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RESP 1330 The Renal System
Terms in this set (74)
What does the urinary system consist of?
kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra
What are the 8 functions of the kidneys?
Regulation of blood ionic composition, regulation of PH, regulation of blood volume, regulation of blood pressure, maintenance of blood osmolarity, production of hormones, regulation of blood glucose level, excretion of waste and foreign substances.
Describe the kidneys position in the body
2 bean shaped organs, just above the waist, between peritoneum and posterior wall of the abdomen. Partially protected by the eleventh and twelfth ribs. Due to liver, right kidney is slightly lower.
What are 5 ions the kidneys regulate the blood levels?
Sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and phosphate.
How do the kidneys regulate blood volume?
by conserving or eliminating water
How do the kidneys regulate blood pressure?
by secreting the enzyme renin which causes an increase in blood pressure
What hormones does the kidney produce?
erythropoietin, renin, ADH
What is the renal hilum?
medial opening for entry/exit of artery, vein, ureter, lymphatic vessels, and nerves.
What is the cavity around the hilum called?
What are the 3 layers of tissue surrounding each kidney?
Renal capsule, adipose capsule, and renal fascia
What is the main function of the renal cortex?
filtration to form urine
What are the 2 distinct regions of the frontal section of the kidney?
Renal cortex and renal medulla
What is the renal medulla?
Deep, dark red/brown inner region. Consists of several cone shaped renal pyramids
What are the renal pyramids?
triangular regions of medulla, base faces cortex, apex points toward hilum
What is the renal papilla?
apex of renal pyramid. Where the nephron ends. Point of no return for waste
What are renal columns?
Extension of renal cortex between renal pyramids and serve as an anchor.
What is parenchyma?
Functional tissue of the kidney to include the renal cortex and renal pyramids of the renal medulla.
How many nephrons are in each kidney?
What are the papillary ducts?
Where filtered fluid from the nephrons extend in the renal papilla the major and minor calyces
What is the path of urine drainage ?
collecting duct, papillary duct, renal papilla, minor calyx, major calyx, renal pelvis, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra
How long is the female urethra?
How long is the male urethra?
How much liquid can the bladder hold?
What percent of the cardiac output do the kidneys receive?
What is the average renal blood flow per minute in adults?
What are glomerules?
Tangled, ball shaped capillary from and afferent arteriole to each nephron
Which arteriole carried blood out of the glomerulus?
Which arteriole carries blood into the glomerular capillaries?
Why are glomerular capillaries unique?
They are positioned between 2 arterioles rather than an arteriole and a venule.
True or false: oxygen exchange happens in the nephrons?
How does the blood leave the kidney?
Single renal vein, through the renal hilum, to the inferior vena cava
What is the renal plexus?
Nerve supply to kidneys. Sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system
What is the nephron?
functional unit of the kidney
What are the 2 parts of the nephron?
renal corpuscle and renal tubule
What happens in the renal corpuscle?
blood plasma is filtered
What happens in the renal tubule?
Filtered fluid passes through the tubules
What are the 3 structures of the renal corpuscle?
Glomerular capillaries, glomerular capsule( Bowman's capsule), Bowman's space.
What is Bowman's space?
Space between the 2 layers of Bowman's capsule
What is Bowman's capsule?
a double-walled epithelial cup that surrounds the glomerulus
What are the 3 sections of the renal tubule?
proximal convoluted tubule (PCT), loop of Henle (nephron loop), distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
What are the 2 types of nephrons?
cortical nephrons and juxtamedullary nephrons
What is a cortical nephron?
85% of all nephrons. Responsible for normal concentrated urine. Shorter loop of henle
What is a juxtamedullary nephron?
15% of nephrons. Responsible for diluted or concentrated urine. Longer loop of henle. Receive blood from bass recta capillaries.
What are the 3 basic functions of the nephrons and collecting ducts?
Glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, tubular secretion
What is glomerular filtration?
Pressure forces filtration of waste-laden blood in the glomerulus
What is the glomerular filtration rate?
volume of filtrate formed per minute by both kidneys. Normal adult- 125ml/min
How many times does blood cycle through filtration a day?
How much of what was filtered becomes urine?
What is tubular reabsorption?
the process of returning important substances from the filtrate back to the body through the renal interstitium then renal blood vessels
What are the 2 routes into the renal interstitium?
Paracellular reabsorption and transcellular reabsorption
What are characteristics of paracellular reabsorption?
Passive, normal route, obligatory, adjacent tubule cells
What are characteristics of transcellular reabsorption?
Active, central control, emergent, falcultative
What type of flow, multiplication, and exchanges happen in the loops of henle?
What is the renal threshold?
Substances cannot be absorbed fast enough and become secretion
What is tubular secretion?
Movement of waste/ substances from the capillaries which surround the nephron into the filtrate
Where does tubular secretion occur?
Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT), distal convoluted tubule (DCT), and collecting tubules
What 2 body parts are needed to maintain body's proper PH and what do they do?
Lungs eliminate CO2, kidneys eliminate hydrogen and ammonium and conserve bicarbonate
What is glomerular filtrate?
fluid that enters capsular space
What is the filtration membrane?
Leaky barrier formed by glomerular capillaries and the podocytes, which completely encircle capillaries.
What 3 barriers do filtered substances go through from the blood stream?
Glomerular endothelial cells (blood cannot go through), basil lamina, and filtration slit formed by a podocyte, then to Bowman's capsule.
What is the glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure?
Blood pressure that promotes filtration. Normal is 55mmHg
What is capsular hydrostatic pressure?
Pressure opposes filtration. Normal is 15mmHg
What are the 3 principle mechanisms or factors that control GFR?
Renal autoregulation, neural regulation, hormonal regulation.
Where is the most water reabsorbed and how much?
what is urinalysis?
an analysis of the volume and physical, chemical, and microscopic properties of urine
why is urinalysis important?
can detect if disease has altered the body metabolism or kidney functions because traces of substances not normally present may appear in urine.
what are the 2 blood screening tests used to provide information about kidney function?
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) and Plasma Creatinine.
what does renin control?
Where is ADH produced and what does it do?
produced in the pituitary gland and regulates water reabsorption.
what amount of water is reabsorbed into the body and secreted?
98-99% reabsorbed; 1-2% secreted
What amount of protein is reabsorbed and secreted?
99% reabsorbed; less than 1% secreted.
what amount of glucose is reabsorbed and secreted?
100% should be reabsorbed; 0 should be secreted
what amount of urea is reabsorbed and secreted?
about 50% reabsorbed and secreted
what amount of creatinine is reabsorbed and secreted?
0 should be reabsorbed; 100% secreted.
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