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Intro to Metabolism
A space station orbiting Earth is an example of what type of energy?
"Conservation of energy" refers to the fact that _____.
energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be converted from one form to another
Chemical energy is a form of _____ energy.
In your body, what process converts the chemical energy found in glucose into the chemical energy found in ATP?
What are the by-products of cellular respiration?
heat, carbon dioxide, and water
The reaction A --> B + C + heat is released in a(n) _____ reaction.
A(n) _____ reaction occurs spontaneously.
A(n) _____ reaction requires a net input of energy from its surroundings.
In cells, what is usually the immediate source of energy for an endergonic reaction?
The reaction ADP + P --> ATP is a(n) _____ reaction.
The energy for an endergonic reaction comes from a(n) _____ reaction.
What is the fate of the phosphate group that is removed when ATP is converted to ADP?
It is acquired by a reactant in an endergonic reaction.
What is energy coupling?
the use of energy released from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction
What type of reaction breaks the bonds that join the phosphate groups in an ATP molecule?
Which part of the adenosine triphosphate molecule is released when it is hydrolyzed to provide energy for biological reactions?
the 3rd phosphate
Enzymes are _____.
Enzymes work by _____.
reducing the energy of activation
An enzyme is _____.
an organic catalyst
What name is given to the reactants in an enzymatically catalyzed reaction?
As a result of its involvement in a reaction, an enzyme _____.
Consider a situation in which the enzyme is operating at optimum temperature and , and has been saturated with substrate. What is your best option for increasing the rate of the reaction?
increase the enzyme concentration
An enzyme is _____ when it loses its native conformation and its biological activity.
An enzyme is considered a _____ because it speeds up chemical reactions without being used up.
An enzyme is considered _____ because of its ability to recognize the shape of a particular molecule.
A _____, such as a vitamin, binds to an enzyme and plays a role in catalysis.
When properly aligned, the enzyme and substrate form an enzyme-substrate (ES) _____.
A substrate binds to an enzyme at the _____, where the reaction occurs.
In a catalyzed reaction a reactant is often called a _____.
Catabolism is to anabolism as __________ is to __________.
f an enzyme solution is saturated with substrate, the most effective way to obtain a faster yield of products is to?
add more of the enzyme
If an enzyme is added to a solution where its substrate and product are in equilibrium, what would occur?
nothing, the solution would remain in equilibrium
Some bacteria are metabolically active in hot springs because?
their enzymes have high optimal temperatures