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Welch Test 1
Terms in this set (70)
Who- Conquistador for Spain, discovered America,
Where- Spain, Bahamas
Significance- Quintessentially created the first definite discovery of the new world after Leif Erikson. Triggered the surplus of interest in the New World, and fundamentally changed the course of History.
The Columbian exchange, also known as the Columbian interchange and the triangular trade was the widespread transfer of plants, animals, culture, human populations, technology, and ideas between the Americas and the Old World
--Disease was a huge part of this exchange; much oh the population of the Incas, Aztecs, and Mayans were wiped out
Explorers from Europe, especially Portugal and Spain, who conquered the Americas during the Age of Discovery and opened up trade routes
-Polytheistic - mixed old gods with gods of conquered people
-War and invasions
-Barter economy (negotiated prices)
-Education was mandatory until age 14
-Absorbed the culture of people they conquered
-Developed hieroglyphic writing
-Mapped celestial objects like Moon and Venus
-Large royal palaces
-Known for Long distance trade
-City-states, no single Mayan Center
-Largest in land and population
-Polytheistic - reincarnation
-Corvee system: People required to donate time to public works projects (Roads!)
-Ruler was carried everywhere after age 6 (feet could not touch ground), if a common person looked at the ruler, they were forced to have their eyebrows and eyelashes removed
-Not a single people but confederation
Geography - multiple altitudes - unstable earthquake and volcanoes
-Mountains provide protection - but difficult to communicate
-Quipu - no written language but a type of record keeping
What- The reforming of the Catholic peoples into a new division of faith due to the growing distaste with the catholic church.
Significance- Lessened the control of the Catholic church as well as essentially lead to the movement away from Europe to the colonies. People seeking religious freedoms found solace in the seemingly uninhabited Colonies.
Sir Walter Raleigh
Founder of Roanoke, Virginia
Founded for commercial purposes, John White and Raleigh went back to help Queen of England, when they came back, colony had disappeared, Significance: first colony
Founder of Plymouth, left Holland because kids were being free of though and weren't following originally intended constraints, was so apprciative of Squanto's help he joined Wampanoag tribe as a warrior
Founded by New Virginia Company
Made rich by tobacco
principal founder: John Smith
Significance: first successful english colony
Nickname for tobacco in Jamestown because it made so much money
Impact of English Civil War
Armed conflict between royalists and parliamentarians, resulting in the victory of pro-Parliament forces and the execution of Charles I. (54)
He is remembered for his role in establishing the first permanent English settlement in North America at Jamestown, Virginia, and his brief association with the Native American girl Pocahontas during an altercation with the Powhatan Confederacy and her father, Chief Powhatan. He was a leader of the Virginia Colony (based at Jamestown) between 1607 and 1609, and led an exploration along the rivers of Virginia and the Chesapeake Bay.
John Rolfe was one of the early English settlers of North America. He is credited with the first successful cultivation of tobacco as an export crop in the Colony of Virginia
Married Pocahontas for alliance with the Natives
Known as Rebecca Rolfe "white name"
Helped maintain peace between jamestown and indians
House of Burgesses
-First legislative body in the new world
-Each town in Virgnia had representatives (white males that owned property) that could negotiate with Indians, pass legislation and devise treaties
-Developed the first notion of "self-government"
Radical Wing of Puritan faith in protestant reformation, not wing of clergy
Persecuted by James I
Created the Plymouth colony
William Bradford (Plymouth Colony governor)
Left England because of persecution, left Holland because of lack of constraints
Preached by John Calvin
-Its already predestined whos going to heaven, but no one knows
-You have to convince people of your salvation
-There is no assurance of heaven - Saying so would get you in trouble
-They believe they are superior and singular
-No christianizing efforts upon the Indians, except Roger Williams and Anne Hitchens
The Mayflower Compact was the first governing document of Plymouth Colony. It was written by the male passengers of the Mayflower, consisting of separatist Puritans, adventurers, and tradesmen. The Puritans were fleeing from religious persecution by King James of England.
Church of England held many catholic traditions
Need for reform
Founded Massachusetts bay colony
Sir George Calvert/Lord Baltimore
- Granted control of land by the Chesapeake Bay for his loyal service to king Charles I; established the proprietary colony of Maryland; wanted to achieve great wealth and create a haven for his fellow British Catholics who were persecuted in England
-Founder of Massachusetts - haven for English puritans
-creates the "City on the Hill" for religious purposes
Who- Host of the Bible Study,
When- 1591- 1643
Where- Colonies, Rhode Island
Significance- Deliberately set up bible study for independent thought at her home. The Church didn't like it, so they banished her after a 48 hour cross examination.
Who- Leader of the Quaker people.
Significance- Founded the state of Pennsylvania and led the Quakers. believed in inner light and was the least racist set of colonists around.
Salem Witch Trials
-The Salem witch trials occurred in colonial Massachusetts between 1692 and 1693. More than 200 people were accused of practicing witchcraft—the Devil's magic—and 20 were executed. Eventually, the colony admitted the trials were a mistake and compensated the families of those convicted
-Spectral evidence: visions or sight
-Samuel Parris was the Puritan minister in Salem, Massachusetts during the Salem witch trials. He was also the father of one of the afflicted girls, and the uncle of another.
-Owner of Tituba
Tituba was an enslaved woman, owned by Samuel Parris of Danvers, Massachusetts.
First with to be acused in Salem
Protestant reformers who believe in the equality of all people, make individual treaties with Indians for land and agree to their bargaining terms, believe in equality until death. First communities to support the abolition movements and women's suffrage movements. Women were encouraged to think and share ideas and opinions with the other sex
The Half-way Covenant applied to those members of the Puritan colonies who were the children of church members, but who hadn't achieved grace themselves. The covenant allowed them to participate in some church affairs.
English-speaking native that becomes an interpreter for the Mayflower pilgrims, gives advice about geography and helps them sign the Wampanoag Peace Treaty
A joint-stock company is a business entity in which shares of the company's stock can be bought and sold by shareholders.
Ex: Virginia Joint Stock Company
The headright system was a land grant program designed to attract settlers. Tracts of land called "headrights" were offered to settlers who would come and work the land. A typical headright was 50 acres. ... Many of the early settlers in the colonies were indentured servants.
-Wrote grievances of the Catholic Church, spread news about the increase of greed and corruption throughout the Church
-Believed that people could read and interpret the Bible themselves
-Too many rituals that demanded money be given to the Priest
-Started the protestant reformation
Who/What- Nathaniel Bacon fought against the oppression of the English when they wouldn't allow fur trade with natives.
Where- Virginia, Jamestown
Significance- The first big collective push of the settlers to topple the English hierarchy. Bacon burned down Jamestown too, which sucked.
Who- Founder of Rhode Island, non-puritan.
Significance- Established the state of Rhode Island. Began the controversial idea that was separation of Church and State.
-Language is a mixture of English, African, and French
-Food is also an interesting blend of English, African, French, and coastal seafood
-People were allowed more freedom than a lot of slaves
---could have own church service
---could eventually own freedom
-Property and business owners
-Founded Connecticut as a strict Puritan colony and also as expansion of Massachusetts
-Wanted universal christian suffrage
Who-Idealist who thought that in order to clean the streets of Britain, criminals could move to the Colonies.
Significance- Moved many people to the new colony of Georgia. Granted the criminals a second chance and gave them land allotments. Founded Georgia
-A religious movement that swept through the colonies in the 1730s and 1740s, encouraging religious revival
-Deism was popular during this time- thought that there was a higher power, God, "The clockmaker", who set world in motion, but humans could not have a relationship with him
French and Indian War
-Territorial tension between adjacent French and British territory begins to grow
-George Washington is catalyst for the war by creating Fort Necessity.
-French and Native Americans (who were allies because of fur trade) vs. British troops and colonists
Treaty of Paris (1763)
What- The treaty that ended the French and Indian war.
Significance- Granted the colonies relief from the over looming presence of the french and essentially uprooted the french from the Colonies. Later allowed the means for the British to take even more reign over the Colonies.
-The business of capturing, transporting, and selling people in Africa as slaves in America
-Close to 11 million slaves were captured and sold upon reaching land
-20-30% died on the slave ship
Was a surveyor in the colonial militia, was sent into Ohio Valley with his troops to build a fort (Ft. Necessity)
-Seen as an act of war and some say that he was the catalyst for starting the French and Indian War.
-Later (during American revolution) remembered as a war hero
A British fort that wasn't built well because it was built too quickly and at the bottom of a hill
-Built by George Washington
-French easily conquer, washinton surrenders
-A bloodless coup in England that overthrew James the II and enthroned Mary II and William the III; weakened the monarchical power
-Signficance: Demonstration of the right of people to change their form of government if they believed that government no longer protected their rights and it further established supermacy of parliament
"City on a Hill" Concept
Winthrop envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which people would see them and Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.
Incentives/reasons for colonization
Wealth, Famine, Population boom in Europe, Religious Freedom, Fame, Political Freedom
-2x Indentured Servant system in colonies
-Make more money by shearing wool than planting crops
-Colonies established during the Restoration of the English crown; the Carolinas, New York, New -Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware
Given by King Charles II
What- King Philip II's Spanish fleet. Sent to invade England.
Significance- The English thought that God was on their side because a massive storm swept in and destroyed the entire Spanish Armada. This was a major victory for the English because Spain was the most powerful country at the time.
Indentured servants were men and women who signed a contract (also known as an indenture or a covenant) by which they agreed to work for a certain number of years in exchange for transportation to Virginia and, once they arrived, food, clothing, shelter, freedom, and once they had finished work, they received land.
Pequot War/ Massacre at Mystic, CT
Colonial militia, led by Captain John Mason, along with some Native American allies, set fire to Peqout Fort, which is near Mystic River, and shot down any resident who tried to escape.
He ignited the Great Awakening in Massachusetts; New England congressionalist and preacher who criticized the idea of easy salvation promoted strict Puritan ideals
-Writes a book/pamphlet right after the witch trials in 1694 that says there are witches out there and they will find them
-Even though the witch trials are no longer in place, cotton says the practice should still go on
-Father of liberalism
-wrote "Two Treaties of Government" (1690)
-contrary theory of government
-NO Divine Right of King's
-government exists to protect the citizens' rights
-free men form contracts in a civil society
-rebellion is JUSTIFIED against an ARBITRARY government
Treaty of Hartford
-Ended the Pequot war
-Enslaves the Pequot people
-Outlaw the Pequot language and name
-Pequot Natives sold into slavery
----Robin Cacassion sold to John Wintrhop
-Charter = document issued by monarch
-Starting in 1660 (during the restoration of the monarchy), kings started giving grant of North American land to men that were loyal to the crown. Once King Charles the 2nd reclaimed the throne, he made the Proprietary colonies to repay debt and favors. Between 1660 and 1685, Maryland, the Carolinas, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, and Delaware were the proprietary colonies.
-The king has decided that he will have total authority
EX: The Carolinas from King Charles
-An American history term that refers to the seventeenth- and eighteenth-century British Crown policy of avoiding strict enforcement of parliamentary laws meant to keep American colonies obedient to England.
-They start to classify themselves as British American
-They are beginning to feel more independent, so in 1763, the stricter rules feels like an infringment of rights
The British ended their contribution to the Pontiac's after they helped them in the French and Indian war. The Indians were displeased with the lack of contribution and the Virginians' invasion of their lands. There was a bloody war that broke out.
Reflected the hostility between british colonists and native americans
-An economic system (Europe in 16-18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests.
-Wanted a favorable balance of trade; more gold and silver to home country than went out
-England didn't really enforce it during period of Salutary Neglect
What- Acts passed in the English Parliament to regulate colonial trade and enable England to collect taxes in the Colonies
When- 1651, 1660, 1663
Significance- These were put in to place as efforts to put the theory of mercantilism into actual practice.
A series of trading Acts between 1651 and 1691 that forced all lands own by Britain to only use British ships to trade. All trade goods had to go through Britain before shipping to other countries.
-Fell of Mayflower, but was rescued
-Signed Mayflower Compact as indentured servant
-Secretary to the first governer (John Carver) of Plymouth
-Indentured servant brought over to help out (not really a seperatist)
-John Howland was dating Carter's daughter
Carter dies, they marry, and inherits a lot of property
-Makes some of the first negotiations with the Indians
Henry VIII of England
-Pope refuses to let him divorce Catherine in the name of the Catholic Roman Church
-Henry divorces Catherine himself effectively separating himself and the rest of England from the Catholic Church:
-Denounces cathlocism; Becomes the head of both state and church.
-Believed in the divine right of kings (God had given him the position to lead, that's why he was born into the monarchy)
-Creates Anglican church
King James I of England
-Inherited an impoverished England when he became King (i.e 400,000 pounds in debt), unrest, political division
-issued Virginia charter (Jamestown) to London Company to compete with Spain for gold, copper, silver;
--Looks at colonies as money making machine
-James believed strongly in his divine right of king; Idea of parliament, house of lords, house of commons is a source of conflict
---Eventually leads to English civil war (after his death)
---dissolves parliament for a period of time
-persecuted and sent Catholics to Maryland
-Endorsed Mayflower Compact in 1621
-A Puritan, leader of protestant parliamentary forces, claimed victory after several years of fighting
-Takes over as "Protector" of Common Wealth (of England, Ireland, and Scotland) from evil kings
Period during the Commonwealth when England and Wales, Ireland and Scotland were governed by a Lord Protector as a republic
Commonwealth became a Restrictive Puritan state that invaded Ireland to remove Catholics
--Kills thousands of Irish
--Made theater illegal
--Becomes a dictatorial state
--Eventually replaced by King Charles and the royalists
Cavaliers Vs. Roundheads
Cavaliers - supporters of Charles and his singular power, AKA royalists
Roundheads - against Charles' policies eventually kidnap and behead Charles win the war, AKA parliamentalists
-Written by John Locke
-Government serves and protects those it governs; rebellion is justified against an arbitrary government
-Advocated for Life, liberty, and pursuit of property
-Plaigiarized in Declaration of Independence
Declaration of Rights (1688)
-Result of Glorious Revolution of 1688
-Written records of what the parliament beleived their rights to be
-Nobody is above the law
-Signed by the king and queen
-There can never be and never will be a catholic ruler on the throne
(Disregarded once King Henry comes)
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