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101 terms

APUSH: Chapter 8

1801-1824; Jeffersonianism and the Era of Good Feelings
STUDY
PLAY
Thomas Jefferson
the president of the US from 1800-1804, conducted the Louisiana purchase; repealed taxes & repaid the debt to restore liberty
republicans, federalists
"We are all ______, we are all _______."
Inaugural Address, paid off the debt, repealed taxes, smaller army
what Jefferson did in his first term to restore liberty and tranquility (4)
closed overseas embassies
method Jefferson used to stabilize foreign finances
Jefferson's Revolution
name of Jefferson's restoration of liberty and tranquility to the US due to despotism
Tripolitan Pirates, 1801
attacked by the American navy under Jefferson due to piracy + year
less costly
reason for Jefferson's war w/ Tripolitan pirates in North Africa
John Marshall
the most well-known chief justice; brought honor to the Supreme Court & gave it its greatest powers (ie judicial review)
judicial review
the Supreme Court's ability to deem Congress's jurisdiction unconstitutional / interpret the Constitution as a law (can be revoked)
Louisiana Purchase, 1803
Jefferson's land acquisition from France (Bonaparte and Talleyrand); doubled the size of the US
strict interpretation
controversy over Louisiana Purchase
importance of east coast
why the Federalists opposed the Louisiana Purchase
farming, more land, not sandwiched btw GB and France, trade
why the Democratic-Republicans supported the Louisiana Purchase (4)
Marbury v Madison
case in which Marshall created the power of judicial review; let neither Jefferson nor Marbury win
Lewis and Clark
two explorers sent to explore he newly acquired Louisiana Purchase; led to more accurate maps
water route across the US
purpose of Lewis and Clark expedition
Aaron Burr, James Wilkinson
man who allied with High Federalists (radical) to divide the US; later tried to ally GB and France to take over the US and Mexico + ally
attack West Florida, conquer Mexico, create Western confederacy
actions Aaron Burr took to divide the US (3)
couldn't prove actions
why Aaron Burr couldn't be accused of treason
John Randolph, popular liberty
a Republican Virginian who challenged all of Jefferson's decisions + what he thought each govt. should espouse
Yazoo Land Scandal
event in which the Georgia legislature was bribed to sell land cheaply to land companies + 3 mil. acres given to investors
northerner purchases
why Jefferson didn't want to attack the Yazoo Land Scandal
Fletcher v Peck
case in which states wanted land back from investors; Marshall rules that states can't revoke contracts
loose interpretation
how John Marshall interpreted the Constitution in the Fletcher v Peck and McCulloch v Maryland cases
protected private property
how the Fletcher v Peck decision supported capitalism
impressment
the forced capture and enlistment of American/GB sailors in the US
Chesapeake-Leopard Affair
event in which GB's HMS Leopard attacks Am. USS Chesapeake & takes 'deserters' off the US ship + 1807
Embargo Act, 1807
passed by Jefferson due to impressment and 'peaceful coercion"; prevented American vessels from going to foreign lands; caused major economic depression + date
James Madison
president of the US from 1808-1812; waged the War of 1812, dealt with Embargo Act issue (ie war hawks, Tecumseh); helped with internal improvements
Non-Intercourse Act, Embargo Act
passed by Madison to trade with all countries except GB and France unless neutrality was accepted + which act it replaced
Macon's Bill No. 2
passed by Madison to continue trade w/ GB and France; stated that the US would halt trade w/ the other if they accepted neutrality
peaceful coercion
obtaining compliance without using force
war hawks
extreme nationalists who wanted to get rid of GB and Sp. from the US; allied with the West
alliance btw. GB and Indians
common fear between war hawks and the westerners
Tecumseh
Shawnee chief who was infuriated by the Treaty of Fort Wayne; led an Indian attack against American settlers in Ohio/Indiana territory
Treaty of Fort Wayne
forced Indians to cede land in Indiana along the Wabash for 2 cents/acre
Battle of Tippecanoe
battle btw. Tecumseh and Harrison (Am); persuades Tecumseh to ally w/ GB
War of 1812
war waged by Madison btw. GB/US over neutrality and impressment; didn't resolve many issues
war hawks
supporters of the War of 1812
Treaty of Ghent
ended the War of 1812; established "status quo ante bellum"
Andrew Jackson
led the US army; became famous from the Battle of New Orleans
Battle of New Orleans
the greatest Am. victory after the War of 1812; made Jackson a national hero
Hartford Convention
held by Federalists over the War of 1812, Republican anger, and amendments to the Constitution
Era of Good Feelings, 1817-1824
a period of time under Monroe's rule in which political divisions were little, impressment ended, and both nationalism and sectionalism grew
James Monroe
pres. of the US from 1817-1825; dealt with the Missouri Compromise, sectionalist divisions, and the Monroe Doctrine
Henry Clay, Kentucky
Republican who created the "American System"; later tried to become a presidential candidate + state
Second Bank of the US, 1816
the national bank whose charter expired in 1811; created overspeculation & tightened loan policies caused the Panic of 1819 + when it was rechartered
lack of gold and silver in Peru, loan policies, overspeculation, recovery of European agriculture
led to the collapse of the American economy (4)
specie
gold and silver; hard currency
tighten the money supply
what the 2nd BUS was supposed to due to the loans
couldn't pull loans back
why the 2nd BUS caused deflation (due to # of loans)
Tariff of 1816
passed by Madison before leaving office to aid the newly sprawned textile/ manufacturing industry
American System
Henry Clay's proposed economic measures; wanted to make the US ind. of Europe
Dartmouth College v Woodward
case in which NH wanted to make its private college public; Marshall says charters cannot be changed; questions state sovereignty
Panic of 1819
event in which the US economy declined; people/state banks go into debt, prices fall freely; due to 2nd BUS loan issues
McCulloch v Maryland
case caused by the Panic of 1819; Maryland attempts to tax the BUS; Marshall says states can't tax institutions
regulate interstate commerce
the BUS's implied powers, stated by McCulloch v Maryland
Missouri Compromise
debate btw. north and south states over the # of free/slave states; slavery arises as an issue
John Quincy Adams
Monroe's secretary of state; dealt with foreign policy btw. GB and Sp., helped expansionist ideals
impressment
ended after the War of 1812 (not stated in Treaty of Ghent)
36-30 line
line created by the Missouri Compromise; lands north were free while south were slave states
Maine
admitted as a free state in 1820 to resolve the Missouri Compromise
Adams-Onis Treaty
treaty btw. US and Sp., gave the US Florida / Texas and a new southern border; access to the Pacific and Oregon
Oregon
land the US was able to explore after the Adams-Onis Treaty
Monroe Doctrine, 1823
declared American neutrality & abstinence from European wars ; denied Am. lands to European colonization (seen as 'unfriendly act') + date
Holy Alliance, South American revolts
who Spain wanted to ally with in 1823 + why
wanted Texas and Cuba
why Adams rejected allying with GB
interpretation of Constitution, race mixing, supported French Rev, questioned Christian doctrine
why Jefferson was seen as a controversial figure (4)
bank, Louisiana Purchase
when Jefferson changed his interpretation of the Constitution to benefit himself
impressment, peaceful coercion, seizure of American ships
why Jefferson passed the Embargo Act of 1807 (3)
hurt foreign markets, rise of manufacturing and industry
effects of the Embargo Act in the US (2)
British markets in South America and Spain, less American exports
effects of the Embargo Act abroad
farmers, land owners, Massachusetts merchants
people affected by the Embargo Act (3)
GB wants to hurt the US economy, impressment
why Madison chose to go to war with Britain
Hartford Convention
what brought on the end of the 1st Party System
Era of Good Feelings
when the 1st Party system ended
Adams-Onis Treaty, Monroe Doctrine, no impressment, one party system
Why was the period after the War of 1812 known as the Era of Good Feelings? (4)
Corrupt Bargain, role of federal govt
political divisions during the Era of Good Feelings (2)
population spread, sectionalism, slavery
social divisions during the Era of Good Feelings (3)
internal improvement bill, roads and canals
created by Madison to reduce social/ sectionalist tensions (2)
isolationism, neutrality during war, no European colonization
impact of Monroe's administration on foreign policy in the US (3)
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
the 'precursor' to the Hartford Convention
capitalism, stronger central government
what Marshall's court promoted through its decisions
Worcester v Georgia
Supreme Ct. case; Georgia kicks Cherokees off their land to take gold; Jackson sends Cherokees on "Trail of Tears"
Supreme Court can only persuade, needed executive to enforce decisions
how the Worcester v Georgia revealed limitations of the Supreme Court
3/5ths Clause, no more than 60 day embargo
general amendments the Hartford Convention called for
no consecutive election from same state, only one term
amendments the Hartford Convention called for (in terms of executive power)
admit states and declare war with 2/3rds vote
amendments the Hartford Convention called for (in terms of state power)
$10 million national debt
why Jefferson thought US was on the road to despotism
popular virtue
Jefferson thought popular liberty meant ______ ______
Judiciary Act of 1801
reduced the # of Supreme Ct. justices from 6 to 5; Jeff. thought it was Adams' way of implementing Federalists
no national issue
why the Federalists were weakening by 1804
mountains between Missouri and Columbia, scientific information
most important info acquired by Lewis and Clark
Battle of Bladensburg
most noteworthy event from the American perspective during the War of 1812
Napoleon abdicates
event in 1814 which might have diverted GB's attention from the US conflicts
Boston newspaper, 1817
origin (& date) of the term "Era of Good Feelings"
Rush-Bagot Treaty
treaty that demilitarized the Great Lakes (from GB)
British-American Convention
gave America fishing rights in Newfoundland, fixed boundaries between Canada, opened the Oregon Territory
Battle of New Orleans, equal footing with major powers
how the War of 1812 stimulated nationalism (2)
economic policy
difference btw. Madison and Jefferson
Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun
later, important national and regional leaders