Scheduled maintenance: Saturday, August 7 from 5PM to 6PM PDT
Upgrade to remove ads
AP Human Geography Ch. 11 Industrialization
Terms in this set (76)
Rain containing acids that form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions (especially sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) combine with water.
A process involving the clustering or concentrating of people or activities. The term often refers to manufacturing plants and businesses that benefit from close proximity because they share skilled-labor pools and technological and financial amenities.
The savings to an individual enterprise derived from locational association with a cluster of other similar economic activities, such as other factories or retail stores.
The contamination of the atmosphere by the introduction of pollutants from human and natural sources.
They have to comply to clean air rules while still trying to make the most money possible in their production. Use recycling. Importance: shows companies taking deliberate action to help the environment.
Factors of Production
Land, labor, and capital; the three groups of resources that are used to make all goods and services.
Factors of Location
The numerous costs that are considered; Some costs are transportation, labor, agglomeration, market, energy, terrain, climate, personal preference, the product itself.
Production method that breaks down a complex job into a series of smaller tasks.
The creation of value or wealth by producing goods and services.
Principles for mass production based on assembly-line techniques, scientific management, mass consumption based on higher wages, and sophisticated advertising techniques.
Bid Rent Theory
Geographical economic theory that refers to how the price and demand on real estate changes as the distance towards the Central Business District (CBD) increases.
Break of Bulk Point
A location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another.
Canadian Industrial Heartland
This place has a sizable manufacturing sector, centred in Central Canada, with the automobile industry especially important.
Refers to the positive or negative aspects of each type of transportation.
Series of links connecting the many places of production and distribution and resulting in a commodity that is then exchanged on the world market.
The ability of an individual, firm, or country to produce a good or service at a lower opportunity cost than other producers.
The perspective that a foreign culture should not be judged by the standards of a home culture and that a behavior or way of thinking must be examined in its cultural context
A process through which tendencies for economic growth are self-reinforcing; an expression of the multiplier effect, it tends to favor major cities and core regions over less-advantaged peripheral regions
The process of industrial deconcentration in response to technological advances and/or increasing costs due to congestion and competition.
Process by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor, leaving the newly deindustrialized region to switch to a service economy and to work through a period of high unemployment.
Diseconomies of Scale
The property whereby long-run average total cost rises as the quantity of output increases.
Primary: raw material extraction; Secondary: manufacturing; Tertiary: services
Economies of Sale
The property whereby long-run average total cost falls as the quantity of output increases.
Tourism to exotic or threatened ecosystems to observe wildlife or to help preserve nature.
Natural resources that can be converted into energy.
Big commercial center for importing and exporting commodities. A port where merchandise can be imported and re-exported without paying import duties.
Export Processing Zone
Areas where governments create favorable investment and trading conditions to attract export-oriented industries.
Expenses that remain the same for a period of time; must be paid regardless of the quantity of a good or service produced/sold.
Industry not bound by locational constraints and able to choose to locate wherever it wants.
South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong.
Natural situation in which heat is retained in Earth's atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other gases.
Specific areas where economic and industrial growth is centered and branches outward to expand the market.
The central or most important part of a country, area, or field of activity (Mackinder).
A peripheral area of a country or region (Spykman).
Industrial Location Theory
Alfred Webers attempt to rationalize why industry is located where it is in relation to the cost of that location, how the location will maximize profits, and the influence of other local enterprises.
Place- A location known for a specific industry
Fuel source- Some form of energy/resource to power the industry
Characteristics- Highly Urbanized
A series of improvement in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
Receding- An industry experiencing a lower than average growth rate.
Growing- An industry experiencing a higher than average growth rate.
The basic structures and facilities (such as buildings, roads, and power) needed for the operation of a society or business.
Trade between countries or groups in goods from different industries
Trade within a country or group in goods from different industries.
International Division of Labor
Spatial distribution of labor globally in which industry often relocates from MDCs to LDCs due to low labor costs in LDCs.
The largest plain in Japan located in the Kanto Region of central Honshu.
Labor costs comprise a high percentage of total expenses or lots of labor is needed.
Model developed by Alfred Weber that states the location of manufacturing establishments is determined by the minimization of three critical expenses: labor, transportation, and agglomeration.
Harold Hotelling's theory that competitors trying to maximize sales will seek to constrain each other's territory as much as possible which will therefore lead them to locate adjacent to one another in the middle of their collective customer base.
Major Manufacturing Regions
Locations known for a concentrated amount of manufacturing. The world's major manufacturing regions are found in North American, Europe, and East Asia, though other manufacturing centers are also found elsewhere.
Major manufacturers that produce mostly material for exportation to foreign countries.
-Industrial Parks: An area of land developed as a site for factories and other industrial businesses.
-Agglomeration: Have secondary and service industrial activities become clustered in cities and compact industrial regions in order to share infrastructure and markets.
-Shared Services: Are any services provided on a regional or joint basis between local groups.
-Zoning: Is the area subject to particular planning restrictions.
-Transportation: Cost to and from local markets.
-Taxes: what taxes are imposed on the location of the warehouse?
-Environmental Considerations: How will the manufacturing affect the local environment?
Factory built in US companies in Mexico near the US border to take advantage of much lower labor costs in Mexico
The tendency of an economic activity to locate close to its market due to high distribution costs.
An effect in economics in which an increase in spending produces an increase in national income and consumption greater than the initial amount spent.
North American Free Trade Agreement; allows open trade with US, Mexico, and Canada
The procuring of services or products, such as the parts used in manufacturing a motor vehicle, from an outside supplier or manufacturer in order to cut costs.
Thinning of Earth's ozone layer caused by CFC's leaking into the air and reacting chemically with the ozone, breaking the ozone molecules apart.
Factory is located close to market and supplier to reduce need for stalk items, and supplies, "Just in time" delivery.
An economy with less emphasis on heavy industry and manufacturing and more emphasis on services and technology.
Artificial cooling that drastically reduces microbial growth of certain bacteria.
A crisis in which needed resources are not available to the consumers that need them.
Tendency for an industry or other type of economic activity to locate close to its resources.
Special Economic Zones (China)
Specific area within a country in which tax incentives and less stringent environmental regulations are implemented to attract foreign business and investment.
Specialized Economic Zones
Specific area within a country that has tax incentives & less stringent environmental regulations are implemented to attract foreign business and investment.
Manufacturing Export Zones
Area where manufactured goods are exported to other countries.
In industry, the tendency to substitute one factor of production for another in order to achieve optimum plant location.
The minimum market needed to support the supply of a product or service.
Time Space Compression
The social and psycological effects of living in a world in which time-space convergence has rapidly reached a high level of intensity.
The deliberate killing of a place through industrial expansion and change, so that its earlier landscape and character are destroyed.
When two regions specifically satisfy each other's needs through exchange of raw materials and or finished goods.
Tragedy of the Commons
Situation in which people acting individually and in their own interest use up commonly available but limited resources, creating disaster for the entire community.
A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located.
Being present everywhere at once.
Costs that vary with the quantity of output produced.
German geographer who was a major theorists of industrial location. He devised a model of how to understand industrial locations in regard to several factors, including labor supply, markets, resource location, and transpiration.
Bulk Gaining Industry
An industry in which the final product weighs more or has a greater volume than the inputs.
Bulk Reducing Industry
An industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs.
Huge urban areas that are the most important centers of economic power and wealth.
You might also like...
AP Human Geography: unit 6 Industry and Development
AP Human Geography Industry
AP Human Geography Chapter 11 Vocabulary
Other sets by this creator
vocabulaire unite 6
Unit 6: L'art
Unit 7 Vocab
Chapter 8.1 (government)