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Founding of Rome

753 BCE


Greek, "rule by four." A type of Roman government =established in late 3rd century to early

damnation memoriae

the Roman decree condemning those who ran afoul of the Senate. Those who suffered damnatio memoriae had their memorials demolished and their names erased from public inscriptions


the warm-bath section of a Roman bathing establishment


the hot bath section of a Roman bathing establishment


the cold-bath section of a Roman bathing establishment






In the Roman Republic, the two chief magistrates


Latin senatus, "council of elders." The Senate was the main legislative body of Roman constitutional government


an official that had political and military authority


A Roman freeborn landowner


The Roman social class that included small farmers, merchants, and freed slaves


In Roman architecture, a pseudoperipteral temple has a series of engaged columns all around the sides and back of the cella to give the appearance of a peripteral colonnade


true to natural appearance; super-realistic


In ancient Rome, wax portraits of ancestors




The public square of an ancient Roman city


In Roman architecture, a public building for legal and other civic proceedings, rectangular in plan with an entrance usually on a long side. In Christian architecture, a church somewhat resembling the Roman basilica, usually entered from one end and with an apse at the other


Greek, "double theater." A Roman building type resembling two Greek theaters put together. The Roman amphitheater featured a continuous elliptical cavea around a central arena


Latin, "hollow place or cavity." The seating area in ancient Greek and Roman theaters and amphitheaters

barrel vault

semicylindrical in cross-section, is in effect a deep arch or an uninterrupted series of arches, one behind the other, over an oblong space

groin vault

is formed at the point at which two barrel vaults intersect at right angles


a Roman private house


the central reception room of a Roman house that is partly open to the sky. Also the open, colonnaded court in front of and attached to a Christian basilica


a small cubicle or bedroom that opened onto the atrium of a Roman house. Also, a chamber in an Early Christian catacomb that served as a mortuary chapel


the dining room of a Roman house

Pax Romana



Latin, "first citizen." The title Augustus and his successors as Roman emperor used to distinguish themselves from Hellenistic monarchs

pontifex maximus

Latin, "chief priest." The high priest of the Roman state religion, often the emperor himself


Lation, "commander in chief", from which the word emporor wisnsh


a military leather breastplate


the standard Roman silver coin from which the word penny ultimately derives

continuous narrative

the depiction of the same figure more than once in the same space at different stages of a story

triumphal arch

In Roman architecture, a freestanding arch commemorating an important event, such as a military victory or the opening of a new road


the roughly triangular space enclosed by the curves of adjacent arches and a horizontal member connecting to their vertexes; also, the space enclosed by the curve of an arch and an enclosing right angle. The area between the arch proper and the framing columns and entablature

Corinthian column

a more ornate form than doric or ionic; it consists of a double row of acanthus leaves from which tendrils and flowers grow, wrapped around a bell-shaped echinus/




In antiquity, the Jewish sacred seven-branched candelabrum


a sunken panel, often ornamental, in a vault or a ceiling


Latin, "eye." The round central opening of a dome. Also, a small round window in a Gothic cathedral



Primaporta Augustus (copy of bronze original)
ca. 20 BCE

(Flavian Amphitheater, Rome, Italy)
70-80 CE

Column of Trajan
(from Forum of Trajan)
ca. 112 CE

Pantheon exterior
(Rome, Italy)
ca. 118-125 CE

Arch of Constantine
(Rome, Italy)
ca. 312-315 CE

Pantheon interior
(Rome, Italy)
ca. 118-125 CE

rusticated masonry


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