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Rad. ch 5, ch 6, ch 7
Terms in this set (55)
Very little radiation comes in contact with the film.
That area of film remains unexposed, and they appear completely radiopaque on a dental radiograph.
most dense; least radiolucent then non-metallic restorations
least dense; most radiolucent non metalic restorations
depends on material
Nonmetallic restorations may vary in radiographic appearance from
radiolucent to slightly radiopaque, depending on the density of the material.
One-Surface Amalgam Restorations
distinct, small, round or ovoid radiopacities.
Disrupts natural cleansing contours of the tooth, traps food and plaque, and contributes to bone loss.
Appear as dense radiopacities with irregular borders.
How do gold and and amalgam restoraitons appear on a radiograph
equally radiopaque, however gold exhibits a smooth marginal outline.
Stainless Steel & Chrome Crowns
-smooth and regular margins
-appear radiopaque but not as dense as amalgam or gold
characteristics of porcelain restorations
- (1st component) thin radiopaque outlining that represents cement
-(2nd component) metal component appears comletely radiopaque and the porcelain component appear slightly radiopaque
characteristics of acrylic restorations
is the least dense of all nonmetallic restorations and appears radiolucent or barely visible
Appear radiopaque, less radiodense than amalgam.
Eg: Base materials such as zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE) cement applied on the floor of a cavity preparation appear radiopaque on a radiograph.
less radiodense than metallic restorations seen on an endodontically treated tooth
Silver points used in the obliteration of the pulp canals appear
more radiodense than gutta percha on a processed film.
Metal retention pins found on anterior porcelain denture teeth
Appear as tiny dense radiopacities superimposed over porcelain denture teeth
Removable partial dentures
An __________ with a metal base with acrylic saddles appears densely radiopaque where metal is present and slightly radiopaque in the areas of acrylic
Oral surgery materials appear
radiopaque on a dental radiograph varying in size, shape and design.
Buccal Object Rule
what is needed to make a proper caries detection
When should dental radiographs be interpreted
Always in the presence of the patient
what type fo film is recommended for BW films
high contrast films
-optimum contrast enhances caries detection
where is interproimal caries usually seen on radiographs?
just below the contact point
what does interproximal caries look like clinically
chalky white spot first and then progress to a roughness or stained area followed by cavitation.
Three or four years may elapse before an interproximal lesion becomes clinically apparent.
as interproximal caries progresses through the enamel what does it look like on a radiograph
-typically assumes a triangular configuration.
-When it reaches the DEJ, it spreads laterally and progresses through dentin.
CLASS I caries
extends less than halfway through the enamel.
class II caries
extends more than halfway through the enamel but does not involve the DEJ.
class III caries
extends through enamel and to or through the DEJ but does not extend through dentin more than half the distance
class IV caries
extends through enamel and dentin more than half the distance to the pulp chamber
when can Occlusal Caries be seen on a radiograph
Cannot be seen on a radiograph until there is DEJ involvement.
A clinical exam is the recommended method of this type of caries detection
INCIPIENT OCCLUSAL CARIES
Cannot be seen on a radiograph, thus, small it can only be detected clinically.
MODERATE OCCLUSAL CARIES
-Appear as a thin radiolucent line in dentin.
-Located under the enamel of the occlusal surface.
-Little, if any, radiographic changes can be noted in the enamel.
SEVERE OCCLUSAL CARIES
Evident as a large radiolucent structure extending through the enamel and dentin beyond the DEJ.
Buccal and Lingual Caries
-best detected clinically
-small circular radiolucency
-radiolucency may appear better defined if the lesion is located on the lingual because of the close approximation of the film to the caries area
Root Surface Caries
-clinically saucer shaped
-radiographically cupped out or cratered shaped radiolucent structure
-just below the CEJ
-most commonly seen on mandibular premolars and molars
poor dietary habits, nursing bottle syndrome or in adults with xerostomia due to medications.
it appears as a hard, highly polished defect in dentin; V-shaped wedge at the cervical margin.
it appears as a well-defined horizontal radiolucency along the cervical region of a tooth
PP 78 (teacher copy ch 6)
-small cracks or notches in teeth.
-usually run vertically the length of a tooth.
WHAT CAUSES ABFRACTIONS
-Excessively heavy tooth brushing.
-Chewing pressure/ stress on teeth.
-Corrosion in the form of an acid environment in the mouth.
-Clients with GERD (gastro esophageal reflux- think heartburn).
-Diets including carbonated beverages (even diet pop- very acidic) or a lot of acidic foods such as mangoes, citrus or similar fruits.
-Poorly positioned teeth - cause pressure on teeth.
Clinical examination enables the dental professional to distinguish it from caries
-collar or ill-defined wedge- shaped radiolucency on the mesial and distal root surfaces near the CEJ.
-When seen as a radiolucent collar, it may be confused with root caries.
-This artifact results from the difference in densities of adjacent tissues.
PP 84 (teachers copy ch 6)
Lamina Dura in health
around the roots of the teeth appears as a radiopaque line.
-Thin radiopaque line continuous with the lamina dura.
-1.5 to 2 mm apical to the CEJ of healthy teeth
-It appears a little less radiopaque in the posterior regions than in anterior teeth.
Periodontal ligament space
Appears as a thin radiolucent line between the root of the teeth and the lamina dura.
PP 12 ch 7- teacher copy
The normal healthy alveolar crest is located approximately
1.5 to 2mm apical to the cementoenamel junction.
ADA Case Type I - Gingivitis
-Primarily caused by bacterial plaque
-Gingiva appears reddened and inflamed
-Bleeding upon instrumentation
-Slight pocket formation
-No associated bone loss
-No radiographic change in seen in bone
-Pseudopockets may be present
-The alveolar bone level is within 1 to 2 mm of the CEJ area
-Horizontal type of bone loss is most common
-Slight loss of the interdental septum
-Alveolar bone level is 3 to 4 mm from the CEJ area
-Pocket depths or attachment loss of 3 to 4 mm
-Indistinct fuzziness of lamina dura crest
20% - 30% bone loss
-Pocket formation clinically
-Bleeding upon probing may be present in the active phase
-Localized areas of recession
-Possible Class I furcation invasion areas
-Exhibits all or some signs of gingivitis
Exudate may be present
-30%-50% bone loss
-Horizontal or Vertical bone loss may be present
-Alveolar bone level is 4 to 6 mm from the CEJ area
-Radiographic furcations of Grade I and/or Grade II
-Crown to root ratio is 1:1 (loss of 1/3 of supporting alveolar bone)
-Same as Type I & II
-Pocket depths or attachment loss of 4 to 6 mm
-Bleeding upon probing
-Grade I and/or Grade II furcation invasion areas
-Tooth Mobility of Class I
-Horizontal or Vertical bone loss
-Localized or Generalized bone loss
-Bone loss of over 50%
-Often results in loss of teeth
-Severe destruction of periodontal structures
-Horizontal and vertical bone loss
-Alveolar bone level is 6 mm or more from the CEJ area
-Crown to root ratio is 2:1 or more
Bleeding upon probing
Pocket depths or attachment loss over 6 mm
Grade II, Grade III
Mobility of Class II or Class III
CALCULUS - SUBGINGIVAL
A) Pointed or irregular radiopaque
projections extending from
proximal root surfaces
B) Ring-like radiopacity encircling the cervical portion of a tooth
C) Nodular radiopaque projection
D) Smooth radiopacity on a root surface
E) Calculus may appear as a sharp, pointed radiopacity.
-poorly contoured stainless steal crown causing bone loss
-uneven marginal ridges
-poorly contoured restorations
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