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Microbio: Cell structure (inner layers)
Terms in this set (34)
1)All cells are basically made up of the same things--T or F?
Microbes do not have the same basic life functions as macrobes--T or F?
FALSE: they do
1)Compartmentalization & metabolism
3,4 and 5 many but not all microbes
Microbes are small because they have to keep the correct surface to volume ratio
Do all microbes have the same shape? Why?
2)Defense from predators (phagocytes that eat cells, multicellular microbivores)
3)Attachment to surfaces
1)When would you want to use a light microscope?
2)Both light and phase microscopes are limited by what?
3)When would you want to use a phase microscope?
4)When would you want to use an electron microscope (SEM, TEM)?
5)When would you want to use X-ray crystallography?
1)to visualize the cell
2)Both limited by wavelength of light
4)find structure of a protein or structure of a ie: pili on the outside of a cell
5)cause it's not limited by wavelength, if want high resolution
Smaller prokaryotic cells usually grow more slowly than larger cells because they have trouble accessing nutrients--T or F?
FALSE: diffusion is more easy=grow faster
What are some of the cytoplasmic contents of the bacteria cell structure?
2)Gene expression machinery: RNA polymerase & ribosomes
4)Inclusions in various microbes
5)Many solutes: ions, metabolites
it is highly organized
The cytoplasm of bacteria are densely ________ and ______ structured.
Where do most enzymatic reactions occur in the cell for bacteria?
The nucleoid is highly organized and compacted, how does it do so?
1)is the DNA stored here?
2)Is it contained in a membrane?
DNA binding proteins that organize DNA & supercoiling
2)Not contained within a membrane, but some bacteria do have a membrane-bound nucleoid ie: Planctomycetes
Ribosomes are ___% RNA, and __% protein? How many subunits? What are those subunits called?
68% RNA, and 38% protein---so more RNA than protein
2 subunits--30s & 50s
What is a set of stable yet dynamic protein filament structures that can self-assemble and disassemble and that show long range order within a cell?
What is the cytoskeleton involved in?
1)shape (cocci different than rods)
What are 2 cytoskeleton proteins and what are their characterisitcs?
-sim structure to actin (microfilaments)
-involved in cell shape, polarity, movement of
molecules, cell wall synthesis
-found in many rod-shaped bacteria
-similar to tubulin (microtubules)
-important for cell division (Z ring)
-found in most Bacteria
What is affected if the FtsZ protein is not working properly?
The cell would fail to divide and make long filaments
Microbiol cytoskeletal proteins are involved in:
1)What are inclusions?
2)What are some of their functions?
1)Things that aren't the nucleoid, cytoskeleton... etc.
2)nutrient storage, compartmentalization (carboxysomes), and movement and orientation (gas vesicles & magnetosomes)
Carobxysomes are an example of what?
Example of an inclusion, whose function is to compartmentalize and accumulate enzymes needed for CO2 fixation
The membrane is a hydrophobic structure--T or F?
1)What are membranes mostly made up of? What is the ratio?
2)How do they move?
3)What does the mosiac model mean?
1)Phospholipids & proteins--(70% lipids, 30% proteins)
2)Lateral motility=fluid---phospholipids rarely flip to other side of bilayer
3)Mosiac model means proteins are embadded in membrane
What is the purpose of a hopanoid?
1)Lipid bilayer with no unsaturated fatty acids=?
2)Membrane fluidity is affected by what 2 things?
1)lower permeability, less fluid
2)Temperature (increase= more permeable) & # of saturated FA
The cell membrane is a _________barrier.
-gas not stopped by membrane
ABC transporters and Groups translocation are active or passive transport?
active, need energy
Symport and antiport use what?
simple and facilitated diffusion are passive or active transport?
Describe how ABC transport works.
What provides the energy for transport?
-ATP-binding cassette (ABC) systems
-solute binding protein, transport channel, ATP binding protein
-ATP hydrolysis provides energy for transport
Describe how group translocation works.
-phosphotransferase system PTS (E. coli)
-is charged with phosphate from phosphoenolpyruvate (high energy)
-binds glucose and modifies when bring across the membrane
In bacteria, all transport systems are drive by_______.
*not energy because facilitated diffusion doesn't use energy
be able to fill out chart about the types of ways to cross the barrier
Secretion is for _______, while efflux is for ______
secretion is for proteins, while efflux is for small molecules
What are some protein secretion systems?
Type I and Type VII
Tat and Sec important for G+, a number of SS known for G-
What does an efflux pump do? Is it specific & does it need energy?
Move molecule outside of cell, non-specific and require energy
What are some functions of membranes?
2)Protein anchor--transport, structure, energy
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