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Electoral College

The official body designated to choose the President under teh new Constitution, which in 1789 unanimously elected George washington

vice president

The constitutional office into which John Adams was sworn on April 30, 1789

secretary of the treasury

The cabinet office in Washington's administration headed by a brilliant young West Indian immigrant who distrusted the people

funding at par

Alexander Hamilton's policy of paying off all federal bonds at face value in order to strengthen the national credit


Hamilton's policy of having the federal government pay the financial obligations of the states

Bill of Rights

The first ten amendments to the Constitution

political parties

Political organizations not envisioned in the Constitution and considered dangerous to national unity by most of the Founding Fathers

French Revolution

Political and social upheaval supported by most Americans during its moderate beginnings in 1789, but the cause of bitter divisions after it took a radical turn in 1792

French-American Alliance

Agreement signed between two anti-British countries in 1778 that increasingly plagued American foreign policy in the 1790s

Miami Confederacy

Alliance of eight Indian nations led by Little Turtle that inflicted major defeats on American forces in the early 1790s.

Jay's Treaty

Document signed in 1794 whose terms favoring Britain outraged Jeffersonian Republicans


The nation with which the United States fought an undeclared war from 1798 to 1800

compact theory

The political theory on which Jefferson and Madison based their antifederalist resolutions declaring that the thirteen sovereign states had created the Constitution


The doctrine, proclaimed in the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions, that a state can block a federal law it considers unconstitutional

Great Britain

The nation to which most Hamiltonian Federalists were sentimentally attached and which they favored in foreign policy

excise taxes

What was the Hamiltonian economic measure repealed by Jefferson and Gallatin?


Action Jefferson took toward Republican "martyrs"

midnight judges

Derogatory Republican term for Federalist judges appointed at the last minute by President Adams

Marbury v. Madison

Precedent-setting Supreme Court case in which Marshal declared part of the Judicary Act of 1789 unconstitional

judicial review

The principle, established by Chief Justice Marshall in a famous case, that the Supreme Court can declare laws unconstitutional


Action voted by the House of Representatives against Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase


Branch of military service that Jefferson considered least threatening to liberty and most necessary to supressing the Barberry states

Santo Domingo (Haiti)

Sugar-rich island where Toussaint L' Ouverture's slave rebellion disrupted Napoleon's dreams of a vast New Worl empire


Territory beyond Louisiana, along the Columbia River, explored by Lewis and Clark

$15 million

Price paid by the United States for the Louisiana Purchase


American ship fired on by the British in 1807, nearly leading to war between the two countries


Jefforson's policy of forbidding the shipment of any goods in or out of the United States

war hawks

Militantly nationalistic western congressmen eager for hostilities with the Indians, Canadians, and British


Battle in 1811 where General Harrison defeated the Indian forces under tecumseh nd Tenskwatawa (the Prophet)

Mr. Madison's War

Derisive Federalist name for the War of 1812 that blamed it on the Republican president

Lake Erie

One of the Great Lakes where Oliver H. Perry captured a large British fleet

The Star Spangled Banner

Stirring patriotic song written by Francis Scott Key

The Constitution

Famous American frigate that was larger and heavier than most British ships

Hartford Convention

Gathering of prominent New England Federalists who considered secession

White House and Capitol

Two prominent Washington buildings burned by the British in 1814

The North American Review

Intellectual magazine that reflected the post-1815 spirit of American nationalism

American Plan

Henry Clay's ambitious nationalistic proposal for tariffs, internal improvements, and expanded manufacturing

Era of Good Feelings

Somewhat inappropriate term applied to the Monroe administrations, suggesting that htis period lacked major conflicts


Once-prominent political party that effectively died by 1820

Erie Canal

Major water transportation route financed and builty by New York State after President Madison vetoed federal funding

north 36 degrees and 30 inches

Line designated as the future boundary between free and slave territories under the Missouri Compromise

McCulloch v. Maryland

Supreme Court ruling that defended federal power by denying a state the right to tax a federal bank

Dartmouth College v. Woodward

Supremem corut case in which Daniel Webster successfully argued that a state could not change a legal charter once granted


Territory occupied jointly by Britain and the United States under the Treaty of 1818

Monroe Doctrine

A presidential foreign-policy proclamation that might well have been caled the "Adams Doctrine" or the "Self-Defense Doctrine."

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