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Terms in this set (355)
(1) broader than government, includes all the institutions and individuals that exercise power (2) monopoly of force over a given territory (3) a set of political institutions for generating and carrying out policy. Sovereign, and characterized by institutions such as an army, police, system of taxation, a judiciary, social welfare system, etc.
territorial unit controlled by a single state and governed by a single government.
(1) set of institutions and people formally authorized by formal documents such as a constituion to pass laws, issue regulations, control the police, etc. (2) the leadership or elite in charge of running the state
any organization or pattern of activity that is self-perpetuating and valued for its own sake. Influences how politics is conducted. Weakly institutionalized, limited by the existing regime.
ability to get people/groups to do what they otherwise would not do - coercion/force
(1) psychological, not institutiuonal - cultural, linguistic and other identities that tie people together (2) a human community with a shared history and culture
a group, usually a minority ethnic or religious group, which feels it is entitled to its own state. Often seeks secessioin from a larger state, usually rejects principle of multi-ethnic state.
(1) institutions and practices that typically endure from government to government (2) norms and rules regaring individual freedom and collective equality, the locus of power, and the use of that power (30 characterized at most basic level as democratic or authoritarian
possess resources, political institutions, higher living standards, built-in restraints on power, values competitive elections
current/former Communist regimes
(1) strong states which exercise totalitarian control but failed economic policies may lead to popular hostitity (2) totalitarian states that sought complete control over their societies
less developed countries (LDCs)
poor states, inadequate medical care, young population, high illiteracy, unstable/nonexistent institutions, political/military upheaval
newly industrializing countries (NICs)
some Asian and Latin American countries, grew rapidly after 1970s, governments built cooperation with business and labor
enduring opinions about a country's institutions and political practices - people's core political values (does not include opinions aoubt current leaders or issues)
a more or less consistent set of beliefs about what policies governments ought to pursue
how people define themselves in racial, linguistic, ethnic or religious terms
the rapid shrinking of social, economic, environmental and political life
how a state's components interact over time and how nonpolitical and international forces shape what it can and cannot accomplish
the ways average citizens and the groups they form engage in political life
deal w/ limited range of issues, represent narrow segment of population
organizations responsible for contesting (running) elections and forming governments afterward; bring interests of a number of groups together, gain control over the gvt, either alone or in a coalition
process through which people find out about public policy and the ways in which their reactions to recent political events help shape the next phase of political life
in systems theory, everything lying outside the political system, typically consists of (1) impact of history and culture, (2) domestic social, economic, physical conditions, and (3) gobal forces. Environment limits any country's ability to shape its own destiny.
international political economy (IPE)
trade and other interactions that take place between countries
resurgence of capitalism and markets; change of state policy toward more open economics and less government intevention in the economy
rivalry between the superpowers USSR and USA from the end of World War II unil te collapse of the Soviet Union
a basic political document [or set of other laws and traditions] that lays out the institutions and procedures a country follows.
The way governments or other bodies make policies.
the process of developing democratic states.
the process of colonizing other countries
organizations that run elections or otherwise contend for power.
one with the capacity and political will to make and implement effective public policy. Takes on and carries out more responsibilities, widespread popular support for regime
one without the capacity and the poliitical will to make and implement effective public policy;Characterized gby poverty and internal division.
informal term for the poorest c ountries in Asia, Africa nd Latin America
regime in whoch the state has all but total power
the belief that one has an obligation to participate in civic and political affairs
belief that you are able to take part in politics [internal efficacy] or that the government will respond to its citizens [external efficacy].
persons with a disproportionate share of political power
view that government is dominated by a few top leaders, most of whom are outside of government, having disproportionate influence due to great advantages in wealth, status or organizational position
made by all states, tries to shape how a country will deal with political, economic and social issues; (1) regulates how citizens will behave and (2) distributes or redistributes resources. In systems theory, public policy = output.
the ability of the state to wield power to carry out basic tasks, such as defending territory, making and enforcing rules, collecting taxes, and managing the economy
the amount of development an ecosystem can sustain
legitimacy built on the force of ideas embodied by an individual leader; weakly institutionalized
a process whereby the state co-opts member of the public by providing specific benefits or favors to a small group in return for public support
an imperialist system of physically occupying a foreign territory using military force, businesses, or settlers
racial, ethnic or linguistic groups that today are often the source of political violence
the ability of one country to produce a particular good or service more efficiently relative to other countries' efficiency in producing the same good or service
rapid economic and political change that transforms a country into a stable nation with democratizing political institutions, a growing economy, and an expanding web of nongovernmental institutions (examples: Mexico, Iran)
the imposition of stipulations before the granting of loans by the IMF, World Bank and other international financial institutions
the process by which individuals are brought into a beneficial relationship with the state, making them dependent on the state for certain rewards.
a method of co-optation by whereby authoritarian systems create or sanction a limited number of organizations to represent the interests of the public and restrict those not set up or approved by the state.
a move in which military forces take control of the government by force
the massive accumulation of loans taken out by third world countries and owed to northern banks and governments from 1979 onward
the inability of the third world to pay back their loans to northern creditors
the process of developing a political system in which power is exercised either directly or indirectly by the pople
a radical critique of mainstream economic theory that stresses the continued power the north has over the third world
changes consistent with liberalism that aim to limit the power of the state and increase the power of the market and private property in a economy
economic sectors: primary, secondary, tertiary
dividing a country's overall economy into its main activities: primary (agriculture), secondary (industry) and tertiary (services)
a single political authority that has under its sovereignty a large number of external regions or territories and different peoples
a mercantilist strategy for economic growth in which a country seeks out technologies and develops industries focused specifically on the export market
system in which the government loses the ability to provide even the most basic services; a state so weak that its political structures collapse, leading to anarchy and violence
money or goods provided by richer countries to help poorer ones develop
foreign direct investment
the purchase of assets in a country by a foreign firm
a view of religion as absolute and infallible and the belief that it should be enforced by making faith the sovereign authority
a statistical formula that measures the amount of inequality in a society; its scale ranges from 0 to 100, where 0 corresponds to perfect inequality and 100 perfect inequality
gross domestic product (GDP)
the total market value of all goods and services produced by the residents of a country over a period of one year
gross national product (GNP)
the total market value of all goods and services produced by the residents of a country, including income from abroad
currency that can be traded openly on international markets
human development index
the United Nations' best indicator of social development; a statistical tool that attempts to evaluate the overall wealth, health, and knowledge of a country's people
the policy of colonizing other countries; a system in which a state extends its power to directly control territory, resources, and people beyond its borders
development strategy that uses tariffs and other barriers to imports, thereby stimulating domestic industries
British and other colonial procedures through which native populations carried out colonial rule
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
International agency that provides loans and other forms of assistance to countries with fiscal problems
less developed country (LDC)
a country that lacks significant economic development or political institutionalization or both
the creation of the market forces of supply and demand in a country
a political-economic system in which national economic power is paramount and the domestic economy is viewed as an instrument that exists primarily to serve the needs of the state
lending and development strategy that stresses small loans for new businesses; a system in which small loans are channeled to the poor through borrowing groups whose members jointly take responsibility for repayment
rule by one or more military officials, often brought to power through a coup d'état
a theory asserting that as societies developed, they would take on a set of common characteristics, including democracy and capitalism
multinational corporation (MNC)
firm that produces, distributes, and markets its goods or services in more than one country
an indirect form of imperialism in which powerful countries overly influence the economies of less-developed countries; an unequal relationship in a world in which new indirect forms of imperialism are at play
a system of social democratic policy making in which a limited number of organizations representing business and labor work with the state to set economic policy
newly industrializing countries
the handful of historically less-developed countries, such as South Korea, that have developed a strong industrial base and have grown faster than most of the the third world, experiencing significant economic growth and democratization
Nongovernmental Organization (NGO)
nonprofit organizations that exert political influence around the world; a national or international group, independent of any state, that pursues policy objectives and fosters public participation
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
cartel of oil-producing countries; responsible for the 1973-74 oil embargo
companies owned or controlled by the state in the third world
the president (or military general in power) is the head of an elaborate patron-client system and dispenses government jobs and resources as rewards to supporters. Cabinet positions, bureaucracy chiefs and all other government positions are part of the president's patronage system
nonfeudal relations in which a "patron" gains the support of "clients" through the mutual exchange of benefits and obligations
per capita Gross National Product
a figure that merely divides a country's GNP by its total population
a state that has progressed from procedural democracy (regular competitive elections) to substantive democracy (with civil liberties, rule of law, and open civil society)
purchasing power parity (PPP)
a statistical tool that attempts to estimate the buying power of income across different countries by using prices in the United States as a benchmark
legitimacy based on a system of laws and procedures that are highly institutionalized
a process in which political leaders essentially rent out parts of the state to their patrons, who as a result control public goods that would otherwise be distributed in a non-political manner
an economy which is heavily supported by state expenditures, while the state receives 'rent' from other countries, e.g., by leasing out oil fields
work that does not involve creating tangible goods
a state that is able to fulfill basic tasks, such as defending territory, making and enforcing rules, collecting taxes, and managing the economy
development strategy that stresses integration into global markets and privatization. Supported by the World Bank, the IMF and other major northern financial institutions; a policy of economic liberalization adopted in exchange for financial support from liberal international organizations, typically includes privatizing state-run firms, ending subsidies, reducing tariff barriers, shrinking the size of the state, and welcoming foreign investment
an economy in which peasants predominate and grow food and other crops primarily for domestic consumption.
a tax on imported goods
informal term for the poorest countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America
a state that has difficulty fulfilling basic tasks, such as defending territory, making and enforcing rules, collecting taxes, and managing the economy
A major international lending agency for development projects based in Washington
World Trade Organization
international organization with wide jurisdiction over trade issues; replaced the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
a federal government structure in which some regions or components are stronger than others, resulting in power being devolved unequally.
a group of approximately 300 party leaders; in party hierarchy, the central committee was below the politburo, a group of about 12 top party leaders and the heart and soul of the Communist Party
voluntary associations, membership in social and political groups; compare statism
collective farms, collectivization
A key feature of Stalin's plan for the U.S.S.R.. Private ownership of land (farms) was eliminated and replaced by collectives which were state run and supposedly more efficient. The production of the farms was intended to feed workers in the cities who contributed to the industrialization of the nation, and agricultural surplus was to be sold to finance industrialization. Former peasants whose labor was no longer required on collective farms were forcibly relocated to cities or to labor camps.
Communist Party of the Russian Federation
The successor to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Currently the second strongest party in the Duma. Less reformist, it emphasizes centralized planning and nationalism.
Confederation of Independent States
This organization unites the fifteen former republics of the Soviet Union. Russia is the clear leader of the group, and it has little formal power over its members. The members are to some extend bound together by trade agreements, but the unity of the Confederation is also threatened by nationality differences.
Constitution of 1993
Introduced by Yeltsin, approved by Referendum, the Constitution created a new, 3-part government structure consisting of a president/Prime Minister, a lower legislative house and a Constitutional Court.
created by the Constitution of 1993, this was intended to function independently of the executive. Its member are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Federation Council. Its role is to ensure that all laws and decrees are constitutional.
cult of personality
In communist and other systems, the excessive adulation of a single leader
the existence within a single state or other political unit of groups with diverse ethnic, religious, linguistic or cultural heritages
The Leninist organizational structure that concentrates power in the hands of the party elite; rule by the few for the benefit of the many
Part of Gorbachev's 3-pronged reform plan; intended to maintain the Soviet structure, including CPSU control, while allowing limited participation in elections by non-CPSU political parties.
The upper legislative house of the Russian Federation, consisting of 2 members from each of the 89 federal administrative units. One member is selected by the each regional governor and the second by the regional legislature.
a series of ambitious targets established by Stalin setting goals for production of heavy industry such as oil, steel and electricity.
The head of the Politburo, assumed full power over the country. This position was first occupied by Stalin.
Under Gorbachev, Soviet policies that opened up the political system and allowed for freedom of expression.
Gorbachev's 3-pronged reform plan
a program conceived by Secretary Gorbachev in 1985 intended to save the country from disaster; the plan involved glasnost, democratization and perestroika.
the Central State Planning Commission under Stalin, intended to carry out the five-year plans. It became the nerve center for the Soviet economy, determining production and distribution of virtually all goods.
One state's predominance over other states; the political, economic, ideological or cultural power exerted by a dominant group over other groups, regardless or the explicit consent of the dominated groups.
a form of privatization in which industries or services formerly owned by the government are made available for purchase only by government-controlled companies or by individuals loyal to government leaders; see also state corporatism
also known as Fair Russia, this merged party is led by the Speaker of the Federation Council (upper legislative house). It passed the 7% threshold and held 38 seats in the Duma after the 2007 election.
contrary to its name, this party is known for reactionary, anti-Semitic, sexist views and for promoting the use of nuclear weapons. After the 2007 election, it held 40 seats in the Duma.
Russian term to describe the other fourteen Republics of the former Soviet Union
The Soviet system of lists that facilitated the CPSU's appointment of trusted people to key positions, adopted by other communist regimes
Business and political leaders with what some consider undue influence in Russia
party of power
a non-ideological party , strongly sponsored by economic and political power holders (example: United Russia as Putin's party)
ill-fated attempt to reform the Soviet economy in the late 1980s
generic term used to describe the leadership of communist parties
The most important departments in the Russian government: defense, foreign affairs, interior (including the police), and others.
Under the Constitution of 1993, the Russian President can issue decrees that have the force of law. Decrees have been used to create state-owned companies. They are beyond the control of the legislature, although theoretically the Constitutional Court has the authority to review them for compliance with the Constitution.
the selling off of state-owned companies
The systematic removal of people from party, state or other office; especially common in communist systems. In Stalin regime, millions of citizens, including up to one million party members, generals, and members of the politburo and Central Committee were executed.
The current regime in Russia, consisting of 89 regions. 21 are ethnically non-Russian by majority. Each region is bound by treaty to the Federation. Most are called "republics."
Russian Orthodox Church
the national church of Tsarist Russia. The autocratic tsars were heads of both government and the church. The Eastern Orthodox culture is distinct and isolated from the traditions which developed in Western Europe. The majority of Russian today self-identify as Russian Orthodox, although most Russians are non-practicing.
given by Khrushchev in 1957; seen as the beginning of the "thaw" and de-Stalinization.
generic term used to describe the bureaucratic leaders of a communist party
an immediate transition from a command economy to a market economy; a post-1991 plan supported by Yeltsin and his government which called for privatization of state-owned industry and macroeconomic policies designed to control inflation
"lover of Slavs"; emphasizes nationalism and defense of Russian interests and Slavic culture; favors a strong military and protection from foreign economic interference
the state determines which groups in society will have input into policy making; typical of societies in which interest groups and civil society are weak or undeveloped. In modern Russia, this is facilitated by vast, state-owned holding companies in key industries whose independence and loyalty to the government can be managed. See also insider privatization.
the lower house of the Russian Parliament
a political culture that values a strong state and looks to it rather than individual, private initiative for leadership and decision making in political, economic and social matters.
the Russian mafia
an 'interest group' that gained power during the chaotic aftermath of the Revolution of 1991. It controls businesses, natural resources and banks, and derives profit from payoffs, money laundering and deals made with government officials.
Moscow-dominated organization of communist parties throughout the world between the two wars
Twentieth Party Congress
forum for Khrushchev's 'secret speech' launching de-Stalinization
Union of Right Forces
("right" equals "correct" or "true") Party which supports a free market and privatization of industry. Lost all seats in the Duma after 2007 law change.
United Russia Party
The political party led by Russian president Vladimir Putin; gained 64% of the vote or 315 out of 450 seats in 2007 election. No real ideological position other than "pro-Putin"
17th - 18th century approach of some Russian Tsars (notably Peter the Great and Catherine the Great) challenging traditional Russian affinity for isolation, sought to modernize Russia with a stronger army, navy, an infrastructure of roads and communication, a reorganized bureaucracy, and a "window on the west" (the new city of St. Petersburg on the Baltic Sea). In its modern form, Westernization supports the integration of Russia in to the world economy and global trade.
One of the leading reformist parties in Russia; lost all seats in the 2007 election due to rule change
a period from 1940 to 1960 in which Mexico experienced significant economic growth while also making an orderly transition from an authoritarian to a democratic government
indigenous people of Mexico
a program that brought Mexican agricultural workers to the U.S. during World War II; abandoned in 1964, but helped to establish the tradition of young Mexican men coming to the United States to earn money.
elected President of Mexico in 2006
son of Mexico's famous and revered president Lazaro Cardenas. He was PRD's presidential candidate in 1989 and 1994, after being ejected from PRI for demanding reform that emphasized social justice and populism.
charismatic president of Mexico from 1934-1940. Sometimes called the "Roosevelt of Mexico," Cardenas both stabilized the country and gave voice to many of the peasant demands from the Revolution of 1910 and made radical changes in Mexican politics, including redistribution of land, nationalization of industry, investment in public works, and encouragement of peasant and union organizations.
political/military strongmen from different areas of the country who frequently competed for power. Patron-client systems, involving large numbers of citizens, coalesced around them. Two famous caudillos, Zapata and Villa, emerged to lead peasant armies.
Chamber of Deputies
The lower house of Mexico's bicameral legislature, composed of 500 representatives
Chiapas (Zapatista) rebellion
rebellion that began in 1994 in Chiapas, a poor, southern state. Led by Emiliano Zapata, armies of Amerindian peasants demanded land and other populist reforms.
a group of advisors who believed in bringing scientific and economic progress to Mexico, encouraged entrepreneurship and foreign investment
divisions within society in which every dispute tends to align the same groups against each other; predictable and explosive
divisions within society in which many potential groups may disagree on one issue but cooperate on another; more fluid, and social conflict is more moderate
a system of interest representation in which the government allows certain group privileged access to the policy-making decisions in exchange for loyalty.
One of the bloodiest conflicts in Mexican history. Beginning in the 1920s, Catholic priests led a rebellion against new laws that prohibited priests from voting, put federal restrictions on church-affiliated schools, and suspended religious services. These laws were promoted by liberals who saw the Church as a bastion of conservatism. Hundreds of thousands of people, including many priests, were killed in the conflict.
In an effort to industrialize, the Mexican government borrowed heavily against expectations that oil prices would remain high indefinitely. When the price of oil plummeted in 1982, Mexico's economy followed, and by 1987 its debt was over $107 billion, representing 70% of GNP.
the process of transition from authoritarian to democratic rule
Mexican general who staged a military coup in 1876 and instituted himself as president, thereafter ruling for 34 years. Introduced the cientificos, and presided over an administration marked by stability, authoritarianism, foreign investment, economic growth, and a growing gap between rich and poor.
collective land grants formed by property taken from large landowners and foreigners and redistributed to be worked by peasants
Federal Election Commission (CFE)
an independent regulatory body created to safeguard honest and accurate election results. It is responsible for reforms including campaign finance restrictions, freer media coverage, international watch teams and election monitoring by opposition party members.
President of Mexico 2000-2006; PAN party
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade: a multilateral agreement that attempts to promote freer trade among countries. This agreement gave rise to the World Trade Organization.
Import Substitution Industrialization
a strategy for economic development that employs high tariffs to protect locally produced goods from foreign competition, government ownership of key industries, and government subsidies to domestic industries
a manufacturing zone created in the 1960s in northern Mexico just south of the U.S. border, in which Mexican workers produce goods primarily for consumers in the U.S. A number of U.S. companies established plants in the zone to transform imported, duty-free components or raw materials into finished industrial products. The maquiadora district employs hundreds of thousands of Mexican workers and accounts for over 20% of the country's industrial workforce.
the process of racial mixing between Mexicans and indigenous people
Mexicans of mixed European and Amerindian heritage
a government policy after the revolution devoted to all things Mexican
Mexican parish priest of Spanish origins who led a popular rebellion against Spanish rule in 1810. Seen as a champion of the indigenous people of Mexico, symbol of the political rights of the peasantry.
North American Free Trade Agreement: signed by Mexico, Canada and the U.S. with the goal of more closely integrating the economies of these countries by eliminating trade barriers, providing protection for foreign investors, and reducing restrictions so that companies can expand into all countries freely. NAFTA does not allow for free movement of the human work force, and the U.S. Congress has banned Mexican trucks from entering the U.S.
neocorporatismn (societal corporatism)
interest group politics where private sector groups take the lead and dominate policy making (contrast state corporatism)
neoliberalism (economic liberalism)
the process of limiting the power of the state over private property and market forces; a strategy that calls for free markets, balanced budgets, privatization, free trade and limited government intervention in the economy
Obrador, Andres Manuel Lopez
The current leader of PRD; former mayor of Mexico City, barely lost the 2006 presidential election to PAN candidate Calderon
Party of the Democratic Revolution: the center-right party that was the first to win the presidential elections after the breakdown of PRI's one-party rule.
semi-autonomous or autonomous government agencies, often produce goods and services that in other countries are carried out by private individuals or companies
giant government-controlled oil company; a large, inefficient parastatal
a shifting of political and economic strategy between state-led development and economic liberalization.
a basic principle of democracy; power is split among many groups that compete for the chance to influence the government's decision making
old-style heads of camarillas (patron-client networks)
the regime of Porfirio Diaz, President of Mexico from 1876 until he was ousted by a military coup in 1910.
The Democratic Revolutionary Party, represents PRI's opposition on the left. Formed in 1989, it is a diverse coalition of the left.
Institutional Revolutionary Party, formed in 1929, stabilized political power in the hands of its leaders, presided over single-party rule until the election of a President from a different party in 2006
money sent by Mexican immigrants in the U.S. to their families in Mexico. It amounts to about $9 billion annually, the third largest source of foreign exchange after oil and tourism.
Revolution of 1910-1911
Started by an elite coup to end the Porfiriato, this conflict initiated a period of instability, disorder and warlordism in Mexico
each president of Mexico is limited to this single, 6-year term of office
a method of cooptation in which the state mediates among different groups to ensure that no one group successfully challenges the government.
educated, business-oriented leaders who favored a moderate, free-market approach to politics
one of two leaders to emerge during the Revolution of 1910 [the other was Emiliano Zapata] to lead peasant armies against the Porfiriato, later assassinated.
areas near China's borders that are home to various ethnic minorities. The five regions are Guangxi, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Tibet and Xinjiang. The Chinese constitution grants autonomous areas the right of self-government in some matters such as cultural affairs, but autonomy is in fact very limited.
term used to describe the permanent, professional (but low level) members of a party, especially in the communist world
targeted, periodic efforts to mobilize the masses to meet a specified goal
derogatory term used to label moderate CCP leaders during the Cultural Revolution
Chinese Communist Party; the only legal party in China, which has run the country since 1949
Central Advisory Committee
behind-the-scenes leadership exerised by the CCP's elderly leaders during Deng Xiaoping's years in power. Deng was able to urge his colleagues into formal retirement with im in the 1980s, but they continued to run the country through the Central Advisory Commission (CAC), which was set up in 1982. The CAC theoretically existed only to advise the politburo, but in reality its members remianed the most powerful people in the country and made all the important decisions. The CAC was abolished at the Fourteenth Party Congress in 1992.
Founder of the Chinese Communist Party
Nationalist president of China before 1949 and later of the government in exile on Taiwan
the transfer of traditional Chinese group loyalty from family and village to the party and state; valuing the good of the community above that of the individual
the interwar coalition of communist parties in other countries directed from Moscow;
Chinese philosophical and religious tradition emphasizing, among other things, order and hierarchy
cult of personality
in communist and other systems, the excessive adulation of a single leader.
the period of upheaval in China from the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s
In urban areas, the party maintains control through danwei, social units based on a person's place of employment. People depend on these units for medical care, housing, daycare and recreational facilities.
The first large, reasonably well organized protest movement against the CCP and its policies, it began in 1976 with protests in Tiananmen Square. The movement grew in size and scope, eventually including more than 200,000 people and spreading beyond Beijing to other major cities. Following a prolonged, massive protest gathering in Tiananmen Square, the PLA stormed the crowd, killing an estimated 400,000 people. Subsequently, hard-liners solidified their control and made open expression of dissent impossible.
initially, a wall in the city of Beijing on which people, with government approval, put posters[dazhibao or big-character posters] with political messages. More broadly, an effort beginning in 1978, inspired by Deng's willingness to allow a degree of political freedom. The posters spread from the Democracy Wall to other locations, and the message progressed from criticism of how socialism was being implemented to advocacy of a wider variety of reforms, including freedom of speech to a multi-party system.
The Leninist organizational structure that cconcentrates power in the hands of the party elite; rule by the few for the good of the many
Deng Xiaoping Theory
late 20th century, a practical mix of authoritarian political control and economic privatization; a combination of socialist planning and the capitalist free market, with the understanding that ppolitical and social values remained subject to Party control
a key part of the political structure of the PRC. Three parallel hierarchies -- the Party, the State and the PLA -- are separate yet they interact with each other.The relationship between the party and the government is controlled by the principle of dual control: vertical supervision by the next higher level of governmentand horizontal supervision by the Party at the same level. (In reality, China's policymaking is governed more directly by factions and personal relationships.)
Until the 20th century, long periods of rule by one family punctuated by times of "chaos" when the family lost its power and was challenged by a new ruling dynasty
hierarchy was the key organizing principle in Chinese society before 1949; Mao's emphasis on a society and economy in which everyone was equal was in complete opposition to traditional, Confucian hierarchy
ethic of struggle
Portions of China, Japan, and Korea where European law operated during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; Europeans asserted that their law, not the laws of C hia, applied to their activities there.
a group organized on ideological or other lines operating inside a political party
Chinese spiritual movement suppressed by the Chinese government since the late 1990s
a world-renowned astrophysicist who was suppressed during the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution, now living in exile in the United States
a tightening up/loosening up cycle, referring to the relative power of reformers and conservatives. Example: Mao's experiment with the Hundred Flowers campaign, folowed by the Great Leap Forward
a policy first introduced by Zhou Enlai and championed by Deng Xiaoping, focusing on developing industry, the military, agriculture, and science in China
free market socialism
Gang of Four
Radical leaders in China during and after the Cultural Revolution, led by Jiang Ching, Mao's wife.
Great Leap Forward
Failed Chinese campaign of the late 1950s to speed up development and move to socialism and communism
While China, like Russia, recruits through the nomenklatura, the actual party leadership communicates through a patron-clint network called guanxi; an "old boys network" which emphasizes the importance of personal career ties beteen individuals
since ancient times, the predominant ethnic group in China and the historic basis of China's identity
One state's predominance over other states; the political, economic, ideological or cultural power exerted by a dominant group over other groups, regardless or the explicit consent of the dominated groups.
household responsibility system
Part of the post-Maoist reform program. During the 1980s, Maoist-era communes were dismantled and replaced by the household responsibility system. The party divided collective farms into small plots which were worked by families. The amount the farmers were required to sell to the state was reduced, and the market was allowed to determine most agricultural prices.
President of China
Hundred Flowers Campaign
reformist Chinese campaign in the mid-1950s, eventually quashed by the government
iron rice bowl
From 1949 to 1978, China followed a communist political/economic model which included a command economy and "cradle to grave" health care, employment, and retirement security. Mao called this the "iron rice bowl." This model was replaced by Deng Xiaoping, who introduced the socialist market economy - gradual infusion of capitalism while maintaining state control.
The Chinese Nationalist Party, which was nominally in power from 1911-49, now in charge only on Taiwan
Head of the PLA and designated successor to Mao; died in mysterious circumstances after a failed coup attempt in 1972
Retreat by the CCP in the mid-1930s, which turned into one of its strengths in recruiting support from rural areas
mandate of heaven
the right to rule as seen by the collective ancestral wisdom that guided the Chinese empire from the heavens; a source of legitimacy for dynastic power in China
Chinese Communist principle that stressed "learning from the masses;" leaders would communicate their will and direction to the people, but the people in turn would communicate their wisdom through the mass line to the leaders.
May Fourth Movement
Chinese protest movement triggered by opposition to the Treaty of Versailles; a major step on the path leading to the creation and victory of the CCP
how the Chinese have referred to their country since ancient times, in which China is the center of civilization and foreigners are 'barbarians' from vastly inferior civilizations
a Revolutionary Alliance formed in 1905 by a group of radical Chinese studying in Japan. They elected Chiang Kai-shek as their leader, and the alliannce soon became the Kuomintang (KMT) or Nationalist Party.
Following a "two-child family" campaign introduced after Mao's death in 1976, Deng Xiaoping instituted the "one child policy" in 1979, which included both incentives and penalties to assure that couples produced only one child. Late marriages were encouraged, and free contraceptives, abortions, and sterilizations were provided to families that followed the policy. Penalties, includding steep fines, were imposed on couples that had a second child.
meetings of the Central Committee, in which the business of the National Party Congress is carried on between sessions (the National Party Congress meets only every 5 years)
People's Republic of China (official name)
Radical students and other young supporters of Mao Zedong during the Cultural Revolution
under Maoist rule, people were encouraged to rely on their own talents to contribute to their communities, rather than relying on directions from an elite
tension between China and Russia that rocked the communist world and led to a parting of ways by the two countries
special economic zones (SEZs)
designed to facilitate and control entry by foreign governments/capital into the Chinese market, regions were created in which foreign investors were given preferential tax rates and other incentives. By the mid-100-s, spread to most of urban China.
a small, influential committee within the Politburo. The 23-member Politburo is composed of about 20 members, but its day-to-day work is perfomed by the 8-member Standing Committee.
a method of co-optation whereby authoritarian systems create or sanction a limited number of organizations to represent the interests of the public and restrict those not set up or approved by the state
struggle and activism
Mao encouraged the Chinese people to actively pursue the values of socialism, which would require struggle and devotion
President of China after the 1911 revolution
people with technical training who have climed the ladder of the CCP bureaucrracy
symbolic heart of Chinese politics; site in Beijing of protests and a massacre in 1976 and 1989
township and village enterprises (TVEs)
rural factories and businesses of greatly varying size that are run by local government and private entrepreneurs. TVEs make their own decisions and are responsible for their profits and lossesl The growth of the TVE- system has slowed the migration of peasants to the cities and has become the backbone of economic strength in the countryside.
Muslims of Turkish descent living in the autonomous region of Xinjiang, close to China's borders with Afghanistan, Pakistan and the Central Asian states of the former Soviet Union. Uyghur militants want to create a separate Islamic state and have sometime used violence to support their cause.
a person with power who exercises both miiltary and quisi-governmental control over a substantial area due to armed forces loyal to the warlord and not to a central government or authority. Warlords emerged during the chaos at the end of the Qing Dynasty prior to the birth of the republic of China.
Prime Minister of China
Number two to Mao in China from 1949 until his death in 1975
"red vs. expert"
debate in China pitting ideologues against experts, cadres against technocrats or other supporters of economic development
Following the establishment of the PRC by Mao in 1949, Chiang Kai-shek established what he called the true government of China on the island of Formosa (Taiwan). The PRC was not recognized as a nation by the UN until 1972. The phrase "Two Chinas" is now sometimes redefined to describe the cleavage between rural and urban China.
"economics is for donkeys"
famous dictum of Ayatollah Khomeini, disdaining the importance of economics in public policy and affirming the superiority of religious leadership
the Islamic Republic's policy towards women: divorce and custody laws now follow Islamic standards that favor males, require women to wear chador and otherwise restrict their behavior and rights
president of Iran
Assembly of Religious Experts
an informal body in Iran that has de facto veto power over all major political decisions, charged with evaluating the performance of the supreme leader
"Sign of God," a title conferred upon leading Shiite mojtaheds
members of a religious minority originating in 19th century Iran who are considered as heretics or defectors from Islam by mainstream Shiites
a loosely-organized military that is formally part of the Revolutionary Guards, gained international attention following the disputed presidential election of 2009
Islamic charities in Iran, many of which are controlled by the government; quasi-private foundations and religious endowments that are charged with aiding the poor by managing many state-owned enterprises
full-body- covering garment that most Iranian women have to wear
begun in 1906, the first attempt to bring democracy to Iran
Constitution of 1979
Constitutional Revolution of 1905-09
a campaign that started in 1980 to purge revolutionary forces from university campuses, led to the closure of Iranian universities for a number of years
a half lay/ half clerical body designed to smooth relations between those two communities in Iran at the highest levels, specifically to resolve differences between the parliament and the Guardian Council
religious beliefs of a literal nature that often lead to right-wing political views; emphasizes literal interpretation of Islamic texts, social conservatism and political traditionalism
the leading theological body in Iran for political purposes; dominated by clerics, it determines who can run in elections and decides whether laws passed by the parliament are compatible with Islam
Guardianship of the Jurist
principle articulated by Ayatollah Khomeini that the religious leaders and governing bodies (the supreme leader, the Guardian Council, the Assembly of Religious Experts and the Expediency Council) have all-encompassing authority over the whole community based on their ability to understand religious law
spiritual leaders; for Shiites, one of the 12 infallible heirs to the Prophet descended from Ali
Muslims who are convinced that their faith should dominate politics
Khamenei, Ayatollah Ali
Supreme Leader of Iran since the death of Ayatollah Khomeini
Reformist president of Iran, 1997-2005, leader of the "Tehran spring," a period of cautious political liberalization
Khomeini, Ayatollah Ruhollah
Muslim cleric who led the 1979 revolution in Iran and was leader of the country until his death in 1989
the Parliament in Iran
former Prime Minister under Muhammad Khatami and the opposition candidate (to Mahmoud Ahmadinejad) in the 2009 presidential election
a low-ranking cleric trained in traditional law
the father and son who ruled Iran from 1925 until the 1979 Revolution
People of the Book
monotheistic people who live their lives according to a holy book such as the Quran, the Bible or the Torah
the first large empire in world history, with strong leaders, successful military and centralized governing structures.
a body of statutes made by legislative bodies. Unlike sharia, qanun has no sacred basis. Quanun are passed by the majles as the representatives of the people, but they have no sacred meaning and must in no way contradict sharia. Part of the work of the Guardian Council is to review this work of the legislature and apply the correct interpretation of sharia to all laws passed.
1794-1925: after the Safavid Empire ended with the invasion of Afghan tribesmen, the Qajars conquered Persia, moved the capital to Tehran and retained Shiism as the official state religion. The Qajars ruled during the period of European Imperialism and suffered loss of land to Russia and of oil rights to Britain.
the holy book of Islam
Rafsanjani, Ayatollah Hasemi
second president of Iran after the 1979 revolution, known for his moderate and pragmatic views
reformers vs. conservatives
factions that represent the contradiction between the influence of theocracy and democracy. Conservatives uphold the principles of the 1979 revolution, including strict sharia law, and are anti-western and anti-modernization. Reformists support significant reform, advocate some degree of international involvement and accept the idea that political leaders do not all have to be clerics
large, state-affiliated conglomerates run by clerics and their lay allies, mainly set up for philanthropic purposes, which have a firm grip on Iran's economy through their monopolistic and rent-seeking transactions
formed by Muhammad Reza Shah in 1975, when he declared that Iran was a one-party state with him as its head.
revolution of rising expectations
theory that revolutions are most likely to occur when people are doing better economically than they once were but some type of setback occurs. Iran fits this classic model in 1979, after oil prices declined and consumer prices increased.
an elite military force whose commanders are appointed by the supreme leader; created as a parallel force to protect the Republic from subterfuge by the regular military created by the shah
reigned in Iran from 1501-1722, imposed Shi'ism on Iran
belief that religion should be separated from government
first Pahlevi shah of Iran
title of the rulers of Iran prior to the 1979 Islamic Revolution; king, undisputed ruler
Shah, Mohammed Reza
the second and last Pahlevi shah of Iran; deposed in 1979
the canonical law of Islam; as the foundation of all Islamic civilization, its authority extends beyond any single country's borders. Sharia also supersedes all other types of law
minority Muslim sect, usually seen as more militant than the Sunnis
statists vs. free-marketers
statists support an active role by the government in controlling the economy - redistributing land and wealth, eliminating unemployment, controlling prices, etc. Free marketers: support lower business taxes, elimination of price controls, encouragement of private enterprise
majority Muslim sect, usually seen as more moderate than the Shiites
title given to the ayatollah who sits at the top of all Iranian political institutions; the country's most powerful figure, who has the authority to overrule or dismiss the president, appoint members of the Guardian Council, and has personal representatives in the army, universities, etc.
Supreme National Security Council
organization responsible for Iran's intelligence, military, security, and strategic policies
a government ruled strictly in accordance with religious belief and law
the term used by the shah to describe reforms in Iran between the end of World War II and the downfall of his regime in 1979; focused on land reform, modernization of agriculture and political secularization (including extending voting rights to women
state sponsored religion during the kingdom of ancient Persia
"true federalism" movement
An argument by southern Nigerians that true federalism will not exist until the central government devolves more power to state and local officials and allows regions to control their own resources. To southerners, this means that the government should not redistribute their region's oil revenues. Northerners do not support the true federalism movement since their regions lack resources and revenue.
Abacha, Sani (General)
military leader (dictator) of Nigeria from 1993-1998; died in office
AC [Action Congress]
party formed by the merger of the Alliance for Democracy, the Justice Party, the Advance Congress of Democrats and other minor political parties
ANNP [All Nigeria People's Party]
sponsored the election of General Muhammadu Buhari in 2003 and 2007; Muslim from the north
Babangida, Ibrahim (General)
military leader (dictator) of Nigeria from 1985-1993
the Southeastern region of Nigeria that is home to the Igbo people and was the site of a bloody but unsuccessful war for independence
military leader (dictator) of Nigeria from 1983-1985; ousted by military coup; Muslim from the north
the sectors of society that lie outside government control; voluntary, formal and informal associations
the acceptance of a constitution as a guiding set of principles
contact with and spread of customs and beliefs of other people. This occurred in Northern Nigeria due to trade and accounted for the diffusion of Islam,
in Nigeria and elsewhere, the notion that colonial powers had to rule on their own and through local leaders at the same time
In Nigeria, the goal is to seek a "federal character" for the nation, a principle that recognizes people of all ethnicities, religions and regions and takes their needs into account. This issue assumes that the "national question" in Nigeria remains unanswered.
governmental organization in which power and responsibility are divided among a national government and sub-national governmental units; theoretically, promises that power will be shared, that different regions will be fairly represented, and that citizens will have more contact points with the government and the democratic process will be enhanced.
a combination of two predominantly Muslim groups in Nigeria's northwest
an ethnic group in Nigeria's Southeast, primarily Christian
a style of government introduced by the British in 1860, in which Nigerians (primarily from the south) were trained to fill the European-style bureaucracy.
INEC [Independent National Elections Commission]
Formed in 1998, established qualifications to run candidates in legislative and presidential elections, cutting the number of eligible parties. However, the INEC itself was widely accused of corruption in the 2007 election.
since most Nigerians lack access to the patron-client system, they are forced to participate in an informal economy of unreported incomes from small-scale trade and subsistence agriculture
Islamic holy war
a small, primarily Muslim group living in Nigeria's northeast
Nigeria's policymaking process is top-down and power is concentrated in the presidency. Senior government officials are supported by a broader base of loyal junior officials, creating a loyalty pyramid. Since the state controls the country's resources, only those in the pyramid have access to wealth and influence. When the military was in control, the pyramid was protected by force.
military in barracks
following the first military coup in 1966, this term referred to the traditional duties of the military - a temporary, objective organization that keeps order and brings stability
military in government
following the first military coup in 1966, this term referred to the role of the military in politics and public policymaking. Distinguish from military in barracks; due to this internal division, military presidents have had to keep a watchful eye on other military leaders.
Nigeria's presidential system plus its bicameral legislature
two-time leader of Nigeria: as a military dictator from from 1976-1979 [replaced by democratically elected president] and as a civilian president from 1999-2997; Christian Yoruba from the south
corporations owned by the state and designated as the providers of commercial and social welfare services (public utilities, transportation, steel, defense , petroleum)
a system in which the president is the head of an intricate patron-client system and dispenses government jobs and resources as rewards to suppporters.
patron-client system (prebendalism)
clientelism: the practice of exchanging political and economic favors among patrons and clients, designed to create and maintain loyalty and almost always accompanied by corruption. In Nigeria, patrons are usually linked to clients by religion or ethnicity
PDP [The People's Democratic Party]
one of Nigeria's better-established political parties. Sponsored the elections of both Obasanjo and Yar'Adua, and also gained the overwhelming majority in the National Assembly and gained governorships of most Nigerian states
A proposal to allow the federal government to collect Nigerian oil revenues and pool them in a "federal account." While this was put forward as a way to allow the entire country to benefit from oil profits, many Nigerians in the southern Niger Delta protested that it was a plan by northerners to take away profits due to southerners.
Nigerian poet, dissident, rights activist and environmentalist; founded MOSOP [Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People], executed by order of a military court in 1995
rule of Islamic religious law as part of political authority
a Muslim state established by the Fulani people in the entire Northwest, North, midsection and part of the Northeast in 1808. The caliphate traded with Europeans and eventually succumbed to British colonial rule by 1900.
the national question
how Nigeria should be governed and whether it can or should be a nation
a private organization that compiles statistics about corruption in countries around the world
president of Nigeria from 2007 to present; Muslim from the north
a large ethnic group in Nigeria's southwest. Yoruba are 30% Muslim, 40% Christian and 20% native religions
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