94 terms

Buddhism and Hinduism

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collection of related beliefs and practices, followers often attend temple, follow strict standards of conduct, or practice religious rituals, but none are required
Hinduism
Holy text Hindu
no single scripture, thousands collections of writings/teachings including Bhagavad Gita and Vedas
Aryans
from Central Asia; migrated around 1500 BC to India; light-skinned; dominated India 1000 yrs; developed caste system; used Sanskrit; no written language
reincarnation Hindu
aka samsara; any form of life during rebirth; no beginning, no end for many; karma determines form of rebirth, is determined by daily conduct; justifies caste system
caste system
Brahmin
Kshatriya
Vaishya
Sudra

Dalits below caste system, "children of God"
Brahmin
highest rank
priests and intellectual leaders of Hindu society
Kshatriya
rulers and warriors, protect/promote material well-being of society
Vaishya
farmers, merchants, contributors to economy
Sudra
workers and servants, menial labor for upper 3 ranks is their job
Dalits
fifth category emerged over time; they are excluded from all rituals; banned from public some places in India; had to identify themselves as untouchables to be avoided
Monism
one god = many gods, esp. Shiva, Vishnu, Brahma
Shiva
"The Destroyer", god of death/destruction, reproduction, and dance
Vishnu
"The Preserver"
humane god of love/benevolence; appeared on earth 9 times to preserve/restore humanity; will appear once more to signify end of the world
Brahma
oldest, least popular of gods
creator of society/nature
Hindu ceremonies
ritual purification emphasized; "eligible to achieve absolute knowledge" (who is? idk), internal and external purity EX. Internal = yoga External = washing + natural bodily functions
Hindu festivals
HUNDREDS, sacred occasions include births, deaths, significant events of Hindu heroes/gods

many seasonal

observed thru worship, gifts, gambling, chants, etc.
dogma (Hindi)
belief
Buddhism statistics
-one of the world's major religions
-Approximately 350 million people worldwide (mostly in Asia)
Buddha's Background
-Siddhartha Gautama
-Born in Himalayan foothills around 6th century BCE
-Son of a noble or local king
-Had a sheltered life
-Indian prince
What caused Buddha to begin his quest for answers?
At 29 years old, his life in shelter had ended and he saw several disturbing sights.
1) Old man (made him aware of old age)
2) Sick man (physical suffering)
3) Dead body (death)
He also saw a holy man and decided to leave his wife and son, renounce his wealth, and to seek the meaning of what he had seen.
How did Buddha search for answers?
-6 years of study and living a life of asceticism (self-denial), which weakened his body but did not give answers
-sat under a tree until he achieved enlightenment. Entered a deep state if meditation and by dawn achieved spiritual awakening.
What were the two main things Buddha taught others?
1. The path to enlightenment
2. How to free themselves from suffering
How old did Buddha live to be?
80 years old
The Four Noble Truths
1. Dukkha: The Noble Truth of Suffering
Life is full of suffering, full of sickness and unhappiness. Although there are passing pleasures, they vanish in time.

2. Samudaya: The Noble Truth of the Cause of Suffering
People suffer for one simple reason: they desire things. It is greed and self-centeredness which bring about suffering. Desire is never satisfied.

3. Nirodha: The Noble Truth of the End of Suffering
It is possible to end suffering if one is aware of his or her own desires and puts an end to them. This awareness will open the door to lasting peace.

4. Magga: The Noble Truth of The Path
By changing one's thinking and behavior, a new awakening can be reached. This is called the Middle Way and can be followed in the Eightfold Path.
What did Buddha believe was the purpose of life?
To seek happiness
Eightfold Path
-Also known as "Middle Path"
-Rejected both asceticism and luxury
-Path to enlightenment and the ending of desire
1) Know the truth. 2) Say nothing to hurt others. 3) Practice meditation. 4) Control your thoughts. 5) Resist evil. 6) Free your mind of evil. 7) Work for the good of others. 8) Respect life.
Aryan cultural diffusion
at first, Aryans and non Aryans had separate religions but intermingled to worship of 1000s of gods, complex system which some questioned. they questioned world, place in world, power and wealth of Brahmins
Hindu tradition
ex. marriage: sacred fire presence
ex. daily: recitation of Vedas
can't be sorted into grand system of belief w/ Buddhism, Christianity, Islam b/c doesn't have one founder with one set of ideas
Hindu worldview
religion = way to liberate soul from everyday illusions, disappointments, mistakes
Upanishads
750-550 BC Hindu teachers interpreted Vedic hymns, written down into Upanishads
written as dialogue teacher-student to explain liberation from desires/suffering
atman
individual soul of living being
Brahman
world soul contains/unites atmans
moksha
liberation from desires/suffering
perfect understanding achieved through atman/Brahman understanding
generally more than one lifetime
karma
good or bad deeds, follows incarnations, chooses caste, health, wealth of individual as punishment or reward
Hinduism changes
last 2500 yrs: world soul Brahman seen as Brahma (creator) Vishnu (protector) and Shiva (destroyer)
Brahma now less important, Devi a mother goddess more important
Vishnu persona examples
Krishna- divine cowherder
Rama- perfect king
moksha paths
right thinking, right action, or religious devotion
free to choose deity to worship if any, most follow family tradition of centuries
caste details
Brahman, warrior, or merchant man had good karma in past life
woman, laborer, or untouchable bad karma
to reach moksha
must be top three man (few exceptions)
karma results
determines way people eat and what, cleanliness, association, clothes, etc
Jainism
from period of reflection of Upanishads
founded by Mahavira (599-527 BC) believed everything had soul, none should be harmed
monks sweep ants off path, wear masks (not to inhale bugs)
trade and commerce b/c doesn't hurt anything
wealthy because of business activities
tolerant of other religions, few missionaries, five million followers therefore almost all from India
Karma (in Buddhism)
-one of the basic principles
-positive, negative, or neutral consequences
-actions + their consequences = Karma
Samsara
Reincarnation (Buddhism)
-Caught in a cycle of death and rebirth
-Circumstances of each new birth based on past life actions
-Death, rebirth, ignorance, suffering
The Keys to the Kingdom (Buddhism)
-Relinquish hatred, ignorance and desire
-Follow the Eightfold Path
-Achieve nirvana
-The cycle of rebirth ends
Spread of Buddhism
-After Buddha's death his followers spread his teachings by traveling throughout India and Asia
-As it spread to different areas it incorporated local cultural practices and beliefs (cultural diffusion)
The Future (Buddhism)
-Significant impact in Sri Lanka, China, Tibet, Japan, and Southeast Asia
-Still an important part of life in many parts of Asia today
-Gained followers in North America and Europe
MUST KNOW!!!! Why was Buddhism appealing to the "common" people?
It allowed everyone to reach Nirvana, regardless of caste. It was a lifestyle, and offered flexibility to those of other religions.
What are the 5 functions of religion?
1) Social Cohesion
2) Explains the Unexplainable
3) Social Control
4) Psychological Support
5) Agent of Social Change
Buddha
Siddhartha Guatama, 563-483 BC, born noble in Kapilavastu near Himilayas in Nepal, as baby had marks of great man, prophecy said stay home = world leader and leave home = universal spiritual leader
Buddha's beginnings
was isolated for protection, never exited castle UNTIL age 29 when he left 4 times and saw

1. old man
2. sick man
3. corpse
4. peaceful holy man

learned life means old age, sickness, death, SUFFERING, left wife and baby son to learn religious truth/end of suffering
Buddha seeking enlightenment
six yrs wandered Indian forests, debated religious seekers then fasted ("6 grains of rice a day") BUT DIDNT LEARN TRUTH OR END SUFFERING

next meditated 49 days under fig tree, became Buddha "the enlightened one"
Buddha's mom's dream
mom dreamt of beautiful elephant bright as silver, Brahmin priests interpreted as child would be either great monarch or Buddha
Buddha's signs of greatness
included gold skin, webbed fingers/toes, knob top of skull, long tongue, hair btwn eyebrows, thousand spoked wheel per foot
sangha
Buddhist religious order, began with five monks who heard Buddha's first sermon, at first meant Buddhist monks and nuns but now means Buddhist community
Buddhist dharma
doctrine and teachings (see eightfold path, four truths, etc.)
Three Jewels of Buddhism
Buddha, dharma, and sangha (religious community)
followers of Buddhism
more common people b/c rejected caste system, ex. craftspeople/laborers, northeast Indians esp b/c less Aryan influence, women admitted to religious order even tho he feared would distract men
Buddhist monks/nuns
vow to live in poverty, nonviolence, no marriage; spread Buddha's teachings; begging bowl is for all food one whole day; rainy season retreated to cave in hills which later became monasteries men OR women in each
Nalanda
Buddhist monastery, great university attracts even non Buddhists
Jatakas
Buddha's previous reincarnations (WHAT? MS. GEORGES WAS WRONG- HE DIDN'T REACH IT IN ONE LIFE!!!)
teachings of Buddha
written just after his death include commentaries, monastic life rules, legends of Jatakas (first century BC)
Vedas
the most ancient Hindu scriptures, written in early Sanskrit and containing hymns, philosophy, and guidance on ritual for the priests of Vedic religion. Believed to have been directly revealed to seers among the early Aryans in India, and preserved by oral tradition, the four chief collections
Buddhism in India
missionaries spread to Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia, China along trade routes, BUT NOT HUGE IN INDIA WHERE IT ORIGINATED
B/c Hinduism "absorbed" Buddhism as Buddha was labeled one of the 10 incarnations of Vishnu

even w/ few Buddhists in India, they flock to Kapilavastu where he was born, the fig tree where he meditated, Varanasi the sight of first sermon

at these places they offer flowers, circle clockwise for humility/respect
stupas
mounds said to contain Buddha's relics
spread of Buddhism
traders brought it to Burma, Thailand, Sumatra, China, Korea, Japan
most widespread religion of East Asia
Buddhism
the Middle Way
"According to the Buddha, the Middle Way is a life lived between the extremes of self-denial and self-indulgence."
Theravada
BUDDHISM nuns/monks idealized as the only ones who can reach nirvana this life, reaching nirvana is individual's duty, replicate Buddha's simple life IE the begging monks and nuns, Buddha is role model but not god because that's how he wanted it, very strict/orthodox, devout with deep prayer for world, knowledge of Buddha leads to nirvana
Mahayana
BUDDHISM nuns/monks respected, not idealized; reach nirvana w/ help of bodhisattva; Buddha = god to many, free and approachable religion whereas Theravada is lifestyle; compassion leads to nirvana
bodhisattva
Mahayana Buddhist saint so full of compassion he won't enter nirvana alone
Theravada and Mahayana similarities
Buddhism; no caste; Siddhartha Guatama = the Buddha; four noble truths/eightfold path encouraged; nirvana is release from suffering caused by desire and end to reincarnation cycle (reincarnation seen as the journey to nirvana); Dhammapada is holy text; karma
Dhammapada
collection of Buddha's sayings; holy text; one of three books in Tripitaka series
Dalai Lama
His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso, describes himself as a simple Buddhist monk. He is the spiritual leader of Tibet. He was born on 6 July 1935, to a farming family, in a small hamlet located in Taktser, Amdo, northeastern Tibet. At the very young age of two, the child who was named Lhamo Dhondup at that time, was recognized as the reincarnation of the previous 13th Dalai Lama, Thubten Gyatso.

The Dalai Lamas are believed to be manifestations of Avalokiteshvara or Chenrezig, the Bodhisattva of Compassion and the patron saint of Tibet. Bodhisattvas are believed to be enlightened beings who have postponed their own nirvana and chosen to take rebirth in order to serve humanity.
Bhagavad Gita
Hindu text of god-warrior (Krishna to Arjuna)((Arjuna is a warrior))
Mahayana translation
"the salvation available to the greater number of people"
Mahayana guidelines
not renouncing worldly pleasures/relationships
just end attachments that cause suffering, enjoy all without being attached, be honest with self about attachment
believe spirit of Buddha is universal, available to all
Theravada referred to as
"doctrine of the elders"
Theravada guidelines
individually responsible for acts and thoughts; support monks with charity; meditate; follow teachings
Tripitaka
important Buddhist holy text, a series 3 of books (including Dhammapada)
Nirvana
Release from suffering caused by human desire, available to all after a series of rebirths. Reached by Buddha in one lifetime. Achieved by following the Eightfold Path (anything else?) (I THINK THATS IT)
Meditation
Part of the Eightfold Path, meditate with perseverance and you will be one of the wise who experience Nirvana
What is the relationship between Hinduism and Buddhism?
Both:
-Search for enlightenment
-Buddha
-Not strict in practice
-Karma
-Soul at rest
Hindusim:
-Collection of beliefs
-No single founder
-Cast system
-Monistic
Buddhism:
-Buddha is founder
-No caste system
-Not monistic, some believe Buddha is a god, others don't
Where and when did Buddhism originate?
-near the border between present-day India and Nepal in 6th century BC
Did Buddha's followers start out small in number?
yes, then they expanded
How are occasions of hatred settled?
Not by hatred, but by freedom from hatred
Buddha on thoughts
Restrain and discipline your mind
Buddha on Fool and Wise man
If you know you're a fool then you're wise, if you think you're wise the you're a fool, even if a fool lived with a wise man all the time he wouldn't see the truth
Buddha on Victory
Victory over yourself is better than victory over others
Buddha on Purity
You can purify yourself, you cannot purify others
Buddha on the World
Look on the world as a bubble, a mirage, and you won't be found by the King of Death
In Buddhism, is self-restraint good?
yes
Buddha on Faults
it's easy for you to see others' faults but you try to hide your own
Hell (Buddha)
if you speak untruth or say "I didn't do it" then you go there
Buddha of Brahmin
not just high status but someone who possesses Truth and truthfulness, wise in Buddhism, ended suffering, etc
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