56 terms

Progressive Era

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Progressive Movement
an early 20th century reform movement seeking to return control of the government to the people, to restore economic opportunities, and to correct injustices in American life
Social Gospel Movement
a 19th century religious movement based on the belief that Christians have a responsibility to help improve working conditions and alleviate poverty.
Settlement House Movement
built as a place where immigrants came to live. Instruction was given in English and how to get a job. Hull House was the first settlement house founded by Jane Addams in Chicago in 1889.
16th Amendment
Established a federal income tax.
17th Amendment
1913, provides for the direct election of US senators by the people rather than by state legislatures.
Prohibition
the banning of the manufacture, sale, and possession of alcoholic beverages.
The 18th amendment made prohibition the law. The 21st amendment ended prohibition.
Muckrakers
journalists who exposed the corrupt side of business and public life in the early 1900s.
Jacob Riis
wrote "How the Other Half Lives" that told the public about the lives of the immigrants and those who lived in the tenement housing.
Upton Sinclair
wrote "The Jungle", that portrays the dangerous and unhealthy conditions prevalent in the meat packing industry at that time.
Populists
a movement that demanded that people have a greater voice in government and sought to advance the interests of farmers and laborers
National American Women's Suffrage Association (NAWSA)
An organization founded in 1890 to gain voting rights for women.
19th Amendment
1920, gives women the right to vote
Secret Ballot
Allowed voters to cast a vote without election officials knowing who they voted for.
Pendleton Act
created a Civil Service Commission that gave exams and selected government employees based on merit
"Trustbuster"
Teddy Roosevelt broke up many monopolies and trusts.
"Square Deal"
Teddy Roosevelt's progressive plan; involved trust-busting and conservation projects.
"New Freedom"
Wilson's progressive plan; involved financial reform, increased government regulation of business.
Interstate Commerce Commission (1886)
A federal regulatory agency that governed over the rules and regulations of the railroad industry.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890)
A law that was intended to prevent the creation of monopolies by making it illegal to establish trusts that interfered with free trade.
Pure Food and Drug Act & Meat Inspection Act
-Halted the sale of contaminated food and drugs and to ensure truth in labeling.
-established strict cleanliness requirements for meat-packers and created a federal meat-inspection program.
William Howard Taft
Elected President in 1908; supported safety standards for mines and railroads; supported 16th amendment; disappointed progressives in the areas of tariffs and conservation.
Federal Reserve Act
Established the modern banking system to regulate the money supply, set interest rates, etc.
Federal Trade Commission
A federal agency established in 1914 to investigate and stop unfair business practices. Created to enforce the Clayton Act.
Plessy v. Ferguson
The supreme court ruled that separation of the races in public accommodations was legal, thus establishing the "separate but equal" doctrine.
Populist party platform (1892)
- unlimited coinage of silver to raise farm prices
- single term limit for presidents
- direct elections of senators
- secret ballots
- shorter work days
Third party movements
- examples: Populists, Bull Moose
- influence: major parties will usually adopted third party ideas if they draw significant support (ex: direct election of senators)
Ida Tarbell
muckraker that wrote "History of the Standard Oil Company" to show how Rockefeller's power was based on unfair business practices
Susan B. Anthony
arrested for voting in 1872, women's rights leader
18th Amendment
Prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcohol

"Prohibition"
Seneca Falls Convention
(1848) the first national women's rights convention at which the Declaration of Sentiments was written
Ida B. Wells
Women activist who lead the movement to ban lynching--> fed. anti-lynching laws failed
Clayton Antitrust Act
1914 law that strengthened the Sherman Antitrust Act
Child Labor Act
prohibited the shipment in interstate commerce of products manufactured by children under 14 years old
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
March 1911 fire in New York factory that trapped young women workers inside locked exit doors; nearly 50 ended up jumping to their death; while 100 died inside the factory; led to the establishment of many factory reforms, including increasing safety precautions for workers
Coal Miners Strike
(Pennsylvania) miners demanded increase in pay and reduction of the working day; Roosevelt threatened to seize control of mines; owners agreed to boost pay and shorten work day
Spoils System
the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power
Referendum
a legislative act is referred for final approval to a popular vote by the electorate
Initiative
A procedure by which voters can propose a law or a constitutional amendment.
Recall
procedure whereby voters can remove an elected official from office
secret ballot
votes cast without announcing them publicly
Robert La Follette
1855-1925. Progressive Wisconsin Senator and Governor. Staunch supporter of the Progressive movement, and vocal opponent of railroad trusts, bossism, WWI, and League of Nations.
municipal
city or town
Booker T. Washington
Prominent black American, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society, was head of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881. His book "Up from Slavery."
W.E.B. DuBois
Co-founded the NAACP to help secure legal equality for minority citizens.
NAACP
Interracial organization founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination and to achieve political and civil rights for African Americans.
18th Amendment
Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages
Jane Addams
the founder of Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes
Frank Norris
Muckraker during the Progressive Era; wrote "The Octopus" (1901) that described the power of the railroads over Western farmers
Lincoln Steffens
United States journalist who exposes in 1906 started an era of muckraking journalism (1866-1936), Writing for McClure's Magazine, he criticized the trend of urbanization with a series of articles under the title Shame of the Cities.
Thomas Nast
Newspaper cartoonist who produced satirical cartoons, he invented "Uncle Sam" and came up with the elephant and the donkey for the political parties. He nearly brought down Boss Tweed.
Meat Inspection Act
1906 - Laid down binding rules for sanitary meat packing and government inspection of meat products crossing state lines.
Pure Food and Drug Act
1906 - Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
William Jennings Bryan
Democratic candidate for president in 1896 under the banner of "free silver coinage" which won him support of the Populist Party.
Cross of Gold Speech
An address given by Bryan, the Democratic presidential nominee during the national convention of the Democratic party, it criticized the gold standard and supported the coinage of silver. His beliefs were popular with debt-ridden farmers.
Munn v. Illinois
1877 Supreme Court decision that allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders
Grange Movement (1867)
A group of agrarian organizations that worked to increase the political and economic power of farmers. They opposed big businesses and political corruption.

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