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ocng 251 exam 1 (ch 2,4,5)
Terms in this set (110)
Water molecules are
,the oxygen molecules have a ________ charge and the hydrogen has a _________charge.
The attraction of water molecules is called...
In a water molecule, from one oxygen to the other oxygen, what is the degree?
The surface tension of water is high or low?
Hydrogen bonds are stronger or weaker than covalent bonds?
The heat required to raise 1g of any substance 1 degree celsius is called...
The ocean can take in or put out high or low temps without changing its own temperature, this is because the ocean has a...
high heat capacity
The water molecule has the ability to dissolve chemical compounds, but what common compound specifically?
What is the only known substance able to be solid liquid and gas simultaneously?
What is the word meaning the energy required to change water from a solid to a liquid to a gas?
The ocean heat capacity is how many times
air heat capacity?
The most important
of climate is...
The two things water density depends on are...
temperature and salinity
The energy needed to raise 1 g of water, 1 degree c is called a...
The measurement of average kinetic energy is called...
Higher temperature of water means higher/lower density?
Less heat in water results in a high or low density
If you are close to the equator, the temperature will be higher, so the salinity will be...
can be described
by the question: "How salty is the _____?"
What does PPT mean?
parts per thousand
How salty is water in PPT?
Open ocean salinity varies from ___-___ppt.
Coastal salinity varies bc of influx of ..., greater ..., and ... changes.
freshwater, evaporation, seasonal
Processes that affect salinity happen mostly in deep ocean basins. T/F
Temperature of maximum density of water is ___ degrees Celsius
Adding freshwater does what to salinity
removing water does what to salinity
rain, runoff, melting ice bergs and melting sea ice all do what to salinity
and evaporation both ________ salinity
Why does forming sea ice increase salinity?
water leaves, salt stays
melting ice lowers salinity because the amount of what increases
in _______ latitudes, the salinity is low. Except where _____ forms.
mid lats on each side of equator have ______ salinity
low lats near the equator have what kind of salinity bc of runoff and high precipitation.
earth salinity has been ________
ph is affected in the carbonate buffering system and the process is called
co2 in the atmosphere has been increasing and is absorbed by what
co2 in the atmosphere and ocean acidification are
by the ocean turns into what compound?
carbonic acid in the ocean affects the overall what
the study of earths past climate and history thru marine sediments is called
Phytoplankton stay in a current because of inability to swim and their shells absorb h20 to stay afloat. When they die what happens to their shells?
Oxygen isotopes, 018 and 016 can detect past climate signals. 016 evaporates faster and easier. The
of past climate can also be called
ocean drilling program is owned by who
the relationship between co2 in the atmosphere and temperature has a _______ correlation
Higher temperatures cause more evaporation of what into the atmosphere?
in the past 100 yrs earth has been stable and warm, only warmed ___ degrees c
lithogenous sediments in neurotic environments are typically _______ grained.
coarse grained sediments usually are in ______ temperatures and hold ______ energy
from the neuretic area of the continental shelf into deep sea pelagic environments is done by ________ currents
lithogenouys sediments in pelagic envormints have _____ gained sediments and have _____ energy
most lithogenous sediments are found in neurotic/pelagic ocean
coastal, warm oceans
deep sea, cool oceans
lithogenous sediments can move thru what four ways
wind, erosion, river deposits and glaciers
Biogenous sediments have two categories, what are they?
Siliceous and Calcerous
calcareous ooze can be found of the sides of what
mid ocean ridges
cancerous tests can be found in warm, deep/shallow (choose deep or shallow) seas.
silicious ooze is found below or above the ccd
______________ pushes silicious ooze into cold, nutrient rich waters at the surface.
Siliceous and Calcerous ooze (biogenous sediments) are typically in
neurotic or pelagic
the water, distributed diversely, which sediment does this describe?
Maganese nodules exist
the ____ and are ____________ sediment.
evaporites happen is shallow/deep, restricted/unrestricted places like lagoons.
micro/macrodebirs from space and tektites of space dust are what
What substance found all over earths surface supports the theory of extinction of dinosaurs?
Where was mass amounts of iridium found originally?
iridium is found in
what coral reef develops even after volcano fully submerges
what coral reef is connected to landmass
Continental crust is made of what?
hotspots and mantle plumes are
Plates that move away from each other are called _________ plates and an example is the _____ _________ ____ ________.
divergent, East African Rift Valley
What is the most studied plate boundary? Which specific area is complicated?
mid Atlantic ridge, the carribean
ocean ocean convergence is when the _____ is subjected and forms a volcanic island arcs. example is
_______-_______ convergence is when there is no plate subduction and tall mountains are uplifted, an example is ______.
parallel moving boundaries are called what
convergent boundaries move how
trenches arcs and earthquakes happen when what boundaries move
Earthquakes mirror plate boundaries:
t / f
cooling of the asthenosphere moves continents true/false
false, convection not cooling
Seafloor spreading has symmetrical stripes and the pattern of stripes originates at ___ _______ _________ and are called _________ anomalies.
mid ocean ridges , magnetic
earths what proves plate tectonics
changing magnetic field
Earth has magnetic polarity, the north and south polarities flip on what basis and at what speed does it occur?
1960s deep sea drilling observed the oldest crusts were only ______ million yrs old
is contintental drift or plate tectonics more accurate
magnetic polarity or seafloor spreading is recorded in
An example of sea floor spreading, is maganate found in basalt is also found on what high landform?
What was name of super-continent proposed by Alfred Wegener in 1912?
the study of earths ancient magnetic field that proves plate tectonics is called
Continental drift is good theory:
t / f
puzzle like fit of continents proves continental drift true or false
matching rock and mt chains, fit of the continents, continents connection at Anarctica, glacial patterns, organism fossils indicate climate and different ancestries, and lastly earthquakes all are evidence plate tectonics theory. true or false
false, those are evidence of continental drift
objections to cont drift model said that its impossible for _______ to move thoughout _______.
oceanic crust is more or less dense than continental curst
basalt is in what kind of crust
continental crust is made of what
which crust is less dense
Which crust is youngest and what is its age?
oceanic crust, 200m yrs
What crust is 4 billion years old
sea level affects surface area of what
most of ocean is at what depth
what tool shows us sea level, width/depth of ocean, surface area of land, etc.
what is depth to width ratio of ocean
what is depth of ocean
4ooom or 4km
What is width of the ocean basin?
the ratio of depth to width shows us that the ocean is actually quite shallow or
70.8 percent of earth is
True north flips/changes magnetism.
t / f
The axis of rotation can also be called ____ _____.
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