66 terms

American History Chapter 8

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1902 Coal Strike
- strike for shorter hours and more pay may
- threatened to nationalize the mines
- government stepped in to help the workers instead of the business owners
Progressivism
A movement that responded to the pressures of industrialization and urbanization by promoting reforms.
Muckrakers
Newspaper reporters who began to advocate to reform by highlighting the living and working conditions of the lower classes.
Upton Sinclair's The Jungle
Highlighted the despair if the immigrants working in Chicago's stockyards and revealed the unsanitary conditions in the industry.
Social Gospel
Many reformers thought Christianity should form the basis of reform. Reform movement that sought to use Bible teachings about charity and justice to make society "the kingdom of God".
Jane Addams' settlement house
Settlement houses were set up to help poor through a community center that provided social services to the urban poor. By private individuals not government. Hull House in Chicago, the center of the movement.
Triangle Shirtwaist fire
146 workers died in the fire because of a lack of safety regulations. Workers could barely escape because managers had locked most exits. New York and other states enacted safety laws and worker's compensation legislation as a result of the fire.
Toledo Mayor Samuel "Golden Rule" Jones
Treat others and you wish to be treated, started Toledo Metro Park System, established playgrounds and free public baths, instituted 8 hour work day took away police truncheons, refused to obey blue laws (laws about decency), and reformed city government.
Direct Primary
Election in which all citizens vote to select nominees for upcoming elections.
Initiative
Process by which citizens can put a proposed new law directly on the ballot in the next election by collecting voters' signatures on a petition.
Referendum
Process that allows citizens to approve or reject a law passed by their legislature.
Recall
Procedure that permits voters to remove public officials from office before the next election.
Amendment 17
The direct election of US senators; Adopted the Populist call for the direct election of senators by voters, not state legislators, this became a law.
"Fighting Bob" La Follette of Wisconsin
Elected governor of Wisconsin, won the passage of many reform laws.
How did industrialism [industrial capitalism] and urbanization lead to the rise of Progressivism?
Created troubling social and political problems so they wanted reforms to correct these problems and injustices. Made people tons and tons of money but also made the lives of people living through it terrible.
How was Progressivism similar to the earlier Populist Movement? How was it different?
Similarities
-Wanted to get rid of corrupt government officials and make government more responsive to people's needs
- government needed more power to make changes
- more democratic
Differences
-Middle class people started Progressivism (city), farmers started the Populist (rural)
-Populists Party were racist
- rural (populist) urban and suburban (progressivism)
- populist; socialist // progressivism; capitalist
What areas did Progressives think were in need of the greatest reform?
-Corrupt government
-Change system to stop corruption but also get the people involved
-Make economics more fair
-Better working and living conditions
-Corrupt businesses
-Shrink gap between rich and poor
What problems did muckraker expose and what effects did their work have on Progressive reform?
-Working and living conditions of the working class.
-Political and economic corruption.
-Corrupt businesses.
Shined a light on all the corruption.
What specific Progressive reforms came from the Social Gospel idea?
-Ended child labor
-Shorter work days
-Pushed federal government to limit the power of corporations and trusts
-Settlement House
What new forms of municipal (city) government were introduced?
-Galveston Plan
Which groups in American society might have opposed Progressive reform? Explain.
-Big industry owners because it gives more rights to their workers; therefore, they can't take advantage of their workers.
-corrupt politicians were getting wealthy off of corruption.
Florence Kelley and the National Consumers League
- gave special labels to products that were fair and safe and made under healthy working conditions.
Temperance Movement and Amendment 18
- Promotion of the practice of never drinking alcohol.
- The Women's Christian Temperance Movement --spousal abuse,
-wasting family's income
-neglect.
Eighteenth Amendment
Banned the manufacture, distribution, and sale of alcohol. Came from the Temperance Movement.
Margaret Sanger
- Believed women were having too many children which negatively effected their health.
- Opened first birth-control clinic.
- Founded the American Birth Control League which became Planned Parenthood.
Ida B. Wells
National Association of Colored Women.
- raised money to help African American families across the country
- provided low-cost or free day care to help working mothers, education for the women too.
Suffrage
The right to vote, one of the most important issues for women in the Progressive Era.
Carrie Chapman Catt's "winning plan"
- Women were to lobby their congressmen to pass a constitutional amendment which would give women the right to vote

-Others would use the referendum process to pass suffrage laws in the states.
Alice Paul's militancy
- encouraged women to protest loudly and publicly for the vote
Nineteenth Amendment
Gave women the right to vote
Why would education have led middle-class women to address societal problems?
-introduced them to new ideas and problems
-more economic power jobs/stronger voice
-better understanding of issues
-responsibility, communication,
How did women of the Progressive Era make progress and win the right to vote?
They formed groups to stand up to people that didn't want them to vote. The argument was women knew about matters of the home more than mens, so they should be able to vote to make these decisions.
Choose one specific social problems and explain how Progressive women reformers proposed to solve that problem.
Temperance Movement
Women having to many kids-birth control
Suffrage- winning plan, militancy
Early suffragettes Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton failed to win nation voting rights for women, but where was there some early success?
-Women in the western states were allowed to vote.
-School Board elections, women were allowed to vote
-Show women that there is strength in numbers, they gave women the road map to get their
How did suffragettes' support of the war effort during WWI affect their effort to win the right to vote at the national level?
-Women could work as well as men
-Women were very outspoken about the war effort and the women showed that they understood World Politics
Booker T. Washington
Advocated a patient approach to equality. He advised African Americans to work hard and wanted them to work toward economic equality which he believed would lead to political and social equality. Founded the Tuskegee Institute to provide African Americans with access to higher education in order to learn trade skills.
W.E.B. Du Bois
Rejected Washington's view, believed that African Americans should immediately demand all the rights guaranteed to them by the Constitution.
Niagara Movement
- called a meeting in Niagara Falls to denounce the idea of gradual Progress.
- wanted blacks to be taught the same subjects as whites and to demand the vote, especially in the South.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
Founded by the Niagara Movement,
- to help African Americans to be physically, mentally, and socially free
Urban League
Network to help the poorer African Americans find work and housing.
Anti-Defamation League
organization formed to defend jews against physical and verbal attacks and false statements
Mutualistas
Mexican Americans faced the same discrimination as African Americans. They organized groups which made loans, provided legal assistance and insurance to those who were unable to work.
What steps did minorities take to combat social problems and discrimination?
Formed groups to fight back (NAACP, Mutualistas, Urban Leagues, and Anti-Defamation League)
How did Progressives' views about race and values foster prejudice?
Progressives tried to make a model society, and to follow the white middle class, Social Darwinism (some people were more fit than others to play a leading role in society).
What do the differing approaches of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B.Du Bois suggest about their views of American society?
Washington: African Americans had to achieve economic equality before. Thought society wasn't advanced enough to change in his lifetime (economic)

Du Bois: African Americans had to demand their social and civil rights or else become permeant victims of racism. Wanted to force America to be ready for it. (political)
Were the goals and actions of the mutualistas more similar to those of the Urban League or to those of the Anti-Defamation League? Explain.
Urban League because the Defamation League is political and prejudice protection and the Urban League is more money related. Anti-Defamation League and NAACP.
Theodore Roosevelt's "Square Deal"
- attempt to keep the wealthy and powerful from taking advantage of small business owners and the poor.
Hepburn Act & the Interstate Commerce Commission
HEPBURN ACT
- gave the ICC
] strong enforcement powers including setting the limit for shipping cost and maximum prices for ferries, bridge tolls, and oil pipelines.

ICC
- regulate railroad rates
- Supreme Court ruled against them, stripping it of most of its powers.
Meat Inspection Act
After "The Jungle" came out Roosevelt urged congress to pass this law which required all meat that crossed state lines to be inspected by federal agents along with the inspection of meat-processing plants.
Pure Food and Drug Act
Expanded on the Meat Inspection Act

- It also banned the interstate shipment and sale of impure food and mislabeling of food and drugs.
U.S. Forest Service (and National Park Service)
- Created to preserve as many forests as possible

- to set aside forests which could not be cut down for enjoyment
- to allow the trees in them enough time to grow

- The National Park Service oversees America's 59 national parks.

- Yellowstone : 1st National Park
National Newlands Reclamation Act
Francis Newlands convinced Roosevelt to push the federal government to build huge reservoirs to hold and conserve water. Gave the federal government the power to decide where and how water would be distributed.
New Nationalism
President Theodore Roosevelt's plan to restore the government's trustbusting power.
What did Theodore Roosevelt think government should do for citizens?
-Keep the wealthy and powerful from taking advantage of the poor, but did not mean that everyone would get rich
-Government should be focused on the lower classes and not the upper class
Why did Roosevelt's enforce the Sherman Antitrust act against the Norther Securities (railroad) Company? Did he dislike all trusts?
-Took advantage of smaller companies and the customers.
-No, he just disliked the bad trusts.
How did Roosevelt's use of presidential and federal power differ from that of earlier Presidents? Give two examples.
-Coal strike and focused on the workers
-Food and Drug Act and Meat Inspection: protecting consumer
Did Roosevelt believe federal lands should be preserved against all human uses? Explain.
No, he wanted to preserve the beauty but some should be used for economic purposes: US Forest Service
Woodrow Wilson
placed strict government control on corporations and more opportunities for small businesses.
Sixteenth Amendment
Gave congress the power to levy an income tax.
Federal Reserve Act
-Law that placed national banks under the control of a Federal Reserve Board
Federal Trade Commission
- monitored business practices that may lead to monopolies, watching out for false advertising, and dishonest labeling.
Clayton Antitrust Act
-strengthened the Sherman Antitrust Act
-Specified particular prohibited conduct
-Protected labor unions from being classified as monopolies.
What steps did Wilson take to increase the government's role in the economy?
-The Underwood Tariff Act: lowered Tariffs and allow competition with foreign goods
-Federal Reserve Act: Put Federal Control on the nation's money supply
-Federal Trade Commission: Monitored business practices that may lead to monopolies
Describe how each of the following met Progressive goals: the Sixteenth Amendment; the Clayton Antitrust Act; the Federal Trade Commerce. TEST
-16th Amendment: Put more responsibility on upper class.
-Clayton Antitrust Act: Busted trusts, destroyed monopolies, created a law that could work to protect the American citizens from a monopoly
-FTC: Protected the consumers, mislabeling, false advertising
In which area do you think government reforms had the greatest impact? Why?
Economic areas, because these laws laid ground work more our modern economy, small businesses and stop corrupt
Political areas, because voters have more of a say in their government now, direct primary, referendum, recall, initiative, seventeenth amendment
What was the legacy of the Progressive Era?
The federal government more powerful and more involved and working for all citizens