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Motor Learning and Performance Test 1
Terms in this set (90)
human-made structure whose purpose is to explain how various phenomena occur.
what does it mean for a theory if one of its hypotheses is wrong?
the theory cannot survive
Dr. Franklin Henry
Experimental psychologist who worked in the physical education department at the University of California at Berkeley
Studied gross motor skills often involving the whole body, a new tradition of laboratory experimentation
Father of motor behavior research
involve achieving some well-defined environmental goals
in what ways do skills involve achieving well-defined environmental goals?
maximizing certainty of goal achievement, minimizing time used, minimizing physical and mental energy costs of performance
three critical elements to almost any skill
perceiving the relevant environmental features, deciding what to do and where/when to do it, producing organized muscular activity to generate movements to achieve goals
environment is variable and unpredictable during the action (ex: team sports or driving a car)
environment is stable and predictable (ex: drilling a hole in a block of wood, swimming)
usually have defined beginning and end often with brief duration of movements (ex: throwing a ball, firing a rifle, turning on a light switch)
group of discrete skills strung together to make up new, more complicated skilled action; serial implies that the order of the elements is usually critical for successful performance (ex: shifting gears in a car)
having random beginning and end points, behavior flowing for minutes and hours (ex: swimming and knitting)
error scores in discrete tasks
computing an error score for a given subject who was attempting a series of trials on a test requiring accuracy
average scores for each subject; interpreted as an overall tendency to over/underthrow a target
consider the absolute value of the error on each trial and take the average of those error scores for the various trials interpreted as one person or group being more off target than another
A measure of the subject's inconsistency
- Computed by squaring the difference between each trial's error score and the subjects mean
error scores in continuous tasks
continuous tasks, like tracking, are capable of producing many errors on a single trial
RMSE: root mean square error
RMSE represents what two types of behaviors?
subject's tendency bias and inconsistency in the tracking behavior
humans can be compared to
researchers have found it useful to think of the human being as a processor of information, like a computer
3 stages through which information must pass on the way from input to output; non-overlapping so processing in two different stages cannot occur at the same time.
stimulus identification stage
system's job is to decide whether a stimulus has been presented, and if so, what it is. it is primarily a sensory stage. the components of a stimulus are thought to be assembled in this stage.
where does stimulus identification happen all at once?
response selection stage
system's job is deciding what response to make, given the nature of the situation and environment (the stimulus and the context in which it occurred); transition process between sensory input and movement output
where does the response selection stage happen?
movement programming stage
system's job is to organize the motor system to make the desired movement based on the response selection; before producing a movement, the system must ready the lower-level mechanisms in the brain stem and spinal cord for action and retrieve and organize a motor program
what is a motor unit?
communication between the nerve and the muscle it is trying to fire
types of motor units
fast fatigable (lifting heavy weights, sprinting), slow (long distance running, duration of exercise is long), fast-fatigue resistant which is a combination of the two
motor unit recruitment (size of motor unit)
as you increase force, you utilize larger motor units. if using light weights, using smaller motor units
muscle spindles monitor and maintain what?
golgi tendon organs monitor and maintain what?
muscle force... which involves tension
an important performance measure indicating speed and effectiveness of decision making; time required to detect and recognize the stimulus S and select and initiate the proper response R
reaction time interval
measure of the accumulated durations of the three stages of processing
any factor that increases the duration of the stages will do what to RT?
RT Factor 1: Number of Stimulus-Response Alternatives
as the number of possible S-R alternatives increases, there is an increase in the time it takes to respond to any one of the stimuli
as the number of stimulus response alternatives increases, reaction time also positively increases
RT Factor 2: Stimulus- Response Compatibility
the extent to which the stimulus and the response it evokes are connected in a natural way; for a given number of SR alternatives, increase SR compatibility decreases choice RT (meaning you get faster)
what can help overcome low SR compatibility?
RT Factor 3: Population Stereotypes
type of stimulus response compatibility; the association of the stimulus and response is likely learned in population stereotypes; we sometimes act habitually due to specific cultural learning
one way to shorten RT by organizing movements in advance; event, spatial, and temporal anticipation
benefits of anticipation
correct anticipation can result in the processing lag equivalent to RT=0ms. It can start an action simultaneously with a signal or even before it. one factor that affects the capability to predict effectively is the regularity of events.
costs of anticipation
primary disadvantage occurs when the anticipated action is not actually what happens
what does an incorrect anticipation require?
more processing activities and longer delay compared to a response to a neutral or unanticipated event; biochemical disadvantage
short term sensory store (STSS)
responsible for storing vast amounts of sensory information only long enough for some of it to be abstracted for further processing
short term memory (STM) and working memory (WM)
temporary holding place for information ; unless you repeat the item, we know that this phone number will be lost from memory in a short time
what is the process by which we keep from losing information from STM?
long term memory (LTM)
contains very well-learned information that has been collected over a lifetime. vast amount of information can be stored in LTM by processing in STM (which requires effort)
to say that someone has learned something means that...?
information was consolidated from STM to LTM
tapping into subconscious brain by visual cues
output/input; greater efficiency can yield superior performance; brain is working less when you have the same output
cognitive process with stabilization of a memory trace, done so after the initial acquisition phase, sleep is critical in consolidation.
what is attention?
a resource (or pool of slightly different resources) that is available and that can be used for various purposes
the ways in which attentional resources are _____ define how we use attention.
a way to think of attention is related to the
limitations in doing two things at once
a lot of our attention is governed by our ________.
throwing/catching a ball while solving simple math equations while spelling words backwards
dual task figures...
comes down to the limitation in our attention system; depending on the complexity of the task, it takes your pie away
we can miss seemingly obvious things in our environment when we are engaged in attentive visual search.
what kind of accidents are linked to inattention blindness?
look-but-failed-to-see car accidents; don't have enough pie left to process where the pedestrian is or what cars are around.
considering the processes occurring in the stimulus identification stage, some sensory information can be processed in parallel and without much interference - that is, without attention.
example of parallel processing
"cocktail party effect"
the performer must learn what to attend to and when to attend to it to shift attention between:
events in environment, monitoring his/her own actions, planning future actions
factors known to affect vigilance
motivation, arousal, fatigue, and environmental factors; ex: air traffic controller, TSA checker person
thought to be slow and attentional resource-demanding (ex: using non-dominant hand to write name)
fast and non-attentional resource demanding (ex: using dominant hand to write name)
automaticity is developed through...
lots of practice; although very fast processing is effective when the environment is stable and predictable, it can lead to terrible errors when the environment changes the action at the last moment.
automaticity is most effective where?
in closed skills
aware of being aware
internal focus of attention
focusing on what is going on inside; thoughts/worries/preoccupations
external focus of attention
example is a target such as an object to be struck or the intended effect that the action will have on the environment
the components of stimuli from sources such as vision, audition, and touch are thought to be ____ in the stimulus identification stage.
______ is the stage of information processing in which a person decides what to do with information from the environment
the interval of elapsed time after a suddenly presented stimulus until the beginning of the response is called the ____________.
reaction time interval
the extent to which a stimulus and response are connected in a natural way is called __________.
stimulus response compatibility
if an athlete makes their movements unpredictable, opponents are typically forced to ______ accordingly.
the process of rehearsing information keeps it available in which memory system?
short term memory (STM)
Foundational research generated data that suggests the following: choice RT increases a constant amount every time the number of the stimulus-response alternatives is _________ (also known as _________).
doubled; Hick's Law
anticipation that involves what will happen in the environment is called __________.
________ describes the processes of stabilizing a memory trace after the initial acquisition phase (a very _______-sensitive process)
information stored in which memory system is thought to be very abstract?
long-term memory (LTM)
when a person intends to utilize information stored in STM, it is transferred to _________.
LTM 'priming' and 'perception' can reduce activity in cerebral cortical areas engaged by the task. That is, cerebral cortical activity becomes more efficient; higher efficiency can facilitate superior learning and performance. What is efficiency (E) equal to?
a way to think about attention is related to the limitations in completing two tasks ___________; simply stated by neuroscientist Tony Zador, "attention is a problem of __________ signals."
attention remaining for a secondary task is ________ when the primary task is more complex.
from the text, evidence suggests that during a stroop task, the color of the ink and the word spelled by the ink are initially processed __________.
automatic processing is thought to be the result of _______.
a significant amount of practice
in many skills, there is an overwhelming amount of _____ and ______ information (i.e. ______) that could be processed.
relevant, irrelevant; stimuli
when it comes to talking on the phone while driving, research suggests that hands-free talking _______ in comparison to handheld talking.
interferes equally with driving
from the video shown in class, the neurotracker is a device that is used in both research and application-based settings (e.g. athletes wanting to improve attentional control and decision making). Which type of task is often utilized in conjunction with neurotracker?
when an expert reverts from an _____ to an ______ focus of attention, the consequences to performance can be negative and result in a psychological phenomenon known as "choking".
the inverted U principle examines the relationship between _______.
arousal and performance
research conducted by simons and chabris suggests, humans can miss seemingly ______ features in their environment when engaged in attentive visual search. An example of _________.
obvious; inattention blindness
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