
biological explanations focus on disruptions in memory encoding due to acute stress and the inability to retrieve autobiographical information because of the release of hormones such as glucocorticoid. Permanent structural changes in the brain due to trauma may also play a role.
how do sociocognitive theorists explain dissociative identity disorder?
that individuals learn about DID through mass media and begin to act out its roles
what is a latrogenic disorder?
a condition unintentionally produced by a therapist through mechanisms placed on the client
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