28 terms

federalsim

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Devolution Revolution
The effort to slow the growth of the federal government by returning many functions to the states.
Federalism
A system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
Unitary System of Government
type of government that centralizes all the powers of government into one central authority
Confederation
A joining of several groups for a common purpose.
expressed powers (enumerated powers)
Powers the Constitution specifically granted to one of the branches of the national government. Listed explicitly in the Constitution. Ex: right to coin money, declare war, regulate foreign and interstate trade, tax, etc.
National Supremacy
Constitutional doctrine that whenever conflict occurs between the constitutionally authorized actions of the national government and those of a state or local government, the actions of the federal government will prevail.
10th Amendment
Powers Reserved to the States
Cooperative Federalism
Cooperation among federal, state, &local govts; "marble cake" federalism
Dual Federalism
A system of government in which both the states and the national government remain supreme within their own spheres, each responsible for some policies.
Preemption
A doctrine under which certain federal laws preempt, or take precedence over, conflicting state or local laws.
revenue sharing
federal sharing of a fixed percentage of its revenue with the states
implied powers
Powers not specifically mentioned in the constitution
Necessary and Proper Clause
Clause of the Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 3) setting forth the implied powers of Congress. It states that Congress, in addition to its express powers, has the right to make all laws necessary and proper to carry out all powers the Constitution vests in the national government
inherent powers
The powers of the national government in foreign affairs that the Supreme Court has declared do not depend on constitutional grants but rather grow out of the very existence of the national government.
Commerce Clause
The clause in the Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 1) that gives Congress the power to regulate all business activities that cross state lines or affect more than one state or other nations.
Federal Mandate
A requirement the federal government imposes as a condition for receiving federal funds.
intergovernmental relations
The workings of the federal system- the entire set of interactions among national, state, and local governments.
Bill of Rights
First 10 amendments to the Constitution
New Federalism
system in which the national government restores greater authority back to the states
concurrent powers
Powers held jointly by the national and state governments.
full faith and credit
A clause in Article IV of the Constitution requiring each state to recognize the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of all other states.
Extradition
A legal process whereby an alleged criminal offender is surrendered by the officials of one state to officials of the state in which the crime is alleged to have been committed.
interstate compact
An agreement among two or more states. Congress must approve most such agreements.
reserved powers
Powers given to the state government alone
Supremacy Clause
Article VI of the Constitution, which makes the Constitution, national laws, and treaties supreme over state laws when the national government is acting within its constitutional limits.
Amendments 11-27
fixes or changes in the constitution
Marshall Court
Asserted federal power over states (McCulloch v. Maryland, Gibbons v. Ogden, Cohens v Virginia); judicial branch determined the meaning of Constitution (Marbury v. Madison)
New Federalism
system in which the national government restores greater authority back to the states