Social differences between men and women, rather than that anatomical, biolocigal differences between the sexes. Notions of gender differences--that is, what is considered "feminine" or "masculine"--vary greatly over time.
Defined by geographer Gillian Rose as "how we make sense of ourselves;" how people see themselves at different scales.
Constructing an identity by first defining the "other" and then defining ourselves as "not the other."
A categorization of humans based on skin color and other physical characteristics. Racial categories are social and political constructions because they are based on ideas taht some biological differences (especially skin color) are more important than others (e.g., height, etc.), even though the later might have more significance in terms of human activity. With its roots in sixteenth-century England, the term is closely associated with European colonialosm because of the impact of that development on global understandings of racial differences.
Frequently reffered to as a system or attitude toward visible differences in individuals, racism is an ideology of difference that ascribes (predominantly negative) significance and meaning to culturally, socially, and politically constructed ideas based on phenotypical features.
Defined by geographers Douglas Massey and Nancy Denton as the degree to which two or more groups live separately form each other, in different parts of an urban environment.
invasion and succession
Process by which new immigrants to a city move to and dominate or take over areas or neighborhoods occupied by older immigrant groups. For example, in the early twentieth century, Puerto Ricans "invaded" the immigrant Jewish neighborhood of East Harlem and successfully took over the neighborhood or "succeeded" the immigrant Jewish population as the dominant immigrant group in the neighborhood.
sense of place
State of mind derived throug infusion of a place with meaning and emotion by remembering important events that occured in that place or by labelling a place with a certain character.
The fourth theme of geography as defined by the Geography Educational National Implemetation Project; uniqueness of a location.
Theory defined by geographers Glen Elder, Lawrence Knopp, and Heidi Nast that highlights the contextual nature of opposition to the heteronormative and focuses on the political engagement of "queers" with the heteronormative.
In the context of arranged marriages in India, disputes over the price to be paid by the family of the bride to the fatehr of the groom (the dowry) have, in some cases, led to the death of the bride.