How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

critical thinking

process of evaluating claims or hypotheses and making judgments about them on the basis of well-supported evidence

hypothesis

a prediction stated as a testable proposition, usually in the form of an if-then statement

variables

specific factors or characteristics that are manipulated and measured in research

data

numbers that represent research findings and provide the basis for research conclusions

operational definition

a statement of the specific methods used to measure a variable; a detailed explanation of the variable

theory

cluster of explanations of a phenomenon that help predict, explain, and control that behavior

naturalistic observation

method gathering descriptive information involving watching behaviors, without interfering, as they naturally occur

case study

used to collect descriptive data through the intensive examination of a phenomenon in a particular individual, group, or setting (particularly useful for rare or complex phenomena)

survey

questionnaire or interview administered to a large group; designed to obtain descriptions of peoples' behaviors/beliefs

correlational studies

research method that examines relationships between variables in order to analyze trends in data, test predictions, etc. (they do NOT discern cause and effect relationships)

experiment

the only research method to show causation, this involves obtaining a random sample of subjects and using control and experimental groups; allows a researcher to control the data-collection process

independent variable

controlled by the researcher, experienced by the control group, this is what the researcher thinks will HAVE an effect on some other behavior

dependent variable

behavior affected by another variable, it is observed and measured (usually before and after and experiment takes place)

experimental group

receives the critical part of the experiment (the independent variable)

control group

provides a baseline for comparison, does not receive critical treatment (independent variable)

experimenter bias

occurs when experimenters ask leading questions or otherwise search for evidence that supports their hypothesis and don't look for evidence that refutes it

random variable

a confounding variable in which uncontrolled factors affected the dependent variable along with or instead of the independent variable

random assignment

random distribution of participants to experimental or control groups - used to distribute the impact of uncontrolled variables randomly, and most likely evenly, across the groups, minimizing the chance they will distort the results

placebo effect

improvement caused by a participant's knowledge and expectations: can be from a treatment that contains nothing known to be helpful, but that nevertheless produces benefits because a person believes it will be beneficial.

confounding variable

any factor that affects the dependent variable, along with or instead of the independent variable

double-blind design

design for research in which neither the experimenter nor the subjects know who is in the experimental or control group

sampling

the process of selecing participants for research who are members of the population the researcher wishes to study

generalize

to apply the results of one's study to people beyond just the researcher's sample

representative sample

a group of subjects whose characteristics fairly reflect the characteristics of the population they belong to

random sample

a group of subjects selected froma population whose members all had an equal chance of being selected

biased sample

a group of research subjects selected froma population whose members did not all have an equal chance of being chosen

sampling error

part of a sampling process that results in a biased sample

convenience sample

when researchers draw participants from the populations that are readily available to them

twin studies

study the heredity-environment question by comparing the similarity seen in identical twins with those of nonidentical pairs

descriptive statistics

numbers that describe and summarize a set of research data

inferential statistics

set of mathematical procedures that help researchers learn if their research data reflects a true relationship or could be due to random chance

mode

measure of central tendency that is the value that occur most frequently in a data set

median

measure of central tendency that is the halfway point in a set of data

mean

measure of central tendency that is the arithmetic average of the scores in a set of data

range

measure of variability that is the difference between the highest and lowest values in a set of data

standard deviation

measure of variability that is the average difference between each score and the mean of the data set (demonstrates consistency)

correlation

the degree to which one variable is related to another

correlation coefficient

a statistic (r) that summarizes the strength and direction of a relationship between two variables

statistical significance

a term used to describe research results that have been shown by a statistical test to be UNLIKELY to be due to random chance

ethics

code used by psychologists dictating that they minimize discomfort or risk for research participants

hindsight bias

tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it.

theory

set of assumptions used to explain phenomena & offered for scientific study

hypothesis

testable prediction, often implied by a theory

operational definition

statement of procedures used to define research variables which helps to enable replication

replication

repeating of research study to determine if its finding extends to other participants and circumstances

case study

descriptive research technique in which one person or a small group is studied in depth in hope of revealing universal principles

survey

research method in which info is obtained by asking many individuals a fixed set of questions

false consensus effect

tendency to overestimate extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors

population

all cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study

random sample

sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.

naturalistic observation

descriptive research that involves observing and recording behavior without trying to manipulate and control the situation.

correlation

measure of the extent to which two factors vary together which can be positive or negative or non

scatterplot

graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables.

illusory correlation

perception of a correlation between variables where none exists.

experiment

research method in which investigator manipulates one or more factors (IV) to observe effect on some behavior or mental process (DV)

control condition

condition of experiment that contrasts with experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.

double-blind procedure

experimental procedure in which both research participants and research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo.

experimental condition

condition of experiment that exposes participants to treatment, that is, to one version of the IV

placebo effect

experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent.

dependent variable

variable that may change in response to manipulations of the IV (what is measured)

independent variable

experimental factor that is manipulated; variable whose effect is being studied.

mean

arithmetic average of a distribution,

median

middle score in a distribution; half scores are above it and half are below it.

mode

most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution.

range

difference between highest and lowest scores in a distribution.

standard deviation

computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.

statistical significance

statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance - expressed as p or sig.

Steps in the Research Process

1) select topic, 2) focus question, 3) design study, 4)collect data, 5) Analyze data, 6)interpret data, 7) inform others

What is a Research Question:

the organizing principle for an individual study. It clarifies exactly what the researcher wants to understand, describe, or explain

Characteristics of a Good Research Question:

1) It elicits an explanation or description, not an answer 2) It links contructs & suggests associations or relationships 3) It can be addressed w/ empirical evidence 4) It is focused and feasible

PICO approach

Patient/problem, intervention, comparison intervention, outcomes. Works best for quantitative designs

Confidence intervals:

allow us to use sample data to estimate a population value like the ture mean or the true proportion. EX: what is the true avg amount students spend weekly on alcohol

Hypothesis testing:

Allows us to use sample data to test a claim about a population, such as testing whether a population proportion or population mean = some #. EX: is the true avg amount that students spent weekly on alcohol $20

Null hypothesis:

always represents the status quo, i.e. the hypothesis that requires no change in current behavior.

Alternative hyposthesis

is the conclusion that the researcher is trying to make.

Using the PubMed database

Identify the key concepts in your research question. Example: Find citations about bronchodilators for treating asthma in children.The key concepts are bronchodilators, asthma and children Enter the significant terms into the search box. Press the Enter key or click Go

Currency

how up to date the information that is being used

Writing References in APA style

Author (alphabetical) month/year, journal name, article name, where it was retrieved

Difference between a literature review and a research paper

Research paper - supports your own argument. Literature review-summary and synthesis of the arguments and ideas of others

Literature review strategies

Find a focus - organize around an idea, Construct a working thesis statement, Organize: Basic categories include: Introduction Body Conclusions Organizing the body methods include: Chronological, Thematic, Methodological

Reasons behind making outlines

Aids in the process of writing, Helps organize ideas

Purpose statement

a declarative sentence which summarizes the specific topic and goals of a document. It is typically included in the introduction to give the reader an accurate, concrete understanding what the document will cover and what he/she can gain from reading it. To be effective it should be: specific and precise, concise, clear, goal oriented

Thesis

The answer to the question is the thesis statement for the paper.

Types of Outlines

Alphanumeric, Full Sentence, Decimal

Keys to a Successful Presentation:

Define Objectives, Know Your Audience, Organize Your Presentation, Develop Visual Aids, Address Your Delivery, Develop Your Q&A, Check Out Your Environment

Scientific Structure

Report of Literature Search, Methodology/Techniques, Results, Interpretation/Discussion, Future Implications

The 3 step outline of a presentation

Step One: Tell them what you will tell them Step Two: Tell them Step Three: Tell them what you told them

Importance of visual aids

Increase Audience Interest, Focus Audience Attention, Induce Audience Participation, Reinforce Points of Emphasis, Increase Retention of Content

What % of what we learned is by sight?

87%

What % of what % of we learn is from what we see and hear

50%

What % of what we learn is by participation

70%

Effective delivery factors

Enthusiasm, Audience Bonding, Posture/Movement, Gestures, Eye Contact, Voice Quality

Hazards of presentations

Poor Introduction, Equipment Failure, Missing Materials, Lighting, Hecklers, Late Returners

Effective/Ineffective purpose statement: "The purpose of this paper is to describe the changes that are occurring in corporate America

ineffective: too vague

Ineffective/effective purpose statement:"The purpose of this report is to discuss the eating disorders Anorexia and Bulimia

Ineffective: to vague

ineffective/effective purpose statement: This article will cover the different ways a company can become organized

Ineffective: obscure and misleading

Ineffective/effective purpose statement:This paper will describe four common causes of co-worker conflict in organizations and explain how to use a five-step procedure to constructively manage this conflict

effective: very specific

Ineffective/effective purpose statement: This report will explain how supervisors can use four planning strategies to improve employee productivity in the workplace

effective: very specific

Ineffective/effective purpose statment: This purpose of this report is to describe the main causes of traffic congestion in Seattle

Effective: leaves no doubt about the reporters main purpose

Research Ethics

3 Principles: Beneficence, Respect, Justice 6 Norms: Valid Research Design, Researcher Competence, Identify Consequences, Appropriate Sample Selection, Voluntary Informed Consent, Inform Participants whether harm will be compensated

Undoing Deception

Debriefing, Dehoaxing, Guarding Privacy & Confidentiality of Participants, Obtain fully informed consent

Autonomy

the right or condition of self-government

Beneficence

maximizing good outcomes for science, humanity, and the individual research participants & minimizing or avoiding unnecessary risk, harm, or wrong

Voluntary Participation

without threat or undue inducement

Informed Consent

agree to participate without threat or undue inducement knowing what a reasonable person in the same situation would want to know before giving consent & explicitly agreeing to participate

Random Assignment

assignment of subjects/participants so that both the criteria of equal probability and independence are fullfilled

Random Selection

the selection of each unit is independent of the selection of any other unit; every person in a population has equal probability of being selected

Defining Characteristics of Experimental Research

1) change x & observe y 2) control as many variables as possible, manipulate 1 to yield causation 3) results are interpreted as "true" within a certain degree of probability

Confounds

other factors that can affect an outcome in an experiment- not measured, but explains results

Independent Variable

a variable that is managed or manipulated in an experiment to determine whether it affects a dependent variable

Dependent Variable

a variable that is observed or measured in an experiment to determine whether it is affected by an independent variable

Criterion Variable

a variable being studied in a correlational project, regarding the extent to which it is correctly predicted by one or more predictor variables

Predictor Variable

a variable being studied in a correlational project, regarding the extent to which it correctly predicts one or more criterion varialbes

Internal Validity

an aspect of design validity: the extent to which all extraneous variables are controlled, enabling results to be interpreted unambiguously regarding the people, setting & occasions studied

External Validity

Generalizability of results to other people, times, places & circumstances than those studied, as relevant to the project's mission

Null Hypothesis

a statistical hypothesis of "no difference" or "no relation" in populations represented by the samples

Experimental Hypothesis

a statement that expresses a prediction about what the answer to a research question will be or an idea about the phenomenon being studied

Control Group

composed of subjects that are alike in all preexisting characteristics to the experimental group, except for the treatment experienced by the experimental group

Correlational Coefficient

a statistical measure expressing the relationship between two or more variables with a single number between 1 & 1, inclusive

Correlational Research

investigate relationships among variables studied

Cross Sectional Research

"cohort design" based on independent group comparisons among samples who have reached different stages of development at the time the study is conducted

Longitudinal Research

studies the same people at different times; inferences about the developmental variable are based on repeated measures comparisons

Reliability

a measure of consistency

Validity

evidence that an instrument/study measures the construct it claims to

Case Study

descriptive research approach- studies intensively a given social unit (individual, group, institution, etc.)

Ethnographic Research

research method designed to describe & analyze practices & beliefs of cultures & communities; involves entering into first hand interaction with people in their everyday lives

Participatory Research

participants participate in the research process- Cooperative Inquiry or Participatory Action Research

Focus Group

a semistructured group interview procedure

Descriptive Research

describes what is without inferring causation

Threats to Internal Validity

1) History 2) Maturation 3) Testing 4) Instrumentation 5) Statistical Regression 6) Differential Selection 7) Experimental Mortality 8) Selection-Maturation Interaction 9) Experimental Treatment Diffusion 10) Compensatory Rivalry by Control Group- John Henry Effect 11) Compensatory Equalization Diffusion 12) Resentful Demoralization of the Control Group

Stratified Sampling

a method of sampling in which the population is subdivided according to one or more stratification variables before the sample is selected, each subdivision of the population is represented by a corresponding subdivision in the sample

Intensity Sampling

sites or individuals are selected in which the phenomenon of interest is strongly represented , but not necessarily extreme

Simple Random Sampling

random sampling applied to the entire frame at once; requires access to the entire population-every person has equal probability of being selected

Cluster Sampling

a procedure in which intact groups rather than individuals are sampled

Probability Sampling

sample is drawn in such a way that makes it probable that the sample is approximately the same as the population on the variables to be studied (SRS, systematic, stratified, cluster, multistage)

Convenience Sampling

a set of individuals studied in a research project because they are conveniently available, without regard to whether they are representative of a population

Operational Definition

experimentally accessible population; moving from a theoretical definition of a concept to something that can be measured; practical, measurable

Conceptual Definition

a theoretical definition of a concept that uses other constructs to explain the meaning

Constructivist Paradigm

reality is socially constructed, research-attempt to understand from POV of those experiencing ; research can not be separated from researcher bias

Postpositivist Paradigm

rational, empiricist, value free & causal nature of what we observe can be concluded; prefer experimental design & random assignment

Percentile Scores

refer to the percentage of cases in a norm sample who scored below an individual's score

Standardized Tests

have instructions for uniform administration, procedures and norms & have been put through rigorous developmental cycles

Measures of Central Tendency

mean, median, mode

Meaning of p Values

Power-ability to detect deviations from the null hypothesis; ex. .5% chance will detect statistical significance if it is present

Statistical Significance

of a magnitude rarely obtained by random sampling from populations for which the null hypothesis is true; probability that the difference in scores occurred because of reasons other than error

Norm Referenced Tests

individuals performances can be compared with the norm group; results from 1 or more large samples with known characteristics

ANOVA

analysis of variance- a test for the significance of differences among three of more means; parametric

T test

inferential statistical test- used to compare two groups; parametric

Chi Square

test of statistical significance for categorical date; non-parametric

Linear Regression

defines a line of best fit for correlational data that can be used as a prediction equation

clustered vs. distributed neurons

two binary choices that will decide between localizationist and holist positions; functionally homogeneous neurons are either one or the other

shared vs. dedicated neurons

neurons perform duties 'across functions' or are solely devoted to a specific language function

dependent variable

what you use to make measurements; i.e. words to write, read, etc. when studying aphasia

independent variable

the results of what you are testing; errors and correct answer, how long it takes to answer correctly, etc. when studying aphasia

functional architecture

box and arrow flowchart, not like neuroanatomy, based on a patient's performance on multi-related language tasks, from sensory input (visual/auditory) to output (written/spoken)

phonologically plausible

(like kids spelling) fabric > phabric; cabin > kabbin

semantic paragraphias

truck > bus; leopard > tiger; apple > orange

orthographic related errors

brush > bpush; happy > fabby; soft > ssoft

morphological paragraphias

learn > learning; powerful > powerfully; picked > pick

event-related potentials

using scalp electrodes, small electrical responses to specific inputs can only be observed by averaging the EEG traces over a series of trials

content words or "open class"

carry meaning; numerous; variable lengths; can add new ones to language; mainly consist of nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs

function words or "closed class"

do not carry meanings by themselves; can't add new ones to language, usually small words (grammatical morphemes and endings); articles, conjunctions, prepositions, pronouns, quantifiers

lexicon

mental dictionary in brain

aggrammatism

Broca's aphasics show evidence for selective loss of closed class words while retaining open class

fMRI

add blood volume flow analysis: oxygenated blood has different magnetic properties relative to de-oxygenated blood, hence bigger signal

MRI

magnetic resonance imaging

PET

positron emission tomography

practice effects

practicing and repeating an experimental task can affect blood flow over a few trials. So test and control must have the same effect.

stimulus presentation rate

14 items/min to 60 items/min in 5 studies reviewed

words with acoustic features

bugle, siren, horn, bell, whistle, sing, thunder

words without acoustic features

think, grass, rubber, plant, pensive, loneliness

N400

reflects postlexical process involved in lexical integration of words in sentence

syntactic positive shift

a positive shift in the ERP waveform after the syntactic violation

Peterson study

by subtracting a "control state" from the current "stimulus state" one could isolate areas of activation related to mental operations present in the stimulus state, but not in the control state

subtraction method

built-in assumption of "forward only" processing

Conclusion.

A decision made by the researcher about whether the hypothesis was supported based on the results obtained in an experiment

Confidentiality

the ethical principle whereby a professional does not disclose to others information n given in confidence to them by a client/patient. In research studies, personal information should only be collected if it is relevant to the study and can only be reported in such a way that subjects' identities are not revealed. If subjects are dissatisfied after debriefing, they can demand that their data is destroyed. (In therapeutic situations, the patient's consent is required before the practitioner can disclose any information of a personal nature. Exceptions to this occur in cases with minors where discussions are held with parents or in cases where the client threatens, either directly or through their behaviour, to cause harm to themselves or others, in which case the professional is obligated to attempt to prevent such an occurrence.)

Confounding variable

An unwanted factor occurring in the procedures, experimenters or subjects in an experiment that has an effect on the dependent variable, along with or instead of the dependent variable.

Control condition

A condition in an experiment used as a baseline or comparison with the experimental condition involving the treatment variable. Thus, subjects experiencing the control condition should be identical in characteristics and experience similar standardised conditions to those experiencing the experimental condition; however they should not experience the independent variable.

Control Group

A group for which all conditions are identical to those of the experimental group except that participants are not exposed to the manipulation of the independent variable. This enables the researcher to determine whether the independent variable has affected the dependent variable.

Controlled variables

A type of extraneous variable whose influence has been removed from the research via sampling, experimental method and/or statistical control.

Convenience sampling

The process of selecting members of a population to participate in research who are easily obtainable. Examples include newspaper polls and radio station phone-ins, as well as approaching individuals in a shopping centre. Such a sample may not be representative of the population as individuals actively volunteering to participate in the study, or drawn from a narrow strata of the population, may be biased.

Correlation

A statistical measure of the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables, events or measures that occur together so that changes in one are accompanied by changes in the other. It is not a causative measure, meaning that it does not explain the reason behind a relationship between two variables.

Correlation coefficient

An indication of the strength and direction of a correlation between two variables. It ranges from -1.00, indicating a strong negative relationship to, + 1.00, indicating a strong positive relationship. 0.00 indicates no correlation. Furthermore, a correlation level of 0.05 is needed in order to consider a correlation as being moderately strong, an indication of statistical significance.

Correlational method

A research method that identifies and describes the relationship between two variables, events or measures.

Cross-sectional study

Research in which individuals of differing ages drawn from a representative sample are compared in a single study.

Counterbalancing

Reversing the order of presentation for half the participants so that fatigue and practice effects occur in different orders to 'balance' their effects

Debriefing

Feedback given to experimental subjects about the purposes and results of the research of which they were a part. Such feedback should remove any misconceptions caused by deception within the experimental design, and should provide results and interpretations to the participants. The aim is to ensure that subjects leave the experiment in as similar a state as possible as they entered it.

Descriptive statistics

Statistics that describe or summarise the data and typically include a measure of central tendency and dispersion

Dependent variable (DV)

A factor or characteristic of a subject's behaviour or experience that can be observed or measured as being changed in some way as a result of being manipulated by the independent variable. This measure is obtained to test the outcome of the experiment.

Direct observation

A research method involving investigating overt or directly measurable behaviour through the process of watching and recording it as it occurs.

Double-blind study

A test in which neither the experimenters or subjects are aware of which subjects have been allocated to the experimental group.

Empirical evidence

Scientific research gathered using the direct method of systematic observation.

Ethics

A set of moral principles and practices that have been used by psychologists to provide guidelines relating to what is acceptable conduct in terms of right or wrong that researchers follow when considering using humans or animals as research subjects.

Experiment

-A method of data collection used to systematically measure the relationship between variables which have been operationalised in an hypothesis.

Experimental condition

- The condition in an experiment which contains the presence of the independent variable.

Experimental design

The structure of the experiment

Experimental group

The subjects in an experiment who are allocated the independent variable which is changed or manipulated in order to observe its effects on their behaviour or experience.

Experimenter bias

An unconscious expectation of the experimenter which may influence their observations of data.

Experimenter effect

Occurs when the unconscious expectations, personal characteristics or treatment of the data by the experimenter may adversely affect the dependent variable which may bias the experimental results. This may occur when the experimental and control groups are treated differently.

Extraneous variables

Any potential independent variable that is of no direct interest to the researcher, but may have an effect on the dependent variable. The two types of extraneous variables are controlled and uncontrolled variables.

Generalisation

The applications of the conclusions based on the results obtained to other settings outside the study. Extending or applying the results for a sample more widely to the population from which the sample was drawn or another population

Hawthorne effect

The notion that subjects who are aware that they are participants of an experiment may behave according to what they perceive to be the experimenter's expectations. The improved performance may be attributed to this factor, rather than the influence of the independent variable.

Hypothesis

A testable predication that an independent variable(s) or treatment(s) will cause an effect on the dependent variable(s).

Independent-groups design

A research design in which subjects are randomly allocated to groups and it is assumed that relevant variables are balanced between the groups. This makes it equally likely for an individual to be in the experimental or control group.

Independent variable (IV)

The treatment variable (the factor or the characteristic) in an experiment that has been deliberately varied or systematically manipulated by the experimenter in order to measure whether it produced a change in the dependent variable, measured by a change in the subjects' behaviour or performance

Inferential statistics

Statistics that use mathematical procedures to measure and make judgments about how likely it is that the results are obtained in an experiment came about by chance

Informed consent

The process whereby an experimental subject is given all the necessary details in order to reach a decision to agree to being a part of an experiment. Such information should point out any potential risks that may be present in the research design.

Integrity

A commitment by the researcher to the search for knowledge, to recognised principles for conducting research and in the honest and ethical conduct of research (including reporting)

Justice

Ensuring the fair distribution of benefits and burdens with the population of interest and well as for any research participant

Level of significance

Probability that an outcome is statistically significant

Longitudinal study

Research in which a sample of individuals is studied over a long time period.

Matched-subjects design

A research design involving the placement of equivalent pairs of subjects into each group, matched on relevant characteristics such as gender, intelligence scores, age. Subjects are paired on variables which, if not controlled, may have a confounding effect on the research.

Mean

The statistical average for a set of measurements/scores.

Median

When all scores in a set of measurements are arranged in order, the median is the middle score within the set.

Mode

In a set of scores/measurements, the mode is the score that occurs most frequently. There may be more than one mode in any given set of scores.

Negative correlation

Indicates that two variables share a relationship to one another which occurs in an opposite direction.' Thus, as one variable increases, the other variable decreases. For example, as the amount of study time increases, failure rate tends to decrease.

Non-participant observation

- A scientific research method in which the researchers endeavour to conceal their presence when recording their observations.

Null hypothesis.

- A testable prediction that there is no evidence that the treatment has an effect. Thus, any difference between the experimental and control groups is due to chance. If one rejects the null hypothesis, they accept the experimental hypothesis. One cannot accept the null hypothesis

Objective data

Data that has been gathered using systematic observation which is not influenced by any personal bias.

Observation

A scientific research method which involves watching and recording behaviour as it occurs in a clinical or naturalistic setting.

Observer bias

The interference of an observer's personal expectations, motives and prior experience which detracts from the accuracy their research.

Operational definition

The precise, comprehensive description of the concept to be measured in an experiment, and the procedures that will be utilised to measure that concept.

Operational hypothesis

The expression of a hypothesis in terms of how the researcher will determine the presence and levels of the variables under investigation; that is, how the experimenter is going to put their hypothesis into operation.

Opportunity sampling

Also called convenience sampling. Participants are selected from groups that are readily available

Order effect

The potential impact on the results of the order in which an experimental task is completed by participants

p value

The probability level which forms basis for deciding if results are statistically significant (not due to chance).

Participant observation

A scientific research the study; analysing the data; communicating the method in which the researcher watches and records the behaviour to be observed while engaging in the activity themselves in the hope of being mistaken by the subjects as a member of the activity

Participant allocation

Process of assigning participants to different groups (or conditions in a research study)

Placebo selection

Process of choosing participants (sample) from a larger group for research study

placebo

A fake treatment often used in medical research in the form of sugar tablets or injections. It has no medical or pharmacological effects. It is often used as a control condition in experiments, to counter the effect of subjects knowing they have taken something.

Placebo effect

Any observed change in functioning or behaviour that is 'caused' by a placebo, where there is a demonstrated difference between those taking the placebo treatment and those offered no treatment.

Population

The entire group of individuals related to the problem of interest that the researcher is testing. A sample is drawn from the population

Positive correlation

Indicates that two variables share a relationship to one another that occurs in the same direction. Thus, as one variable increases the other variable also tends to increase. For example, as the amount of exercise an individual performs increases, fitness level also tends to increase.

Qualitative data

Factual or descriptive pieces of information about the qualities of the characteristics or behaviours being measured.

Quantitative data

Numerical measures/values used to quantify, /describe the characteristics or behaviours being measured.

Random assignment / allocation

The allocation of subjects to different groups in an experiment ensuring that each subject has an equal chance of being selected in any of the groups to be utilised.

Random sampling

A form of allocating subjects from the population of interest to form part of the sample in such a manner that each member of the population has an equal chance to be selected. One method of doing this is using random number tables of selection. If the sample is of sufficient size, it is usually representative of the population.

Range

the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a frequency distribution. The range is the simplest measure of variability.

Repeated-measures design

One group undertakes both experimental conditions, the experimental condition and the control condition.

Representative sample

A characteristically resemblant portion of the population of interest.

Respect for persons

Proper regard by the researcher for the welfare, rights, beliefs, perceptions, customs and cultural heritage of all individuals involved in research.

Sample

- A subset of the population that is used for research purposes.

Sampling

The method used to select subjects for a study. Types of sampling include random sampling and stratified sampling.

Scatter diagram (scattergram; scatterplot)

A graphical representation of the strength and the direction of the relationship between variables.

Scientific method

A series of orderly steps on clearly defined goals, objectivity and to obtain empirical evidence. are: preparing the study; conducting research reporting findings; and replicating or repeating the study.

Self-report measures

Forms of gaining data which rely on spoken or written responses to questions posed by the researcher. Examples include interviews, surveys and questionnaires.

Single-blind study

An experiment in which subjects are unaware of the experimental or control condition to which they have been assigned. This reduces the likelihood of the Hawthorne effect occurring.

Standard deviation

A measure of the variability of scores in a distribution indicating the average difference between the scores and their mean.

Standardised instructions and procedures

Instructions and procedures used with all groups to make sure only the independent variable differs between them

Statistically significant

When the likelihood of results (e.g. the difference in the mean scores for an experiment) being due to change factors is at an acceptably low level. In scientific research, a level of 0.05 significance is commonly used as a benchmark to gauge whether a difference obtained in the findings is truly due to the influence of the independent variable and not attributed to chance. A 0.05 significance level occurs when the probability of chance is 5 or fewer times in 100 repetitions of the research. Stricter probability values (p) of significance are sometimes employed, such as < 0.01 (less than 1 in 100); and p <0.001 (less than 1 in 1000).

Statistical significance

The term used to indicate whether the results obtained in an experiment do not occur by chance and may therefore be the result to other variables.

Stratified sampling

A method of subject selection used to attempt to prevent biases by making the sample more representative of the population. It involves identifying some of the factors (strata) present in the population such as age, sex, or income level and then selecting a separate sample from each stratum in the same proportions.

Stratified random sampling

Sampling technique in which the population as a whole is divided into parts or 'strata' and each stratum has participants drawn from it.

Subject

A participant in an experiment.

Subjective data

Data obtained by self-report measures in which subjects give verbal or written responses to a series of research questions.

Systematic study

The scientific approach of carrying out and reporting research.

T test

A mathematical procedure that involves a comparison of the means of two groups or treatment conditions to establish statistical significance.

Test of significance

A statistical test used to determine whether the mean scores of two groups differ significantly.

Uncontrolled variables

Those variables that have influenced the result as their presence was not accounted for (and removed) in the experimental method. Uncontrolled variables which cause a change in the value of the dependent variable are termed 'confounding variables'.

Variable

A factor pertaining to the property of an individual or object that can alter in amount or kind and can be measured.

Voluntary participation

Where subjects become a part of an experiment because they choose to do so. This choice is often based on being provided with some information as to the purposes, nature and procedures involved in the research design

Withdrawal rights

The right of experimental subjects to remove themselves from the research situation at any point they decide (such as when the experiment is seen by the subjects as causing too much personal discomfort or distress).

Beneficence

The researchers responsibility to maximize the potential benefits of research and minimise the risks of harm or discomfort to all research participants

Case study

An in-depth study of some particular behaviour or phenomenon of interest in a particular individual, group or situation.

If the law you find is not ______nothing else matters

On Point

Case of 1st Impression

an issue before a court that has never been answered or heard before

All legal material fall into what 2 categories

Primary Authority or Secondary Authority

Primary Authority

thought of as the law, cases, statutes or regulation

Examples of Primary Authority

Cases, statutes, constitutions

Examples of Secondary Authority

Legal Dictionaries, Treatises, Practice Guides, Form Books, Horn Books, Digests, Restatements, Legal Encyclopedias, Legal Periodicals, American Law Reports

Legal Dictionaries

Used to look up terminology, it is hard to look things up from context

Form Book

Book that has forms

Practice Guides

tells you what steps you have to take to achieve something (like a cookbook)

Hybrid Treatises

treatises that has elements of a form book and a practice guide built in

Examples of Hybrid Treatises

Texas Transaction Guide & Texas Litigation Guide

Horn Book

It is 1 volume, and used for instructional puposes only. It's intent is to give you a general overview of the law. Not something you can use for research.

Digests

contain short summaries of points of law found in cases

Main Digest in Texas

West's Texas Digest

How is a digest kept current

by the slot in the back cover called the pocket part sent each year

Restatements

a scholarly compilation of the common law by the American Law Institute.

Restatements are ______Authority

Secondary

How are Legal Encyclopedias Organized

Alphabetically by topic, further subdivided into sections

3 Legal Encyclopedias

American Jurisprudence 2nd Edition, Texas Jurisprudence 3rd edition & Corpus Juris Secundum

Abbreviations for the 3 Legal Encyclopedias

Am Jur, Tex Jur & CJS

How are American Law Reports kept current

by the Pocket Part.

Are CJS & Am Jur National or Federal?

National

Is Tex Jur National?

No, Restricted to Texas

Legal Periodicals examples

Newspapers, legal magazines, law reviews

Which Legal Periodical is most beneficial for research?

Law Reviews

Law Reviews are published by?

Law Schools 4 x a year in paperback format

How can you locate what you are looking for in a law review

By Author, Title or Topic

American Law Reports

this is a mixture of a whole bunch of things, it is more complex

What authority are American Law Reports

Secondary

Abbreviation for American Law Reports

ALR

Types of Primary Authority

Case Opinions, Statutes, Codes, Agency Regulations, Constitutions, Ordinances, Treaties

Statute

come from legislature

Code

is a grouping of statutes

Constitutions

the bases of it all

Ordinances

a miniature statute for a city or a county

Treaties

an agreement between 2 or more countries

If a statute etc is in conflict with the constitution, who wins

The Constitution

Where do we find cases?

In Reporters

Trial Level has

Judges

Apellate Level has

Justices

3 stages in the publication of a case

Slip opinion, Advanced sheets, reporter

Advanced sheets are published

in paper back books weekly

Reporters are published

In Hard Bound Volumes

Reporters are organized

Chronologically

Are reporters official or unofficial

Both

Official reporters are published by

Government

Unofficial reporters are published by

A private Company

Does official mean better in researching cases

No

There are 6 reporters

United States Reporters, Supreme Court Reporter, United States Supreme Court Reports, Federal Reporter, Federal Supplement, South Western Reporter

3 Supreme Court Reporters

Untied States Reports, Supreme Court Reporter, United States Supreme Court Reports

1 US Court of Appeals Reporter

Federal Reporter

1 US District Court Reporter

Federal Supplement

1 Texas Region Reporter

South Western Reporter

The only official Reporter is

United States Reports

How do you identify a case in a reporter?

by it's volume & page

The US District Court's Reporter has more than one series

True

The States' system for Reporters is called

National Reporter System

The South Western Reporter has more than one series

True

Credentials needed to subscribe to the SW Reporter

Money

Citation means

Reference

Parallel Citations

When a case can be found in more than one reporter

Doctrine of Precedent

doctrine that requires a court to follow the law established in a prior decision, unless good cause exists to change it

In order to determine when a court will have to follow something or not, you break it down into

Patterns

The 4 Patterns are

The case and the court are in the same jurisdiction, One state does not have to follow what aother state did, Does state court have to follow a federal case, does federal court have to follow a state case

The case and the court are in the same jurisdiction

ask yourself if the case came from a higher court, if yes, you must follow.

Mandatory Authority

when a case came from a higher court, you must follow it

Persuasive Authority

when a case did not come from a higher court, you don't have to follow it

Is a court ever bound by their own prior decisions

No

Two different states, do not have to follow what each other says

Exceptions: Conflicts of Law or Full Faith and Credit

Does state court have to follow a federal case

generally no Exceptions: when there is a federal question (involves us Constitution)

Does a federal court have to follow a state case

generally no Exceptions: When they are required to interpret state law

When talking about the US court of appeals, Texas is in the

5th Circuit

Disposition

what the current court did with the case

The 3 dispositions

affirmed, reversed & rendered, reversed & remanded

Affirmed

we agree. decision stays the same

Reversed & Rendered

appeals court fixes it themselves

Reversed & Remanded

prior court messed up, send back to lower court to fix

What do courts use as their filing systems

Docket Numbers

Headnotes

summary that the publisher made to make your life easier

Attorneys

tells you who the attorneys were for each of the parties

Justices on the panel

the panel that hears the case (average case is heard by a the panel

Majority

how cases are decided (majority Opinion)

Majority Opinion is written by?

one of the members of the panel is chose to write this

Dissenting Opinion is written by?

a Justice that says the majority messed up

Concurring Opinion is written by?

written by a person that agrees with the result, but for different reasons

Appeallate level, who hears case

Justice

Trial Court level, who hears case

Judge

Topic & Key Number System

West's key number system

Secondary Authority

an aid to finding or understanding the law

ways laws can change

legislature can amend existing statutes or enact a new statute, court can apply its own interpretation to an existing statute or they can make law where there is no statute, supreme court can declare something unconstitutional

A court is never bound by its own prior decision

true

encyclopedias have two kinds of index

general and topic

Conclusion

A judgement or decision about what the results obtained from an investigation mean

Confidentiality

Where the results of an experiment are not disclosed to other participants or the participants' details remain anonymous when reporting on the experiment

Confounding Variable

A variable that is uncontrolled and allowed to change together with the IV, thereby having an unwanted effect on the DV

Control Group

The group of participants that is not exposed to the IV providing a standard against which the experimenter can compare the performance of the experimental group

Convenience Sampling

A group that is selected for an investigation from a population that is first encountered when sampling

Correlation

The relationship between the IV and the DV

Debriefing

Where the experimenter informs the participant of the purpose of the investigation at the conclusion of the research, including correcting any mistaken beliefs

Dependent Variable

A variable which shows any effects of the IV; the observed or measured response of the participants

Descriptive Statistics

Used to analyse, summarise, organise and describe important features of data so they can be further interpreted

Double-blind procedure

An experimental procedure where both the experimenter and participant are unaware of the experimental conditions

Ethics

Standards that guide individuals to identify good, desirable or acceptable conduct

Experiment

A research methods used to test a hypothesis under controlled conditions in order to measure effects of an IV on a DV

Experimental Group

The participants exposed to the IV

Experimenter Bias

When the experimenter shows bias in the collection and treatment of data

Experimenter Effect

When the experimenter's personal characteristics, actions or treatment of data affect the accuracy of results

Experimental Design

An experiment's specific procedures for data collection, particularly the types of groups used - independent groups, matched participants & repeated measures

Extraneous Variables

Any variable other than the IV that can cause change in the DV and therefore affect results in an unwanted way

Generalisation

Applying the results for a sample more widely to the population from which the sample was drawn

Hawthorne Effect

If participants are aware they are part of an experimental group they may simply improve because of that fact

Operational Hypothesis

A prediction of how the variables being studied will be manipulated, observed and measured as well as the population from which the sample was taken

Independent Groups Design

An experimental design in which each participant is randomly allocated to one of two or more entirely separate groups

Independent Variable

A variable which is manipulated or varied by the experimenter in order to measure its effect on the DV

Inferential Statistics

Statistics used to make judgements about whether the results for a sample would be the same for the population - how likely the results occurred by chance

Informed Consent

Participants are made aware of the nature and purpose of the investigation beforehand and usually involves signed a consent form

Matched Participants Design

An experimental design that involves selection of pairs of participants who are similar in a characteristic that can influence the DV, then allocating each member of the pair to a different group

Mean

The arithmetical average of all individual scores in a set of scores

Median

The middle scores in a set of scores

Mode

The most frequently occurring score in a set of scores

Negative Correlation

When one variable increases, the other goes down on a scatter diagram

Null Hypothesis

A predicted where there is no relationship between variable being studied - it is made to be disproved

Observation

A research method that involves watching and describing behaviour as it occurs

p value

A probability value that shows the statistical level at which chance is likely to have operated on the results obtained from research

Participant

Person selected to take part in a research study or experiment

Participant Allocation

Process of assigning participants to different groups

Participant Selection

Process of choosing participants from a larger group for a research study

Placebo

A fake treatment

Placebo Effect

When a participant's response is changed by their belief that they are receiving some kind of experimental treatment as opposed to change caused by the actual experimental treatment

Population

The larger group from which a sample is drawn for a research study

Positive Correlation

Relationship between two variables in which a high rank on one is accompanied by a high rank on the other

Qualitative Data

Actual numerical data or statistical information collected during an investigation

Quantitative Data

Data that is obtained by questionnaire, self-report or observation

Random Allocation

A procedure for assigning participants to the various groups in an experiment which ensures that participants have an equal chance of selection to each group

Random Sampling

The procedure for selecting a group of participants from a population that ensures each member has an equal chance of being chosen

Repeated Measures Design

An experimental design which uses the same participants in both the experimental and control groups

Representative Sample

The selected group must represent the individual differences that exist in the population.

Sample

A study group which is selected from the population for allocation to the experimental and control groups

Scientific Method

A series of orderly steps which are followed in conducting and reporting scientific research

Single-blind procedure

A procedure in an experiment to ensure participants are not aware of the group to which they have been allocated

Statistically Significant

When the likelihood of results being due to chance is at an acceptably low level (p<0.05)

Stratified Sample

A procedure that involves diving the population to be sampled into distinct groups (or strata) then selecting a sample from each stratum

Subjective Data

Information based on self-reports given by participants

Voluntary Participation

Participants are not placed under any pressure or coercion to participate in the investigation

Withdrawal Rights

The experimenter informs the participants that they are free to participate, decline or withdraw from the research at any time without reason should they wish to do so

null hypothesis

hypothesis that states there is no difference between two or more sets of data making it opposite of the research hypothesis

single-blind procedure

procedure in which info that could introduce bias the result is withheld from participants, but experimenter will be in full possession of facts

extraneous variables

any variables other than IV variable that seem likely to influence the DV

confounding of variables

when two variables are linked together in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their specific effects.

quasi-experiment

researchers takes subjects & conditions as they naturally occur, with little if any control over what happens.

cross-sectional research

people of different ages are compared to one another at a single point in time

longitudinal research

research in which the same people are re-studied and re-tested over a long period

reliability

extent to which a test yields consistent results - a measure is repeatable

validity

extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to - test accuracy

test-retest reliability

if you take the same test 2x's & you get the same results it shows ______ reliability

alternate form reliability

A type of reliability, where different versions of same instrument are used and scores are compared

split half reliability

A test is divided into 2 halves and scores on the halves are compared to see if test is consistent within itself. Ex. compare odds & evens

inter-rater reliability

More than one individual scores same test, regardless of who rates test - scores should be the same for _____ reliability

construct validity

Extent to which scores suggest that a test is actually measuring an ABSTRACT theoretical idea (such as anxiety, personality, introversion, etc.).

content validity

degree to which test is representative of total domain its supposed to cover.

criterion validity

form of validity in which a psychological measure is able to predict some future behavior or is meaningfully related to some other measure

face validity

measures whether a test looks like it tests what it is supposed to test as determined by a quick look or evaluation by a non expert

nominal data

data of categories only. Data cannot be arranged in an ordering scheme. (Gender, Race, Religion)

ordinal data

data exists in categories that are ordered but differences cannot be determined or they are meaningless. (Example: 1st, 2nd, 3rd)

interval data

differences between values can be found, but is NO absolute ZERO. Examples: temperature F, time

ratio data

data with an absolute 0. Ratios are meaningful. (Length, Width, Weight, Distance)

Historiography

A study of the procedures that different historians use in their research; also a study of the changing revisions and interpretations of the past.

Grounded theory

Qualitative procedures that are used to develop detailed concepts or conditional propositions for situations; also, summaries of facts.

Ex post facto research

Research that investigates events that have already occurred and implies a cause-and-effect relationship from the results.

Ethnography

A description and interpretation of a culture, social group, or system.

Emergent design

A research plan in which each step depends on the results of the field data obtained in the previous step.

Descriptive research

Refers to research that describes an existing or past phenomenon in quantitative terms.

Case study

Qualitative research that examines a bounded system over time in detail, employing multiple sources of data found in the setting.

Basic research

Research that tests or refines theory; not designed to be applied immediately to practice.

Analytical research

An analysis of documents to investigate historical concepts and events.

Action research

studies undertaken by practitioners in schools that address an actual problem or issue in the school or classroom.

Secondary Research

Using existing and more qualitative research that has to do with...archival research, reference books, computer databases, and online searches.

content analysis

the systematic and objective counting or categorizing of information

copy testing

when the target audience is asked to read or view the material in draft form before it is mass-produced and distributed.

ethnographic technique

an anthropology approach to conduct research through observation of group behavior

random sample (aka probability sample)

everyone in the target audience (as defined by the researcher) has an equal or known chance of being selected for the survey.

non-probability sample

i.e. mall-intercept interviews. NOT random at all. Different people are present at different times

advocacy research

research that is done by organizations who send out surveys w/ questions that use highly charged words that elicit an emotional reaction from the respondent

"loaded questions"

intentionally skewed questions that generate a predictable response

benchmarking

when companies use software programs to track and monitor a client's reputation almost on a daily basis

courtesy bias

when respondents often choose answers they think are "politically correct" or what the sponsor wants to hear

mail questionnaires

(1) researchers have more control of who gets them. (2) large geographic areas can be covered economically. (3) less expensive to use a paper-base. (4) large #s of people can be reached at minimal cost

telephone surveys

(1) feedback is immediate (2) more personal form of comm. (3) less intrusive than door-2-door. (4) response rate can be higher

omnibus surveys (piggyback survey)

when an organization "buys" 1 or 2 questions in a national survey conducted by a national polling firm

Web/E-mail surveys

(1) large samples in short amount of time (2) more economical than mail or questionnaires (3) data can be analyzed continually

Qualitative Research

research that is good for probing attitudes and perceptions, assessing penetration of messages, and testing messages

Quantitative Research

research that involves polls and surveys using highly precise scientific sampling methods

Hawthorne Effect

change in subject's behavior caused simply by awareness of being studied

positive correlation

correlation where as one variable increases, the other also increases, or as one decreases so does the other. Both variables move in same direction.

negative correlation

association between increases in one variable and decreases in another

correlational study

research project designed to discover degree to which two variables are related to each other

z score

in a normal distribution it tells you how far a number is above or below mean in terms of standard deviations.

positive (right) skew

skewed distribution where data has many more scores toward the lower end of the distribution

negative (left) skew

skewed distribution with many more scores on the higher end of the distribution

operational definition

statement that describes how to measure a particular variable or define a particular term specifically in a study

social desirability bias

tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about oneself.

random assignment

Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to different groups.

stratified sample

sample drawn in such a way that known subgroups within a population are represented in proportion to their numbers in general population

experimenter bias

expectations by researcher that might influence results of experiment or its interpretation

frequency histogram

type of bar graph that shows frequency distributions

frequency polygon

type of line graph that shows frequency distributions

ANOVA

statistical method for making simultaneous comparisons between two or more means

correlation coefficient

statistical measure of strength of association between two variables ranging from -1.0 to 1.0

illusory correlation

perception of relationship where none exists.

CINAHL database

covers references to virtually all English-language nursing and allied health journals, as well as to books, book chapters, dissertations, and selected conference proceedings

keyword

important term used to search for references on topic in bibliographic database

literature review

critical summary of research on topic, often prepared to put research problem in context or to summarize existing evidence

MEDLINE database

developed by US National Library of Medicine and is widely recognized as premier source for bibliographic coverage of biomedical literature; covers about 5,000 medical, nursing, and health journals published in about 70 countries and contains more than 16 million records dating back to mid 1960s; abstracts of reviews from Cochrane Collaboration are also available

primary source

first hand reports of facts or findings; in research, original report prepared by investigator who conducted study

PubMed

where MEDLINE database may be accessed for free

secondary source

second hand accounts of events or facts; in research, description of study prepared by someone other than original researcher

subject heading

subject codes

accessible population

population of ppl available for particular study--often nonrandom subset of target population

cluster sampling

form of sampling in which large groupings ("clusters") are selected first (eg nursing schools), with successive subsampling of smaller units (eg nursing students)

consecutive sampling

recruitment of all ppl from accessible population who meet eligibility criteria over specific time interval or for specified sample size

convenience sampling

selection of most readily available persons as participants in study

data saturation

collection of qualitative data to point where sense of closure is attained because new data yield redundant info

eligibility criteria

criteria designating specific attributes of target population, by which ppl are selected for inclusion in study

maximum variation sampling

sampling approach used by qualitative researchers involving purposeful selection of cases with wide range of variation

nonprobability sampling

selection of sampling units (eg ppl) from population using nonrandom procedures (eg convenience and quota sampling)

nonresponse bias

bias that can result when nonrandom subset of ppl invited to participate in study decline to participate

population

entire set of individuals or objects having some common characteristics (eg all RNs in New York); sometimes called universe

power analysis

procedure for estimating either needed sample size for study or likelihood of committing Type II error

probability sampling

selection of sampling units (eg participants) from population using random procedures (eg simple random sampling)

purposive sampling

nonprobability sampling method in which researcher selects participants based on personal judgment about who will be most informative; also called judgmental sampling

quota sampling

nonrandom sampling method in which "quotas" for certain sample characteristics are established to increase representativeness of sample

response rate

rate of participation in study, calculated by dividing number of some individuals to respond to items in characteristic ways (eg always agreeing) independently of item content

sample size

number of subjects in sample, major issue in conducting and evaluating quantitative research

sampling

process of selecting potion of population to represent entire population

sampling bias

distortions that arise when sample is not representative of population from which it was drawn

sampling error

fluctuation of value of statistic from one sample to another drawn from one sample to another drawn from same population

simple random sampling

basic probability sampling involving selection of sample members from sampling frame through completely random procedures

snowball sampling

selection of participants through referrals from earlier participants; also called network sampling

strata

subdivisions of population according to some characteristics (eg males and females)

stratified random sampling

random selection of study participants from two or more strata of population independently

systematic sampling

selection of sample members such that every kth (every 10th) person or element in sampling frame is chosen

target population

entire population in which researcher is interested and to which he or she would like to generalize study results

theoretical sampling

in qualitative studies, selection of sample members based on emerging findings to ensure adequate representation of important theoretical categories

Theoretical Population

the group of objects to which an explanation applies

Units of analysis (cases)

Each subject about which the data are gathered; objects

Sample

All the units we are analyzing

Properties

Characteristics, attributes, or types of behavior of the units

Variables

a set of numbers or values you get after measuring a property

Qualitative

Units classified by type

Quantitative

Units classified by degree or quantity

Dichotomous

A property or variable for which the units are classified into just one of two categories

Hypothesis

A statement asserting that specific variation in one property results in or causes specific variation in the property we are seeking to explain.

Dependent property (variable)

The property we are seeking to explain

Independent property (variable)

The property that is asserted to cause the variation

Causal association

Variation in the independent property tends to cause directly or indirectly variation in the dependent variable

Theories

General explanations

Professional literature

Books, publications, or journals with regular research; the primary source of explanations for more empirical research

Literature review

A detailed discussion of how your research fits into the existing body of research on the subject

Replication

The retesting of hypotheses to see whether they are confirmed with different unit of analysis (justified)

Sample

a subset of the theoretical population

Levels of measurement

ordinal, interval, nominal

Interval level

Quantitative type variables

Ordinal level

They indicate only relative amount of a property

Nominal level

no actual relative amount of a property

Reliable

It must yield the same results in the same circumstances the same way, regardless of who does the measuring

Valid

measures the property as it was defined

Likert scaling

question with the high number always indicating that more of the property being measured is present

Indicators of central tendency

reflect the middle, central, or most common value in a distribution: mode, mean, and median

Indicators of dispersion

indicates the extent to which the values of the units are spread out or concentrated together: variation and standard deviation

Frequency distribution

shows the distribution of how much there is of items

Bar graph

a series of bars, one for each number of units or percentage of units in a category

Mode

the category that contains the largest number of units

Median

it is the middle category or value of a distribution

Range

indicates the highest and lowest categories in which the units of analysis are found

Interquartile range

indicates the high and low categories of the middle 50% of the units

Line graph

a continuous line that represents the distribution of interval variables

Mean

average, the sum of the values divided by the number of units

Variance

computed by finding the difference from each value and the mean for category; then squaring and averaging those differences

Standard deviation

the square root of the variation

Unimodal

units clustered about a single value

Bimodal

units concentrate around two nonadjacent values

Uniform distributions

the cases are distributed more or less evenly across the range of categories, may have no modal areas

Symmetrical

values are equally distributed on each side of the midpoint

Left-skewed (negative)

mean is lower than the median; outlying cases are lower than the midpoint of the distribution

Right-skewed (positive)

mean is greater than the median; the outlying cases are higher than the midpoint of the distribution

Stratum

a subgroup of the theoretical population that has some identifying characteristics in common

Cross-sectional analysis

if the independent property is measured for different units at a given point in time then the units that differ with regard to the independent variable will tend to differ in a specified manner with respect to the dependent

z-score

divide the standard deviation from the value of d

Longitudinal analysis

if the independent property is measured for different point in time then the units that differ with regard to the independent variable will tend to differ in a specified manner with respect to the dependent

Meta-Analysis

A research procedure that uses statistical techniques to synthesize the results of prior independently conducted studies.

Mixed method

Refers to a study that combines qualitative and quantitative techniques and/or data anaylsis within different phases of the research process.

Oral history

A form of historical research in which individuals' spoken words and testimonies about the past are recorded.

Phenomenological

Research that describes the meanings or essence of a lived experience.

Policy analysis

Research to investigate and formulate policies and programs.

Prediction study

Research in which behaviors or skills are predicted by one or several variables.

Qualitative research

a type of research that refers to in-depth study using face-to-face or observation techniques to collect data from people in their natural settings.

Quantitative research

A research paradigm in which objective data are gathered and analyzed numerically.

Quasi-experimental design

Research designs in which there is no random assignment of subjects.

Replication

A study that duplicates the findings of a prior study using different participants, settings, or techniques.

Survey research

The use of a questionnaire or interview to assess the current opinions, beliefs, and attitudes of members of a known population.

Respondent

a person who provides data for analysis by responding to a survey questionnaire

Questionnaire

a document containing questions and other types of items designed to solicit information appropriate for analysis. Used primarily in survey research but also in experiments, field research, and other modes of observation

Open-ended questions

questions for which the respondent is asked to provide his or her own answers. In-depth qualitative interviewing relies almost exclusively on open-ended

Close-ended questions

survey questions in which the respondent is asked to select an answer from among a list provided by the researcher. These are popular in survey research because they provide a greater uniformity of responses and are more easily processed

Bias

that quality of a measurement device that tends to result in a misprepresentation, in a particular direction, of what is being measured

Contingency Question

A survey question intended for only some respondents, determined by their responses to some other question. p279 for example

Response Rate

the number of people participating in a survey divided by the number selected in the sample, in the form of a percentage. Also called Completion Rate or, in self-administered surveys, the Return Rate: the percentage of questionnaires sent out that are returned.

Interview

a data-callection encounter in which one person asks questions of another. May be conducted face-to-face or bu telephone.

Probe

a technique employed in interviewing to solicit a more complete answer to a question. It is a nondirective phrase or question used to encourage a respondent to elaborate on an answer. Ex. "Anything more?" and "How is that?"

Secondary Analysis

a form of research in which the data collected and processed by one researcher are reanalyzed by another. Especially appropriate in the case of survey data.

face validity

idea that a test shoud appear to any person to be a test of what it is supposed to test

content validity

a test should sample the range of the behaviour that is represented by the theoretical concept being tested

criterion validity

idea that a test should correlate with other measures of the same theoretical construct

construct validity

a test that the measurements actually measure the constructs they are designed to measure but no others

error variance

variability in the dependent variable that is not associated with the dependent variable

dependent variable

a measure of the behaviour of the subject on one of several different dimensions

independent variable

one that is maipulated

subject variable

an independent variable that the researcher doesnt manipulate but measures instead

confounded variable

is one whose effect cant be separated from the supposed independent variable

quantitative variables

vary in the amount

categorical variables

differ in kind

continuous variable

one that is not limited to a certain number of values

discrete variable

one that falls into a certain number of distinct bins

systematic error

constant bias

nominal measurement

similarities and differences. classifies objects or events into categories same event get same number

nominal example

types of defense mechanisms

ordinal measurement

ranks objects/events inorder of their magnitude. the position of the numbers on the scale must represent the rank order of the psychological attributes of the object

ordinal example

preferences

interval measurement

one in which the differences between the numbers on the scale are meaningful. equal differences between the numbers on the scale must represent equal differences between the event or objects

interval example

IQ

ratio measurement

one that has a meaningful 0 point as well as meaningful differences btw the numbers on the scale. the ratios btw the numbers on the scale must represent the ratios btw the evnts/objects

ratio example

stevens law of sensation magnitude

latency

the amount of time between an instrction and when the behaviousis actually performed

topogrpahy

the shape or style of the behavious

force

intensity or strength of a behaviour

locus

where the behaviour occurs in the environment

internal validity

extent to which a study provides evidence of a cause-effect relationship btw the independent and dependent variable

construct validity

extent to which the results support the theory behind the research

manipulation check

aspect of an experiement designed to make certain that varible have changed in the way that was intended

external validity

how well the findings of an experiment generalize to other situatons or populations; different subjects, settings, times, etc

ecological validity

extent to which an experiemtnal situatuon mimics a real world situation

statistical validity

extent to which data are shown to be he result of cause-effect relationships rather than accident

threats to validity

events outside the laboratory, maturation, effects of testing, regression effect, selection, mortality

maturation

the amount of time btw measurements

regression effect

tendency of subject with extreme score closer to the mean on a second testing

mortality

the dropping out of some subjects before an experiment is completed

threats to construct validity

loose connection between the theory and method, ambiguous effect of independent variable

threats to external validity

other subjects, other times, other settings

threats to statistical validity

improper use of statistics in analyzing the data

practice effect

performance improves with repated exposure

fatigue effect

performance deteriorates with exposure

spatial imagery

the ability to manipulate a mental image of an object

cause and effect relationships

They are determined by manipulating the independant variable, measuring the dependant variable, and controlling all other variables

experimental group

Where the independant variable is being manipulated

control group

Research done with no treatment and no independant variable manipulation

within subjects design

Research done where conditions are tested within individual subjects and each subject recieves every manipulation

non-experimental research

Research that looks at variables by comparing different groups of scores and uses less manipulation of variables than experimental research

quasi-experimental research

Research with a more reasonable level of control in comparison to experimental and may even require no manipulation at all

measurement validity

It asks if the measurement procedures actually measure what you intend to measure

experimental validity

It asks if the experiment actually answered the intended question

confounding variables

They make the independant variable and dependant variable relationship unclear

obscuring variables

They are factors which make changes in the dependant variable hard to observe and also cause increased measurement error and more noise in the data

quantitative variables

numerical and can be ordered and ranked

continuous variable

A quantitative variable that can assume an uncountable number of values

discrete variable

a quantitative variable whose values are countable

systematic error

When there is a constant bias

nominal scale

A set of categories for classifying objects

ordinal scale

scale indicating order or relative position of items according to some criterion

interval scale

scale with equal distances between the points or values, but without a true zero

ratio scale

scale with equal distances between the points or values and with a true zero

latency scale

A scale which records the amount of time between an instruction and when the behaviour is atually performed

topography scale

A scale which measures the shape and style of the behaviour

force scale

A scale which measures the intensity or strength of a behaviour

locus scale

A scale which measures where in the environment the behaviour occurs

confounded variable

Is the result of the independant variable being manipulated and cannot be separtated from the results

meta analysis

statistically combines and re-evaluates data from several primary papers

symposia

collection of talks 45 mins each, all on related theme/topic

method is written in

past tense

discussion is written in

present tense

Applied survey research

consumer research, job selection, law enforcement

Theoretical survey research

gender differences in teen drug use

likert scale

5 choices. ex pain on a scale from 1 to 10

visual analogue scale

___________ based on that line how much does it hurt?

branching items

answer different question sets based on prior answers ex drinking portion on a health questionnaire

Non-probability sampling

haphazard, purposive, convenience

probability sampling

random, systematic

haphazard sampling

literary digest election poll

purposive sample

closer to sampling the whole population than conveniencce sampling

quota sampling

population numerical composition is maintained. data collected haphardly. ex study males in caf

Simple random

everyone has an equal chance

systematic sample

everyone person from the first 10th on the list

stratified random sample

subgroups compiled. representative according to predetermined proportions

cluster sample

groupings from a larger population. ex. 1/10 of student of every class... not 1/10 of every class

between subjects design

all about comparison, experimental group/control group

within subjects design

subjects act as their own controls, each subject recieves every manipulation

non-experimental research

attempts to descrie variables. looks at variables as they exist naturally, identify correlations btw variables by comparing

Quasi- experimental research

aim to define cause-effect relationships, fails to manipulate independent variable, often compares pre-existing groups(factory in ottawa vs. one in toronto)

Ways to increase control

Random assignment, nuisancem statistical control, replication,

random assignment

equal chance of being in either group

Matching

pre-test ppts on an important(potentially confounding) variable so that it can be controlled for

nuisance variables

potential confounds that can't be easily removed so made as IV as a means of control

statistical control

inferential stats, allows us to determine if the effect is due to chance

Systematic replication

based on an extensionof theory, most common type, ex if this theory is correct the following should happen

direct replication

the same experiment is repeated, uncommon, only happens if systematic replication fails

within subjects control

using same ppts for different experiment

Non experimental research

qualitative, correlation, archival

qualitative research

asks questions regarding how people make meaning out of the world

correlation research

measures 2 or more variables to determine the degree of relationship btw them

archival research

examines pre-existing records

hermeneutic approach

the principle of interpretation of a text's meaning. ex biblical research

nonreactive

another term for naturalistic observation, emphasize ppts are unaware of observation

mutually exclusive

categories defined so that membership to one rules out membership to other. ex cant be both graduate and under grad student

exhaustive

all categories must fall into one case or another ex. bachelor degree

verification key

a collection of items on a questionnaire designed to detect dishonest answers

acquiescence

tendency to agree regardless on content

purposive sample

not random selection, certain characteristics

sampling frame

the population you will work with

element

individual memer of a sampling frame

multistage sampling

a form of cluster sampling in whcih clisters are further broken down by taking samples from each cluster

true experiments

experiemnter has complete control

order effects

changes in a subjects performance resulting fromthe postion in which a condition appears in an experiment

sequence effects

changes in a subjects performance resulting from interactions among the conditions themselves

counterbalancing

controlling for order and sequence effects by arranging that subjects experience the various conditions in differeent orders

block randomization

control procedure in wich the order of conditions is randomized but with each condition being presented once before any condition is repeated

reverse counter balancing

method of control in which conditions are presented in order the first time and then in reverse order

latin square

control procedure in which each subject experiences each condition in a different order from other subjects

two codnition design

simplest, all subjects experience both conditions, yes-no questions

multiple conditions design

compare several variables/treatments for effectiveness, not usually yes/no questions, subjects experience all conditions

one group posttest only design

research design that measures the behaviour of a single group of subjects after they are given a treatment, threats to validity uncontrollable

one group pretest postest design

measures the behavious of a single group of subjects both before and after treatment, know the behavious change, may be considered a quasi experiment

A-B Design

2 phase experimental design consisting of a pre-treatment baseline condition (A) followed by a treatment condition (B),

A-B-A Design

3-phase design consisting of initial baseline phase (A) until steady state (B) implemented until behavior has changed and steady state, return to baseline (A) by withdrawing IV (B)",

A-B-A-B Design

A-B-A design with addition of second intervention phase to see if initial treatment effects are replicated

multielement design

Design in which baseline period is followed by a second phase in which 2 IVs are administered, and the more effective IV is continues to phase 3

A-B Design

2 phase experimental design consisting of a pre-treatment baseline condition (A) followed by a treatment condition (B),

A-B-A Design

3-phase design consisting of initial baseline phase (A) until steady state (B) implemented until behavior has changed and steady state, return to baseline (A) by withdrawing IV (B)

A-B-A-B Design

A-B-A design with addition of second intervention phase to see if initial treatment effects are replicated,

Applied Research

Research that is technologically useful??,

Ascending trend

An increasing data path

Baseline

Condition of an experiment in which IV is not present; data obtained during baseline is basis for determining effects of IV.

Behavior

The portion of an organism's interaction with it's environment

Changing Criterion Design

Design in which baseline is followed by phases of successive and gradually changing criteria

Confound

Extraneous variables that effect the IV

Continuous Measurement

Measurement conducted so that all instances of the response class are detected during the observation period

Discontinous Measurement

Any form of measurement in which some instances of the response class may not be detected

Dependent Variable

The variable in an experiment measured to determine if it changes as a result of manipulations of the IV

Descending Trend

A decreasing data path

Empirical

Verifiable or provable by means of observation or experiment

Event Recording

Documents individual occurrences of a response or stimulus during an observation period

Experiment

Comparison of some measure of the DV under 2 or more different conditions in which the IV differs from one condition to another

Experimental Control

When a predictable change in the DV can be produced by the systematic manipulation of the IV

Experimental Design

Type and sequence of conditions in a study so that comparisons of the effects of the presence and absence of the IV can be made

Experiment Question

A statement of what the researcher seeks to learn by conducting the experiment

Extraneous Variable

Other variables in the environment that may affect experimental control

Frequency

Ratio of count per observation time

Functional Relation

When a change in the DV is produced by systematic manipulations of the IV and the change unlidely to be result of other extraneous variables

Independent Variable

The variable that is systematically manipulated to see whether changes in the IV produce reliable changes in the DV

Inter observer agreement

When 2 or more observers report the same observed values after measuring the same event

Irreversibility

When the level of responding in a previous phase cannot be reproduced even thought conditions are the same

Latency

Time from the onset of a stimulus to the initiation of a response

Partial Interval Recording

Observation is divided into brief time intervals; observer records whether target behavior occurs at ANY TIME during interval

Percent Correct

Number of correct responses expressed as a number of parts per 100

Permanent Product

Measuring a behavior after it occurred by measuring it's effects on the environment

Replication

Repeating of experiments to determine the reliability and usefulness of findings and determine mistakes

Reversal Design

Design in which to verify the effect of the IV by reversing responding to a level in a previous level

Single Subject research designs

Demonstrate experimental control within a single subject

Social Validity

The extent to which target behaviors are socially appropriate and the extent to which significant changes are produced

Trend

The overall direction of a data path

Validity

Extent to which data from measurement are relevant to the target behavior and to the reason for measuring it

Withdrawal design

Design in which an effective treatment is withdrawn to promote maintenance of behavior

scatter plot

a graph of data points

line of best fit

approximates the trend in data

model

sometimes a line or an equation used to represent data

Stroop Test

correlates a person's perception of words and colors for a list

matching list

the color of ink matches the color of the word

non-matching list

the color of ink does not match the color of the word

median

the middle of a set of data

median-median line

a method for calculating the line of best fit using the median

least squares method

a method of calculating the line of best fit using the distance each point is from the line of best fit

Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient

a measure of how well the regression equation fits the data

r

the correlation coefficient that varies from 0 to +/- 1

regression equation

the equation found to represent a set of data

causation

when one event causes a second event

necessary condition

a correlation needed for causation

sufficient condition

a correlation does not show causation

quadratic regression

used to model quadratic data

If we use knowledge of SAT scores to predict his or her GPA. wHAT IS THE PREdicTOR AND WHAT IS THE CRITERION?

sat IS PREDICTOR AND GPA IS CRITERION

How do we translate S2y'?

The sample variance of the Y scores around the Y'.

When r=0.0, the Y-intercept is equal to?

the mean of all the Y scores in the sample

If we can claim to account for .65 of the vvariance in Y scores by knowing a relationship, it means that?

We are on average, 65% more accurate at predicting Y' scores than we would be if we did not know the relationship.

In general, the greater the proportion of variance accounted for...

the more accurately we can predict the behaviour

If heterodasticity is present Sy' will be?

greater than the actual average error in predictions of Y for some scores and less than the actual average error for other X scores

The regression line can be thought of as a series of points representing?

all the possible Y' values associated with all possible X scores

Standard error of the mean is defined as?

Average spread of actual Y scores around the predicted Y scores

Linear regression is defined as the procedure for determining?

the best-fitting straight line in a linear relationship

When we square hte correlation coefficient to produce r2, the result is equal to the?

proportion of variance accounted for

The Y-intercept of a line is the?

value of Y at the point where the regression line crosses the Y axis

Suppose you have several different predictor variables and one criterion variable. all your variables are measured using interval or rations scales. What is the appropriate statistical test to use?

Multiple regression

The absence of random assignemnt in any study allows for what?

potential confounding

The absolute value of a correlation coefficient indicates the?

strength of the relationship

We should always draw a scatterplot of the data when we compute a correlation because hte scatterplot allows us to?

see the nature of the relationship between the two variables

The best-fitting straight line through a scatterplot is known as the?

regression line

When your scale correlates with other procedures or scales that are valid, it has__________ validity ?

Convergent

When your scale does not correlate with other unrelated procedures or scales it has ________validity?

discriminant

When the relationship between two variables is high (for example, r=.98) the variability in the Ys at each X is ____________ realtive to the overall variability of Y scores in the sample.

smaller

In general, a positive linear relationship means that?

as the values of one variable increase, there is a tendency for the values of the other variable to also increase.

Suppose you find a restriction of range in your study of IQ scores and school achievement at school. Restricting the range is likely to _____ the correlation coefficient.

decrease the size of

Whe consistency of participants responses to the same test at two different times determines?

test-retest reliability

The consistency of participant response on different versions of the same test determines?

split-half reliability

If we plot a scatterplot, and the data points form a shape that appears to be random dots and is far from forming a slanted straight line as possible, the correlation for the data is?

0.0: there is no relationship

THe defining formula for the Pearson correlation coefficient shows that it is the?

average correspondence of paired X and Y z-scores

Predictive validity

Extent to which a procedure is correlated with future behaviour

Concurrent validity

Extent to which a procedure is correlated with present behaviour

What procedure would be used to find out whether there is a relationship between SAT scores and GPA?

The Pearson correlation coefficient

The best-fitting line through a scatterplot is known as the?

regression line.

In general a positive relaitonship means that?

As one variable increases the other variable also increases

We should always draw a scatterplot of the data when we compute a correlation because it alows us to see?

the nature of the relationship between the two variables

r2

coefficient of determination

Linear regression is defined as?

the best fitting straight line in a linear relationship

In the fomula Y' what does Y" stand for {Y'= (b)(x) + a}?

predicted Y score

In this formula,{Y'= (b)(x) + a} what does the "a" stand for?

the value of Y that hits the Y axis

Define the Standard error of the estimate

the average spread of Y scores around predicted Y scores

What value of "r" would yield the smallest Sy'(standard error)?

the highest numbered "r"

As the variability--differences--in Y scores at each X become larger, the relationship does what?

becomes weaker and results in a smaller correlation coefficient

Zero association means that?

No linear relationship is present

The larger the correlation coeficient (whether pos. or neg.), the stronger the relationship. Why?

The less the Ys are spread out at each X and the closer the data come to forming a straight line

What is another word for the degree of efficeincy in a relationship?

coefficient although it DOES NOT directly measure units of consistency

Define the purpose of computing a correlation coefficient.

Statistical technique for demonstrating the reliability and the validity of a measurement procedure in any experiment or correlational design.

What are the types of reliability that a correlation coefficient is used to show?

test-retest, inter-rater, split-half

inter-rater reliability

the consistency of ratings by any two raters

test-retest reliability

Test in which participants receive the same score when tested at different times

How high does a coefficient have to be in order to be considered reliable?

+.80 or higher

Face validity

Procedure is valid because it looks valid/Extent to which a measurement procedure appears to measure what it was intended to measure

Convergent Validity

Extent to which scores obtained from one procedure are positively correlated with scores obtained from another procedure that is already accepted

Discriminant validity

Extent to which scores obtained from one procedure are not correlated with scores from another procedure that measures OTHER variables or constructs.

Criterion validity

Extent to which a procedure correlates with a behavior.

Concurrent validity

Extent to which a procedure correlates with an individuals current behavior

Predictive validity

Extent to which a procedure correlates with an individuals future behavior

What is the range of a coefficient?

0-+/-1.0

What is the most common method of correlation coefficient?

Pearson correlation coefficient

Define the Pearson correlation coefficient

Corelation coeffieccient that describes the strength and type of a linear relationship between interval and ratio variables, symbolized by r.

Define the Spearman Rank order coefficient

The correlation coefficient that describes the linear relationship between pairs of ranked scores (ex: any two ordinal variables OR tied rank variables, symbolized by Rs

Tied rank variables

occcurs when two aprticipants receive the same ranking score in SPearman's rank coefficient, resolved by averaging the score and assigning it to both participant to correlate their scores.

Point biserial correlation coefficient

Describes the linear relationship between the scores from one continuous variable and one dichotomous variable (ex: correlating male/female with interval scores from a personality test).Can be used for one continuous interval or ration and one dichotomous, symbol is Rpb.

How does a restricted range affect a correlation coefficient?

reduces the accuracy, producing a smaller coefficient than if hte range were not restricted and leads to an underestimate of the degree of association between the two variables. Avoiding this increases power.

Why is the correlation coefficient important?

It is one number that allows us to envision and summarize the important information in a scatterplot, in terms of it's strength and direction.

what does a horizontal scatterplot, with a horizontal regression line indicate?

no relationship

The smaller the absolute value of the coefficient, the greater the ?

variability of the Ys at each X, the vertical width of the scatterplot, and the less accurately Y scores can be predicted from X

How can the power of a correlational design be increased?

Minimizing error variance and avoiding a restricted range, so that thelargest possible coefficient is obtained.

If it passes through the proper inferential procedure, a sample correlation coefficient is used to estimate what?

the corresponding population correlation coefficient: r=p,Rs estimates Ps, Rpb estimates Ppb.

Define linear regression

THe statistical procedure for using a relationship to predict scores aka the statistic that summarizes the linear relationship.It produces the line that summarzes the relationship

How is Y' pronounced

Y prime

What does the symbol Y' stand for

a predicted Y score. Our best prediction of the Y score at a corresponding X

Define regression line

straight line that summarizes the linear relationship in a scatterplot by,on average, passing through the center of the Y scores at each X and it consists of the predicted Y score-the Y'-for every possbile X

Why is "r" computed first?

to determine if a relationship exists. If r=0 their is no relationship

What is the importance of linear regression?

It is used to predict a individual's unknown Y score based on his/her X score from a correlated variable. Usually more external validity and more accurate description of the relationship.USed to predict unknown Y scores based on X scores from correlated variable.

Linear regression equation [(b)(x) + a]

equation that creates the straight line by producing a value of Y' at each X, define sthe line that summarzies the relationship. Describes it's slope and Y intercept.

Linear regression equation to calculate regression line points for scatterplot

Y'=[(b)(x) + a]

Y intercept equation

a=mean of Y- (b) (mean of x)

Slope equation

b

coefficient of determination

r2

SEE (Sy) is acronym for

Standard error of estimate which is the standardized difference between predicted Y' and actual Y scores

How do you calculate proportion of variance accounted for?

r2 which is also known as "coefficient of determination"

When r=0, the standard erro of the estimate is at it's max. and that is equal to?

the standard deviation of all Y scores in the sample (Sy)

Stonger correlations produce what size SEE

smaller SEE

What does the equation r2 aka coefficient of determination aka proortion of variance indicate?

How important the realtionship is by comparing amount of error obtained using the regression equation for XY to errors without the regression equation for XY

what does Sy2 refer too?

Describes the error variance when using regressinon to predict Y scores, measures error in prediction.

Sr'

Standard error of estimate

Sr' definitional formula/average error

subtract Y' from Y and square each deviation/divide by N then find hte square root of that to get the error of the estimate

proportion of variance

is the amount we reduce errors in predicting Y scores when we use the relationship, compared too if we did not. Equals r2

a=

y-intercept

Y intercept

value of Y when it corsses the Y axis

Y' is the predicted Y score for what?

the corresponding X

The differences (and error) between Y and Y' is also summarized by what?

the variance of the Y scores around Y' (S2y)

If there is a large R there is a week or strong relationship?

stronger the relationship and a small value of Sy and S2y, because the Y scores are closer to Y', thus the smaller difference between Y and Y'

When r=0 what doe Sy and S2y equal?

Sy and S2y equal each other

When R= +/- 1 how much is the eror in predictions

Zero error and Sy' equals zero.

another term for r

Is the correlation coefficient

Proportion of variance accounted for indicates what?

The importance of a relationship

heteroscedasticity

An unequal spread of Y scores around the regression line (that is around the values of Y')

Homodasticity

An equal spread of Y scores around the regression line (that is the values of Y')

Symbol for Pearson correlation coefficeint

r symbol

Coefficient of alienation

1- r2

Sr

standard error ofthe estimate symbol

Sx

sample standard deviation symbol

S2x

sample variance symbol

sideways px

population standard deviation symbol

rs

Spearman correlation coefficient symbol

rpb

point-biserial correlation coefficient sign

Bivariate relationship

the relationship between X (independent) and Y (dependent) (2 variables)

Percentage crosstables

When there are few (2-3) categories to the dependent variable, one uses a percentage crosstable (calculated down, read across)

Comparisons of central tendency

4-5 categories of the DV, one uses a comparison of central tendency - a table showing the mean or median value of Y for each category of X

Correlation coefficient

Indicates the strength and direction displayed in a table - (positive, negative) summarizes the findings of each table in a single number

Marginals

the crosstables' showing of the number (N) of cases in each column (the number the percentages are based on) and perhaps each row

Positive associations

higher values of Y are more common as values of X increase

Negative associations

lower values of Y are more common as values of X increase

Correlation coefficients

dealt with after comparisons of central tendency, not as easily understood to the reader, summarizes the strength and direction displayed in a table (phi, Somer's d, Tavb, Tauc, and Gamma)

Perfect association

the values of the IV (X) and the DV (Y) are paired the same (1=1)

Zero association

the X and Y values are paired in such a way that knowing the X value of a unit is no help in predicting its Y value - statistically independent

Strength of association

further away from O towards +1 or -1 (.3 or .4 = moderate support)

Direction of association

how the Y values are paired with X values (+ or -)

Positive correlation

high values of one variable are paired with high values in another (+)

Negative correlation

high values of one variable are paired with low values of another (-)

Phi

used for summarizing bivariate (2*2) tables - it is a special case of correlation coefficient for interval variables calculated: (ad-bc)/âˆš(a+b)(a+c)(c+d)(b+d)

Tests of significance

test that tell us how likely it is that an association as strongly supportive as the one observed in a sample would be found when no supportive association exists in the population (showing it's not by chance) - can tell the odds are very small

Sampling error

the distributions in samples are likely to be somewhat different from the distributions in the theoretical population (Â±4%)

Level of statistical significance

it is reported as a proportion indicating the maximum probability of incorrectly finding that an association exists (.05 level = 5 chances out of 100)

Known sampling distribution

statisticians have already determined the likelihood of getting each value when samples with given characteristics are drawn from a population in which there is no association (X2, t, z, and F)

Tails

the two ends of the graph = the tails of the distribution

One-tail test

any test of significance in which the direction of association is hypothesized in advance, and only an association in that direction can be statistically significant - indicates the probability that an association as strongly supportive of the hypothesis would have occurred by chance in a sample drawn from a population in which there was no association - test hypotheses

Two-tail test

a test of significance in which an association in either direction can be statistically significant - test exploratory research

Chi square x2

use for percentage difference, tables with 2*2, and difference between medians - values indicate how unlikely it is that the observed sample results came from a theoretical population with no association between X and Y

Degrees of freedom (df)

reflect the number of cells in the table: (number of rows - 1)(number of columns - 1)

F-Test

for difference between the means

Sum of Squares Within (SSw)

gained when calculated the variance - it is the sum of the squared deviations for each X category

Sum of Squares Between (SSb)

calculated from the squared deviations of the means for each X category about the mean for the whole sample - N1(mean - mean for entire sample)2 + N2 (mean - mean for the entire sample)2

Asymptotic standard error

a measure similar to standard deviation , measures how much dispersion one would expect in correlation coefficients - no association

Controlling

required for associations to be proved causal, controls for the effects that other variables have on the association

Condition

variables that make the relationship different for types of units

Intervening variables

variables caused by the IV, they intervene in a causal sequence between the IV and DV

Path diagrams

shows the cause and effect of a z variable on X and Y

Control variables

past research and theory, guiding to show what might need to be controlled

Experimental research

research in which the scientists determine the amount or level of the independent variable to which each unit is exposed (rarely used)

Scatter plot

a graphic presentation in which a dot represents the X and Y value of each unit

Pearson's r

summarizes the relationship of several things - measures the extent to which the Y values of units can be estimated from the X values of those units by using an equation of the type: Yâ€² = a + bX - a = intercept value / X = variable / b = coefficient slope (the explanation)

Slope coefficient

the corresponding increase as X increases by _, Y increases by b

Linear association

what r measures the extent of between X and Y (dots closer to the line - higher number / farther dots - low number)

Extreme outlier

a unit whose X or Y value is extremely far from the values of the other units

Regression line

the line that best estimates the Y values from the X values

Regression equation

the equation for the regression line

Regression coefficient (slope)

the one that multiplies times the X value , the amount by which Y is estimated to increase/decrease for each increase of 1 in the value of X)

Intercept

the constant that is added to or subtracted from the multiple of X - the point where the regression line crosses the Y axis - it is the value if X were zero, Y would be it (a)

Residual

the difference between a Y value estimated from the regression equation and the actual Y value for each unit - the lower the values of r, the larger the residuals will be

R2 and adjusted r2

virtually the same if the sample is 50 or larger, tells us how much of the variance in Y in the sample was explained by X (same as proportion of explained variance)

alpha (a)

Å¶ - B X

Annotation

description of a research source

Access date

date a researcher retrieves information from a computerized source

Bibliography

a complete or selective list of works complied upon some common principle, as authorship, or subject

Boolean search

searching the web or databases using limiting or expanding Boolean terms, including AND, NOT or OR

Block quote

quote of 4+ lines that is offset from the main body text with 2 tabs

Database

collection of reliable research material stored on a regular website

Frame

material around a direct quotation that helps to introduce and contextualize a quote

Hanging Indent

in citation entries, the first line flush with the margin, each consecutive line is indented 1/2 inch

MLA style

paper formatting and citation system used by most English and humanities classes

Plagiarism

presenting others' thoughts, ideas, words, or facts as your own

Primary source

information directly from someone involved in an event (diaries, lab results, newspaper reports from the time)

Secondary source

a source analyzing or commenting on a primary source

Popular source

articles based on journalistic reporting & widely available to the pubic

Scholarly source

contains the work of experts & academics in a given field, circulated to a limited, expert audience

Quote

using a source's exact words in your own text

Paraphrase

using material from a source in your own words & sentence structures, points are in the order the original author presents them

Summarize

a significantly shortened version of source material that captures main ideas in your own words

Voice marker

phrases indicating whether the writer of the paper is speaking, or if they are using outside source materal

Works Cited

bibliographic information on an MLA style paper

Parenthetical citation

MLA in text- citation typically consisting of the source author's name & a pg. no. or in the case of no author, a key word from the title

Non-probability sampling designs

Accidental sampling, quota sampling, and purposive sampling

Accidental sampling

non-probability design in which you use the most readily available persons as subjects. May use snowball sampling. Most commonly used because its convenient and least costly.

Quota sampling

non-probability design in which you identify a significant extraneous variable and use accidental sampling to select a predetermined number of subjects from each strata

Purposive sampling

non-probability design in which you handpick subjects on the basis of personal judgment about their representativeness.

Probability sampling designs

simple random sampling, stratified random sampling, cluster sampling, systematic sampling

Simple random sampling

probability design in which a table of random numbers is used to draw a sample from the population.

Stratified random sampling

probability design in which you identify a significant extraneous variable and randomly select a predetermined number of subjects from each stratum.

Cluster sampling

probability design in which large groupings or clusters are randomly selected first with successive random sub-sampling of smaller units. Most commonly used for large-scale surveys because it is more economical and practical. Contains more sampling errors

Systematic sampling

probability design in which you select the every Kth case from a list. It may not be random if the list is arranged so certain types of elements are listed at particular intervals.

equation to determine the sampling interval width (k)

estimated number of people in population / desired sample size

data collection methods

questionnaires (open structured vs close-ended structured), Interviews, diaries, scales (likert, guttman, semantic differential, and visual analog)

Questionnaires

data collection method which is low cost, little time, anonymous, has no interviewer bias, can not clarify, has a low response rate, and has little control over subject.

Interviews

data collection method which has a higher cost, takes more time, is not anonymous, has interviewer bias, has a high response rate, can control subjects, and can clarify questions.

Open-ended questions

Questions that are unstructured, have no predetermined response, provides a depth of response, takes a long time to administer, and is hard to analyze

Closed-ended questions

Dichotomous question (yes or no), multiple-choice question, "cafeteria" question, rank ordered, forced-choice, and rating questions.

Unstructured Interview

Interview that is conversational but meant to determine the subjects' perception of phenomenon. It is taped, lasts several hours, and latter transcribed.

Focused interview

interview that is an encouraged conversation with a set of questions or a topic guide

Life histories

a narrative self disclosure about ideas and chronological experience regarding a theme

Diaries

a daily diary log on an aspect of life over a period of time

Think about method

subjects audio-record problem solving and decisions being made over a period of time

Critical Incidents technique

asking subjects to describe critical incidents related to behavior being studied

Likert Scale

The most commonly used scale that is composed of a series of favorable and unfavorable statements that the subject indicated their degree of agreement or disagreement.

Guttman scale

Scale in which items are arranged in a hierarchy. Subject picks a "yes or agree" to all items lower and "no or disagree" to all items higher. often used to test child development.

Semantic Differential scale

subjects rate concepts on a series of 7 or 8 point bipolar rating scales.

Visual Analog scale

scale that rates the amount of sensation experienced on a 100mm long line. Score is derived by measuring distance from end of the line to the subjects mark.

Nonprobability Sampling design

sampling design most commonly used in quantitative research

Probability Sampling design

sampling design most commonly used in qualitative research

Types of purposive sampling

Maximum variation, extreme/deviant case, and typical case sampling

Maximum variation sampling

Purposefully handpicking subjects with a wide variation on the dimension of interest

Extreme/deviant case sampling

purposefully selecting subjects that are the most unusual or extreme with regard to the dimension of interest

Typical case sampling

purposefully selecting subjects who are typical or average with regard to the dimension of interest

Types of response bias

Guessing, social desirability, acquiescence, and deviation

Guessing

The subjects tendency to guess when in doubt about the answer to an item. Control by instructing to or not to guess or by using a correction formula

Social Desirability

Subjects tendency to respond in socially desirable ways or consistent with social mores. Control with anonymity

Acquiescence

Tendency to consistently agree or disagree with attitudinal statements. control by constructing scales so some items are phrased negative and some are positive.

Deviation

Tendency to give unusual answers. Control with a forced-choice format.

Observational locations

Single positioning, Multiple positioning, and Mobile positioning

Single positioning

When the observer staying in one spot and observes subjects

Multiple positioning

When the observer chooses several locations to observe subjects from

Mobile positioning

When the observer gets the consent to follow the subject around.

Observational bias'

Enhancement of contrast effect, central tendency, assimilatory, halo effect, error of severity

Enhancement of contrast effect

Distorting observations into clear-cut entities or categories

Central Tendency

Distorting observations of extreme events toward a middle ground

Assimilatory

Distorting observations in the direction of identity with previous input or data (looking for regularities)

Halo effect

Tendency for observers to rate everything positively

Error of severity

Tendency for observers to rate everything negatively

In vivo measurement

a measurement that is made directly in or on a subject

In vitro measurement

a measurement that is extracted from a subject and then conduct lab tests

Projective data collection techniques

Pictorial (thematic apperception test (TAT), Rorschah Test, projective cartoon), verbal (word association, sentence completion), expressive (playing with dolls, drawing, painting, role playing).

Thematic apperception test (TAT)

subject is given twenty cards that contain pictures and are asked to make up a story about each picture.

Rorschah Test

subjects are given cards containing pictures of ink blots and are asked to describe the picture

projective cartoon

subjects are given an uncompleted cartoon and are asked to complete it.

Word association

Subject is told a series of neutral and emotionally laden words and asked to respond to each word with the first thing that comes to mind.

Sentence completion

Subjects are given a series of incomplete sentences about an object or event and are asked to complete the sentences

pros/cons of projective techniques

less susceptible to faking, easy to build rapport with subjects, useful with children, questionable reliability and validity

Q-sort distribution

data collection method in which the subject is given 50-120 cards with statements on them and are told to sort them into categorical piles.

Existing data

Data collection method which entails collecting data that has already been gathered (health records, historical research, secondary analysis (data from previous study), and meta-analysis (combining data from several studies)).

Time sampling

Collecting data from subjects based on the time of day, week, etc.

Event sampling

Collecting data from subjects based on an event that is happening.

Accessible populations

include who, what, where, and when to make a good representation of the target population.

annotation

description of a research source

access date

date a researcher retrieves info from a computerized source

bibliography

a complete or selective list of works compiled upon some common principle, as authorship, or subject

boolean search

searching the web or databases using limiting or expanding boolean terms including: AND OR and NOT

block quote

quote of 4+ lines that is offset from the main body text with two tabs

database

collection or relliable research material stored on a regulated website

frame

materialaround a direct quotation that helps to introduce and contextualize a quote

hanging indent

in citation entries, the first line flush with the margin, each consecutive line is indented 1/2 inch

MLA style

paper formatting and citation system used by most English and humanities classes

plagiarism

presenting other's thoughts, ideas, or facts as your own

parenthetical citation

MLA in text citation typically consisting of the source author's name and a page number or in the case of no author, a key word from the title

primary source

info directly from someone involved in an event

secondary source

a source analyzing or commenting on a primary source

popular source

articles based on journalistic reporting and widely available to the public

scholarly source

contains the work of experts and academics in a gived field, circulated to a limited, expert audience

quote

using a source's exact words in your own text

paraphrase

using material from a source in your own words and sentence structures, points are in the order the original author presents them

summarize

a significantly shortened version of source material that captures main ideas in your own words

voice marker

phrases indicating whether the writer of the paper is speaking, or if they are using outside source material

works cited

bibliographic information on an MLA style paper

measurement

assignment of numbers to objects according to rules

data

numbers or measurements collected by observation

variable

characteristic that may take changing forms called values, eg variable gender: one value is male

qualitative variable

variable with values that alter in form but not quantity eg gender, eye colour, grade of moxa

quantitative variable

variable with values that alter in amount eg length, weight, height

continuous variable

variable that can have unlimited number of possible values eg length, mass, area, temp

discrete variable

varibale that may only take on specicifc, discrete values eg number of children in a fam, gender, number patients attending a clinic each day

population

a complete set of individuals/objecfts/measurements having some common observable characteristic eg census that measures all sorts of variables

sample

a subset of population selected according to some scheme eg 10 students out of 65

random sample

a subset of a population selected so that each member of the population has an equal opportunity of being selected, out of a hat

statistic

a number resulting in the manipulation of some data according to certain specified procedures eg mean age for students in class, add up all ages and divide by number of students

parameter

any characteristic of a population that is measureable eg mean age, gender split, number of individuals

mutually exclusive events

events that cannot occur simultaneously eg being dead and alive at same time

frequency distribution

placing values for a variable in order of magnitude to show the number of times each is score occurred eg number of visits 1 2 3 4 age 10 11 12 13

grouped frequency distribution

collapsing measuerment scale so scores assigned to mutually exclusive grouping intervals eg age group 10 to 20, 20 to 30 etc

Confounding variable

any extraneous variable that changes systematically with the IV and competes with the IV as the effect of the change in the DV

internal validity

the characteristic of an experiment that allows one to draw accurate inferences about the causal relationship between an independent and dependent variable

Post test-only design

experimental design that uses a test measure only after presentation of the IV

selection differences

Differences in the type of subjects who make up each group in an experimental design; this situation occurs when participants elect which group they are to be assigned to or when participants who form the two groups are chosen from existing natural groups

Pretest-Posttest design

the only difference between this and the posttest only is that this design gives a test prior to introducing the IV to ascertain that the groups were, in fact, equivalent at the beginning of the experiment

mortality effect

the drop out factor in experiments

independent group designs

participants are randomly assigned to the various conditions so that each participates in only one group

repeated measures design

an experiment in which the same subjects are assigned to each group

order effect

the order of presenting the treatments effects the DV. Types of order effects: practice effects and fatigue effect, contrast effect. To deal with these effects: employ counterbalancing techniques or devise a procedure in which the interval between conditions is long enough to minimize the influence of the first condition on the second condition

practice effect

is an improvement in performance as a result of repeated practice with a task

fatigue effect

is a deterioration in performance as the research participant becomes bored, tired, or distracted

contrast effect

occurs when the response to the second condition in the experiment is altered because the two conditions are contrasted to one another

counterbalancing

all possible orders of presentation are included in the experiment; by counterbalancing, it is possible to determine the extent to which order is influencing the results; these principles can be extended to experiments with 3 or more groups

Latin square

a technique to control for order effects without having all possible orders; a limited set of orders constructed to ensure that each condition appears at each ordinal position and each condition precedes and follows each condition one time

validity

measuring what it claims to measure

operational definition

standard that applies to all, none subjective

statement of fact, data

information, not necessarily the truth

standard deviation

square root of variance

dispersion

how far spread from mean

2 basic strategies of scientific research

Describe the relationship (descriptive designs & Correlational design), Explain the relationship (quasi-experimental designs & experimental design)

Goal of the experimental research

verify the existence of a cause and effect relationship between two variables

Why? Relationships between variables are complicated; cognitive biases for example

Why? Relationships between variables are complicated; cognitive biases for example

2 problems with variable relationships

directionality problem -does the first variable cause the second or does the second variable cause the first?

Third variable problem (alternative explanation)- sometimes we see relationships between variables that don't rule out alternative explanations where a third variable causes both

"A simple description of a relationship does not mean there is a cause and effect relationship" - prof.

Third variable problem (alternative explanation)- sometimes we see relationships between variables that don't rule out alternative explanations where a third variable causes both

"A simple description of a relationship does not mean there is a cause and effect relationship" - prof.

establish cause and effect

Demonstrate a directional relationship between the variables; demonstrate that a change in one variable causes the change in the other variable. How? Manipulate one variable and measure the change in a second variable while controlling extraneous variables (any other variables within the situation we are studying)

Elements of an experiment

Independent variable (IV), Dependent variable (DV), Experimental Control, randomization

Independent variable (IV)

the causative variable, we think there is a cause because we have identified a correlational relationship can be manipulated (i.e., has levels)

What or who determines the levels of the IV?

experimenter - in true experimental design, the levels are selected by the experimenter in experimental designs in quasi-experimental designs, the levels are predetermined (can't change political affiliation or hair color, anything that has been set by nature or selected by the environment, we can't change)

Dependent variable (DV)

the changed variable - change in variable can be observed and/or measured change is brought about by the IV; doesn't occur in the absence of IV

Experimental Control

you want to control for everything except for your independent variable; control for any or all procedures that limit the possibility that the observed change in the DV is caused by some other variable that the IV. This is accomplished through random assignments - but still can never guarantee this 100%. When we control the experiment well, we can say that the experiment has high internal validity

extraneous variables

all other variables associated with the study

participant variables

includes things like beliefs, characteristics,emotional characteristics, how much sleep they've had

situational

characteristics of the environment that could have an effect and confuse our results

Rules for writing well (the 6 C's)

Be Correct, Clear, Coherent, Concise, Cautious, Creative

What are two levels of IV

2 experimental groups: compare a standard level of treatment with other levels of treatments / Placebo (control) group & treatment group: have to make sure everything experiences the same thing - same treatment, etc

How do you avoid confounding variables / unconfound

evaluate and determine if they will actually confound to issue, keep them constant across conditions; match values across conditions, make them as identical as possible

Why is it important to make the manipulation as strong as possible?

maximizes the differences between the two groups, increases the chances the IV will be effective for a real world match

Sensitivity

test has to be strong enough without being too difficult - ceiling and floor effects (best way to avoid these effects is to have multiple measures)

Solomon 4 group design

has 4 groups: 2 pretest/post-test & 2 post-test only; solves problem of pretest sensitization because it allows us to see if their was a pretest sensitization

quasiexperimental design

use when a true experimental design can not be used because there are variables we can not change; group/condition has been assigned by factors other than the experimenter; has nonequivalent groups, static groups; used for single subject or program evaluation

Longitudinal experiment

studies change as a function of age; same group of people at time 1, 2, 3; downsides-mortality, funding, harder to generalize

Cross Sectional experiment

studies differences as a function of age; same time with different age groups; downsides-cohort effect

History effects

if you are collecting data over a period of time and something happens in the real world that affects the study by changing attitudes or behaviors

Types of manipulations

Straightforward: manipulate variables with instructions and stimulus presentations; Staged: staging events that occur during the experiment in order to manipulate the independent variable successfully

confederate

accomplice, person who appears to be another participant but is actually part of the manipulation

Types of measures

self-report, behavioral measures, physical measures

self-report measures

can be used to measure attitudes, liking for someone, etc; rating scales with descriptive anchors are most commonly used

behavioral measures

direct observations of behavior

physiological measures

recordings of responses of the body

Examples of physiological measures

galvanic skin response: measures general emotional arousal and anxiety, electromyogram: measures muscle tension and is frequently used as a measure of stress, electroencephalogram: measures electrical activity of the brain cells

functional MRI

allows researchers to scan areas of the brain while a participant performs a physical or cognitive task

ceiling effect

the IV appears to have no effect only because participants quickly reach the max performance level

floor effect

a task is so difficult that hardly anyone can perform well

demand characteristics

any feature of an experiment that might inform participants about the purpose of the study

filler items

unrelated items on the questionnaire used to disguise the purpose of the study

experimenter bias/expectancy effects

experimenters are usually aware of the purpose of the study and thus may develop expectations about how participants should respond

main effect

of an IV - the effect of each IV taken by itself

interaction

the effect that an IV has on the DV depends on the level of the other IV

moderator variable

influences the relationship between two variables

repeated measures

the same individuals will participate in all the conditions

independent groups design

a different group of participants will be assigned to each of the four conditions

single case experimental design

used to determine whether an experimental manipulation had an effect on a single research participant

baseline

in a single case design, the subject's behavior during a control period before introduction of the experimental manipulation

reversal design

a single case design in which the treatment is introduced after a baseline period and is then withdrawn during a second baseline period; demonstrates 'reversibility'; helps show that the manipulation of the IV had an effect; called ABA design

multiple baseline design

the effectiveness of a treatment is demonstrated when a behavior changes only after the manipulation is introduced; to demonstrate the effectiveness of the treatment, change must be observed under multiple circumstances to rule out the possibility of extraneous variables

multiple baseline across behaviors

several different behaviors of a single subject are measured over time

program evaluation

research on programs that are proposed and implemented to achieve some positive effect on a group of individuals

maturation effects

any changes that occur systematically over time can cause changes from the pre to post tests

cohort

a group of people - here refers to a group of people born about the same time

sequential method

a combination of the cross-sectional and longitudinal design to study developmental research questions

reliability

refers to the consistency or stability of a measure of behavior

Every measure is comprised of:

a true score - the real score on the variable, and measurement error

test-retest reliability

a reliability coefficient determined by the correlation between scores on a measure given at one time with scores on the same measure given at a later time; assessed by measuring the same individuals at two points in time

internal consistency reliability

the assessment of reliability using responses at only one point in time

Cronbach's alpha

an internal consistency indicator of reliability; the researcher calculates the correlation of each item with every other item

unsupported assertion

no validation, but asserted

appeal to authority

argued that a statement is correct because the statement is made by a source that is regarded as authoritative

scientific evidence

empirical evidence that supports and is properly documented in accordance with scientific method such as is applicable to the particular field of inquiry

casual observation

untested, unreferenced statement, conclusion is unreliable; it may not be untrue, but it doesn't follow from the "evidence", eg evidence can be anecdotal in both senses: "Goat yogurt prolongs life: I heard that a man in a mountain village who ate only yogurt lived to 120."

hypothetical abstract construct

A hypothesis is a proposed explanation for an observable phenomenon, hypothetical: "being assumed to exist as an immediate consequence of a hypothesis,"

reliability

is the consistency of a set of measurements, used to describe a test

operational definition

demonstration of a process

validity

the extent to which a concept, conclusion or measurement is well-founded and corresponds accurately to the real world

abstract concept made concrete

Concrete thinking involves facts and descriptions about everyday, tangible objects, while abstract (formal operational) thinking involves a mental process

survey

employs questionnaires and interviews to ask people questions about themselves

inter-rater reliability

an indicator of reliability that examines the agreement of observations made by two or more raters

construct validity

the degree to which a measurement device accurately measures the theoretical construct it is designed to measure

face validity

does the study appear to accurately measure the variable?

criterion-oriented validity

assesses the relationship between scores on the measures and an specified outcome

predictive validity

the construct validity is measured by examining the ability of the measure to predict a future behavior

concurrent validity

examines whether groups of people differ on the measure in expected ways

convergent validity

the extent to which scores on the measure are related to scores on other measures of the same or similar construct

discriminant validity

examines the extent to which scores on the measure are not related to scores that measure some other unrelated construct

reactivity

a problem of measurement when being aware of being measured causes a change in behavior

nominal scales

nonnumerical scales

ordinal scales

numerical values with a rank order

interval scale

numerical values with equal distance in between the scores

ratio scale

interval with an absolute bottom

naturalistic observation

a descriptive method in which the experimenter observes people in natural settings/ natural social settings

systematic observation

observations made of a specific variable in a predefined setting

coding system

a set of rules used to categorize observations

psychobiography

a type of case study in which the life of an individual is analysed using psych theory

archival research

the use of existing sources of information for research

content analysis

like Lori's coloring book article - examines the subjects and ideas in media/written documents

response set

when someone goes down the line on a survey and selects one consistent answer every time

interviewer bias

intentional or unintentional influence exerted by an interviewer in such a way that the actual or interpreted behavior of respondents is consistent with the interviewer's expectations

panel study

in survey research, questioning the same people at two or more points in time

confidence interval

an interval of values within which there is a given level of confidence where the population value lies

stratified random sampling

ensures that the sample matches the important characteristics of the population

cluster sampling

similar to stratified

haphazard sampling

take participants any way you can get them; not that representative because they are volunteers

purposive sampling

type of haphazard sampling conducted to obtain pre-determined types of individuals for the sample

quota sampling

similar to stratified too; the sample is chosen to reflect the numerical composition of various subgroups in the population; ie: if UAA is 60% men and 40% women, our sample of UAA students would be 40% women and 60% men too but otherwise randomish

sampling frame

the individuals or clusters of individuals who might actually be selected for inclusion in the sample

response rate

number of people who complete your survey

true score

an individual's actual score without anything affecting it positively or negatively; can never get this score

measurement error

the degree to which a measured score deviates from the true score or value

why are data from naturalistic observation primarily qualitative?

they are descriptions of behavior

case study

the study of an single person whose behavior is rare, unique

3 types of archival research data

statistical records, survey archives, written and mass communications, documents

Validity

concerns the outcome of the test, not the test itself

types of validity

face, content

content validity

the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest (such as a driving test that samples driving tasks).

construct validity

predictive, discriminant and convergent/concurrent - the scores on similar types of measures come together and are similar

discriminant

also called divergent, our scores would be different than on tests that measure different things; can discriminate our construct from all other types of constructs

reliability

is necessary for validity, is not the same as validity

correlation coefficient

numerical index that represents the relationship between two variables; -1.00 to +1.00; represented by r

2 components of the relationship between two variables

strength -represented by the absolute value of r (0 to 1); direction - positive or negative; represented by the sign of r; direct has a positive sign, indirect is negative (Wesalowski likes terms direct/indirect over pos/neg)

primary limitation of correlational research

can not assess cause and effect for the most part, can tell us if they are related - no control of extraneous variables, this limitation is referred to as the directionality problem and the thrid variable problem

directionality problem

can't say which variable causes the change in the other; either variable could be the explanation

third variable problem

third variable causes both sides of a relationship; heat increases ice cream eating and murder

good questionnaires

(also applies to an interview) have a purpose/objective (big research question operationalized), short and sweet (solicit essential info only), directions are clear and explicit, include conditional information prior to key ideas (in directions), include transitions between sections, reliable, types of questions, vocabulary, questions short & concise (20 words or fewer), positive slant, consistent response formats within a section, edit questions, clear/specific/objective/forthright, avoid assumptions, avoid leading questions (suggest a right answer), avoid loaded questions (volatile, emotional), avoid double barreled (two questions at once), avoid insulting

increasing questionnaire reliability

improve appearance, proofread, test for understandability

types of questionnaire questions

open ended - advantages: get complete answers, reasoning, and unexpected information / disadvantages: hard to code, answers must be rated (categorized); closed ended - advantages: easy / disadvantage - simplistic answers, forced choices USE BOTH

social desirability

giving the answer that is most socially acceptable

sampling techniques

population, sample, representative - sample needs to represent the population, probability and non-probability

probability techniques

use if accuracy if representativeness is very important; simple random sampling, systematic random sampling (every kth person), stratified random sampling, cluster sampling

non-probability techniques

use when representativeness is less important, test theoretical hypothesis; experimental designs, don't know who is going to show up to participate; the probability of the population being selected is usually not known because sampling is based on convenience; sample may not truly represent the population, may reduce external validity

sampling error

amount of discrepancy between population's characteristics and sample's characteristics - random sampling error; smaller is better

avoiding bias

use random selection and assignment

manipulation check

an attempt to measure whether the independent variable manipulation has the intended effect on the participants

pilot study

a trial run of the experiment

factorial design

A design in which all levels of each independent variable are combined with all levels of the other independent variables. Allows investigation of the separate main effects and interactions of two or more independent variables.

Information garnered from factorial design

interaction and main effect

IV x PV design

allows examination of how types of people respond to the same manipulated variable

simple main effects

examines mean differences at each level of the independent variable; the results are analyzed as if we had separate experiments at each level

Why use more than 1 IV?

closer approximation of real world conditions

Instrument Decay

any decrease in the accuracy of your measurement tool; when you are making observations, sometimes you have raters who get tired or bored

Statistical regression

aka regression to the mean, extreme scores have the tendency to return to the mean; has to do with the idea that everyone/thing has a true score/innate ability, it's hard to measure because of confounds

To avoid or mitigate expectancy effects

use automated procedures - rehearse, script; use single and double-blind procedures

manipulation check question

did you notice anything.....? If they don't mention your IV, your IV did not effect them

Nonexperimental Research

making observations and asking questions; includes descriptive research, correlational research, Case study, Archival Research, Content analysis

Correlational research

purpose is to evaluate the strength and direction of the covariation of two variables; relationships and associations

Concealed observation, nonparticipating

nonreactive, ethical problems if you are doing this in a place where people expect privacy

Open observation, nonparticipating

eliminates ethics problem, possible reactivity problem

habituation

people or animals get used to the experimentor or camera is there

Ways to participate in natural observation

Concealed - join the group and not tell the group you've joined and are collecting data; Open - tell the group and get their permission, can get valuable information - the why behind the what, problem: bias - can lose objectivity

problems with case study

generalizability, objectivity

3 ways to collect data on behavior

ask for self-report, Make direct observations, Record physiological and neurological responses

observed score

true score + measurement error

two types of error

method - related to the instrument being used; trait - participant characteristics

increasing reliability - reduce error

many items or observations brings us closer to the true score, eliminate unclear items, standardize conditions, make instructions clear, clear evaluation criteria

Descriptive statistics -

Mathematical techniques for organizing, summarizing, and displaying a set of numerical data.

Inferential statistics

term is used to label the portion of statistics dealing with the

principles and techniques that allow researchers to generalize their findings beyond the actual data sets obtained- when based upon sample data but designed to extend beyond the sample, are called statistical inferences

principles and techniques that allow researchers to generalize their findings beyond the actual data sets obtained- when based upon sample data but designed to extend beyond the sample, are called statistical inferences

Non-response bias -

a mid-stream mini-study done to see whether a non-response bias exists to get a feel for whether less-than-perfect response rates will restrict the desired level of generalizability.

Probability sample

, if each member of the population has at least some chance of being included in the sample, if the probability of any member of the population being drawn is known, the resulting sample is referred to as a probability sample. The four types of probability samples that we will consider are called simple random samples, stratified random samples, systematic samples, and cluster samples (allprobability samples

Statistical inference

the educated guess as to the population's numerical characteristics is called a statistical inference

Confidence interval

(I-alpha) The confidence interval is the probability of correctly

concluding that there is no-treatment effect

concluding that there is no-treatment effect

One-tailed test -

a hypothesis that specifies a direction; for example, when your hypothesis predicts that your program will increase the outcome.

Two-tailed test

a hypothesis that does not specify a direction. For example, if your hypothesis is that your program or intervention will have an effect on an outcome, but you are unwilling to specify whether that effect will be positive or negative,

you are using a two-tailed hypothesis.

you are using a two-tailed hypothesis.

Significant

A probability value considered rare in the sampling distribution, specified under the null hypothesis where one is willing to acknowledge the operation of chance factors.

Common significance levels are .01, .05, .10.

Common significance levels are .01, .05, .10.

Bonferroni technique

This method is used to insure that the overall experiment wise error rate does not exceed a=.05. Reduces the likelihood of a Type I error.

Example research question for t-test:

There will be no significant differences between Ele/Sec and HE students with respect to years of full time work experience

ANOVA

- Analysis of Variance is a Macro level Analysis of difference among or between 2 or more groups.

One-factor ANOVA

there is only one DV in factorial ANOVA, Factorial ANOVA has two independent variables which are crossed with each other and used as a

treatment on the DV.

treatment on the DV.

One way ANOVA

test for difference between 2 or more groups, is strictly univariate in nature.

Simple ANOVA

test for difference between 2 or more groups.

f -

a cohen's effect size measure for ANOVA.

Interaction

Deals with the cell means, not the main effect means in a two-way ANOVA. Interaction exists to the extent that the difference between the levels of the first factor changes when we move from level to level of the second factor.

Main effect F

There are three values in the F column of a two-way ANOVA. Each of the three F's addresses a different null hypothesis. The first two Fs deal with the two sets of main effect menas. The third F deals with the interaction between the two factors with the focus of this F being on cell means

Mixed ANOVA

Means one of the two factors is between subjects, while the other factor is within subjects.

Adjusted means

Any group with an above-average mean on the covariate has it's mean on the dependent variable adjusted downward, while any group with a below-average mean on the covariate has its mean on the dependent variable adjusted upward. These adjusted means constitute the best estimates of how the two groups would have performed on the dependent variable if they had possessed identical mean on the control (i.e. covariate)

variable(s) used in the study.

variable(s) used in the study.

Adjusted R2

Indicates the degree to which variability in the dependent variable is explained by the set of independent variables included in the analysis. Adjust R2 is always smaller

than regular R2 , because the adjustment anticipates the amount of shrinkage that would be observed if the study were to be replicated with a larger sample

than regular R2 , because the adjustment anticipates the amount of shrinkage that would be observed if the study were to be replicated with a larger sample

Beta weight

a multiplier term added to each predictor variable in a multiple regression equation after the predictor variables have been converted to standard score form.

Bivariate regression

The simplest kind of regression analysis. It has only 2 variables, one serves as the dependent variable and the other serves as the independent variable. The purpose of this kind of regression can be either prediction or

explanation;

explanation;

Multiple regression

A statistical procedure for determining the magnitude of the

relationship between a single dependent variable and 2 or more independent variables. (Regression is used to either predict or explain.)

relationship between a single dependent variable and 2 or more independent variables. (Regression is used to either predict or explain.)

Regression coefficient

Y' = a + bX is the regression equation, b is the regression

coefficient. When the regression line has been positioned within the data points of a scatter diagram, b simply indicates the slope of the line.

coefficient. When the regression line has been positioned within the data points of a scatter diagram, b simply indicates the slope of the line.

Slope

Rise over run" How many predicted units of change (either up or down) in the dependent variable there are, for any one unit increase in the independent variable.

R

Multiple correlation coefficients used in multiple regression studies, R quantifies the extent to which the regression analysis achieves its objectives.

R2

Coefficient of determination represents the proportion or percentage of the variability in the dependent variable that has been accounted for or explained by the study's independent variables. (Used in multiple regression analysis.)

Chi square

A test of statistical significance when the research data are in the form of frequency counts for two or more categories.

Pearson chi square (X2 )

a nonparametric test of statistical significance that is used when the research data are in the form of frequency counts for two or more categories.

Dependent variable

related to the measurement / data and it is the variable that we are measuring. The tendency is for this to be the demographic data.

Mode

A measure of central tendency corresponding to the most frequently occurring score in a distribution of scores.

Internal Validity Threats Quantitative

Testing, Instrumentation, statistical regression, differential selection, experimental treatment diffusion.

Internal Validity Threats Quantitative

Compensatory rivalry by the contol group, compensatory equallization of treatments, resentful demoralization of the control group.

External Validity of Research "Generalizability"

1) Explicit descrition of treatment 2) Multiple treatment interfernece, 3) Hawthron effect, 4) Novelty and disruption effects 4) Experimeter effect, 5) Pretest sensitization, 5) Measurment of dependent variable.

Meta Analysis

Method designed to increase the reliability of research by combining and analyzing the result of all types of the same product.

Interviewing

to obtain rich, descritpive data that is complex, subjective and details the particiapnts persepctive.

When would you use an interview?

Obtain percetions, feelings, attitudes, values. To obtain greater clarity. To build relationships.

What are some of the strengths of using an interview?

large amount of data quickly, wide range of info, large number of topics, immediate follow- up, allows for observation, allows for checking.

What are some of the limitations when using an interview?

Not familiar with jargon. Interviwers must be trained listeners and observers. Know hoe to construct converstation.

Depth Interviews

Researchers use to elicit info about beliefs, perceprtions, values

What are the three types of Depth Interviews

1) Unstructured-social conv-allows preliminary issues to surface 2) Semi Structured-Reseacher guides sequence, questions, probes. 3) Standardized structured-generally quantitative, tightly controlled, response options, no conversation

Waht are some of the limitations whe using Depth Interviews?

1) Bias becasue of interactions 2) Cooperation is essential 3) May not be truthful 4) Technique may compromise data

Qualitative Data Analysis

Long Table Approach-case study focus, group, interviews Content Analysis- Looking for patterns or themes. Coding can be used for both.

Types of Qualitative Research Design

1) Ethnographic- elicits cultural data 2) Phenomenological- real world, see thru eyes of others and can describe the essences of the experience. 3) Grounded theory-to find a basic problem or major concern.

Trustworthiness of Data

Credibility (triangulation), Dependability (stability of findings), Conformability(inquiry audit trail), Transferability (thick description), Authencticity( portray-mood, feelings)

When are case studies used?

1) The reasercher has little control over the events 2) The focus is on contemporary phenomenon within some real life context 3) "How" and "Why" questions are posted.

A case study is?

an empirical design inquiry that: investigates a contmeporary phenomenon within its real-life context especially when the boudries between the phenomenon and context are not clearly evident.

What are the four types of Case Study Designs

1) Single case-holistic 2) Single case embedded 3) Mutiple case-holistic 4) Multiple case-embedded

r

Symbol used for Pearson Correlation Coefficient ranges from -1.0 to +1.0

Type I error

Error of rejecting null hypothesis when in fact it is true (also called a "false positive"). You think you found a cause effect relationship but ONE IS NOT THERE

Type II error

error of failing to reject a null hypothesis when in fact it is false (also called a "false negative"). You think there is NO CAUSE EFFECT but THERE IS

cohort effects

Effects of being born and raised in a particular time or situation where all other members of your group has similar experiences makes your group unique from others

debriefing

giving participants in a research study a complete explanation of the study after the study is completed needed for deception

deception

in research, method by which participants are misinformed or misled about study's methods and purposes - must be told truth about this in debriefing

confederates

"fake subjects" that look & behave like real subjects in study.

n

Symbol used to represent the total number of subjects in a research study

p<.05

results of experiment are SIGNIFICANT - they are not likely caused by chance

percentile rank

Percentage of scores falling at or below a specific score.

normal distribution

bell-shaped curve that results when values of a trait in a population are plotted against their frequency

nominal

no order, number to a thing, eg colours, political pref

ordinal

in order, measurement rg, competition places, earthquake scale

ratio

comparison measurement, eg scale of tests, height

Systematic review, RCT, cohort study,homogeneity, case control study, case report

Types of Evidence and Research

Systematic Review (including meta-analysis)

a review in which the primary studies are summarized, critically appraised, and statistically combined; quantitative w/specific inclusion/exclusion criteria.

RCT (Randomized Controlled Trial)

experimental study, random sampling, random assignment to experimental or control group to receive different tx or placebo.

Cohort Study

prospective (forward in time) study; cohort w/similar condition is followed for defined period of time; comparison made to matched group w/out the condition.

Homogeneity

Systematic review free of variations in the directions and degree of results b/w individual studies.

Case Control Study

Retrospective (backward in time) study; group with similar condition compared with group that does not have condition to determine factors that might have played a role in the condition.

Case Report

Type of descriptive research in which only one individual is studied in depth, often retrospectively.

Levels of Evidence (best study design)

Level 1 (A), Level 2 (B) Level 3 (B) Level 4 (C)-Level 5(D)

Case series, poor quality cohort and case control studies. Descriptive

Level 4 (C)

Systematic review of cohort studies, prospective.

Level 2a (B)

Individual cohort study or low quality RCT (small N)

Level 2b (B)

Systematic review case controlled studies

Level 3a (B)

Individual case-control study, retrospective.

Level 3b (B)

Systematic review of multiple RCT's (large N)substantial agreement of size and direction of tx.

Level 1a (A)

Individual RCT w/narrow confidence level; tx effects precisely defined

Level 1b (A)

All or none case series. In absence of RCT, overwhelming evidence of substantial tx effect following intro of a new tx. (vaccine)

Level 1c (A)

Mean

average of all scores (X). Add all scores together and divide by the number of subjects (N). Used for interval and ratio data. Most common measure for central tendency.

median

midpoint, 50% of scores are above the mean and 50% are below, appropriate for ordinal data.

Mode

most frequently occurring score; used for nominal data.

Mean, Median, Mode

Measures of central tendency; determination of avg or typical scores.

Range, Standard Deviation, Normal distribution, Percentiles and quartiles

Measures of variability; determination of the spread of a groups scores

Range

difference b/w the highest score and lowest

SD (Standard Deviation)

determination of variability of scores (difference) from the mean. Subtract each score from the mean, square each difference, add up all the squares, and divide by the number of scores. For interval, ratio data.

Normal distribution

Symmetrical bell-shaped curve indicating the distribution of scores; the mean, median, and mode are similar. 1/2 the scores are above the mean and 1/2 below.

Normal distribution

Most scores are near the mean, within 1 SD; approx 68% of scores fall within +1 or -1 SD of mean.

Frequency of scores decreases further from the mean (Normal distribution)

95% of scores fall +2 or -2 SD of mean.

99% of scores fall +3 or -3 SD of the mean.

99% of scores fall +3 or -3 SD of the mean.

Percentiles

data divided in 100 equal parts

Quartiles

data divided into 4 equal parts and position of score is placed accordingly.

Inferential statistics

allow determination of how likely results of study of a sample can be applied to whole population.

Standard error of measurement

estimate of expected errors in individual's score; a measure of response stability or reliability.

Tests of significance

estimation of true differences, not due to chance; a rejection of the null hypothesis. ie. Probability levels or alpha levels.

Alpha levels (preselected level of statistical significance)

0.05 or 0.01; indicates expected difference is due to chance ie. 0.05, only 5 X out of 100 or 5% chance. P value. Allows rejection of null hypothesis; there are true differences on the measured DV.

Degrees of Freedom

based on # of subjects and # of groups; allows determination of level of significance based on consulting appropriate tables for each statistical test.

Standard Error

expected chance variation among the means, result of sampling error.

Type I Error

null hypothesis rejected by the researcher when it is true

Type II Error

null hypothesis is NOT rejected by the researcher when it is false.

Parametric statistics

based on population parameters; includes tests of significance based on interval and ratio data. Assume normal distribution in population, random sampling, variance in groups is equal.

T-test

parametric test compares 2 independent groups created by random assignment and identifies difference at a selected probability level ie 0.05.

T-test for independent sample, Paired samples; one tailed and two tailed T-tests.

Types of T tests

T-test for independent samples

compares the difference b/w 2 independent groups;

T-test for paired samples

compares difference b/w 2 matched samples; 2 subtests are one-tailed and two-tailed t-test.

One tailed t test

based on a directional hypothesis; evals difference in data only on 1 end of distribution, either negative or positive.

Two-tailed t-test

based on a nondirectional hypothesis; evals differences in data on both positive and negative ends of a distribution; tests of significance are almost always two-tailed.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

parametric test too compare 3+ independent tx groups or conditions at a selected probability level.

empiricism

view that science flourishes through observation and experiment.

scientific method

series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions

overconfidence effect

we overestimate our accuracy and our changes of success and ability to predict and explain

random selection

procedure that ensures every person in a population has an equal chance of being chosen to participate

wording effects

when a specific word used in a question affects how respondents answer the question or the order of the questions

meta analysis

procedure for statistically combining results of many different research studies

Simple (one way) ANOVA

compares multiple groups on a single independent variable ie. 3 sets of posttest scores

Factorial ANOVA (multifactorial)

compares multiple groups on two or more independent variables.

Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)

parametric test used to compare 2 or more treatment groups or conditions while also controlling for the effects of intervening variables ie. subjects in one group taller than subjects in the second group-ht is covariate.

Nonparametric statistics

testing not based on population parameters; includes tests of significance based on ordinal or nominal data. Less powerful than parametric tests, more difficult to reject null hypothesis.

Chi square test

non-parametric test of significance used to compare data in the form of frequency counts occurring in 2 or more mutually exclusive categories ie. subjects asked to rate tx preferences.

Correlational statistics

to determine relative strength of a relationship b/w 2 variables.

Pearson product-moment coefficient (r)

used to correlate continuous data with underlying normal distribution on interval or ration scales. ie relationship b/w proximal and distal development in infants examined.

Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rss)(rho)

nonparametric test to correlate ordinal data ie. verbal and reading scores

Types of Correlational statistical tests

Pearson-product-moment coefficient (r)

Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rho), (rss)

Point biserial correlation

Rank biserial correlation

Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)

Strength of relationships

Common variance

Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rho), (rss)

Point biserial correlation

Rank biserial correlation

Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)

Strength of relationships

Common variance

Point biserial correlation

one variable is dichotomous (nominal) and other is ratio or interval eg. the relationship b/w elbow flexor spasticity and side of stroke.

Rank biserial correlation

one variable is dichotomous (nominal) and other is ordinal ie. relationship b/w gender and functional ability

Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)

a reliability coefficient based on an analysis of variance

Strength of relationships

Positive correlations range 0-+1.00; indicates as variable X increases so does Y

High Correlations

>0.76 to +1.00

Moderate correlations

0.51 to 0.75

Fair correlations

0.26 to 0.50

Low correlations

0.00 to 0.25, 0 means no correlation

Negative correlations

range from -1.0 to 0, indicates as variable X increases, variable Y decreases; an inverse relationship.

Common variance

representation of the degree that variation in one variable is attributable to another variable. Determined by squaring the correlation coefficient ie. coefficient of .70 means common variance is 49%.

Linear regression

used to establish relationship b/w 2 variables as a basis for prediction. X is the independent variable or predictor, Y is the dependent or criterion variable. ie. Can SBP be predicted from age?

Marketing Research

the systematic design, collection, interpretation, and reporting of information to help marketers solve specific marketing problems or take advantage of marketing opportunities

1st Marketing Research Step

Locating and defining issues and problems

2nd Marketing Research Step

Designing the research projects

3rd Marketing Research Step

Collecting Data

4th Marketing Research Step

Interpreting Research Findings

5th Marketing Research Step

Report findings

Research Design

an overall plan for obtaining the information needed to address the problem/issue

Hypothesis

an informed guess or assumption about a certain problem or set of circumstances based on prior knowledge/research

Exploratory Research

to gather more information about a topic or to make a tentative hypothesis more specific

Conclusive Research

designed to verify things through an objective procedure to help marketers in making decisions

Descriptive Research

conducted to clarify the characteristics of certain phenomena and thus solve a particular problem

Experimental Research

allows marketers to make casual inferences about relationships

Reliability

when a research method produces almost identical results in repeated trials

Validity

when a research method measures what it is supposed to measure

Primary Data

observed and recorded directly from respondents

Secondary Data

compiled both inside and outside of organization for some purpose other than current investigation

Internal sources of secondary data

databases, reports, financial statements

External sources of secondary data

government publications, periodicals, CNN, Lexis Nexis, U.S. Census

Sampling

the process of selecting representative units from a total population

Sample

a limited number of units to represent the characteristics of total population

Population

"universe," includes all elements, units, or individuals of interest in a specific study

Probability Sampling

every element in the population being studied has a known chance of being selected for study

Random Sampling

(probability) all units in a population have an equal chance of appearing in the sample

Stratified Sampling

(probability) the population of interest is divided into groups according to a common attribute, and a random sample is then chosen within a group

Non-Probability Sampling

when there is no way to calculate the likelihood that a specific element of the population being studied will be chosen

Quota Sampling

researchers divide the population into groups and then arbitrarily choose participants from each group

Observation

no direct contact with participant; focuses on beahvior characteristics

Mail survey

a research method in which respondents answer a questionnaire sent through the mail

Telephone survey

a research method in which respondents' answers to a questionnaire are recorded by interviewers on the phone

Online survey

a research method in which respondents answer a questionnaire via e-mail or on a website

Social Networking Sites

used to gather useful information in understanding consumer decisions

Personal Interview Survey

a research method in which participants respond to survey questions face to face

In-home interview

(door to door) a personal interview that takes place in respondent's home

Focus group interview

a research method involving observation of group interaction when members are exposed to an idea or concept

Customer Advisory Boards

small groups of actual customers who share ideas and feelings regarding a company's products and marketing stratedy

Telephone Depth Interview

an interview that combines the traditional focus group's ability to probe with the confidentiality provided by telephone surveys

Shopping Mall Intercept Interviews

a research method that involves interviewing a percentage of persons passing by "intercept" points in a mall

Statistical Interpretation

analysis of what is typical or deviates from the average

MIS

a framework for the management and structuring of information gathered regularly from sources inside and outside of an organization

Single source data

information provided by a single marketing research firm

Marketing Decision Support System

customized computer software that aids marketing managers in decision-making

Likert Scale

scaled response; from 1 to 5

quasi experiment

a research method that looks like an experiment BUT subjects are not randomly assigned to control and experimental groups (no cause and effect can be drawn)

random assignment

assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups

case study

An in-depth, intensive investigation of an individual or small group of people which involves interviews and personal interpretations by the experimenter. It may also be supplemented with psychological or medical tests

psychological test

A measuring device or procedure designed to measure psychology-related variables. A measurement that results in a score or result that is standardized

wording effects

occur when the questions asked on a sample survey are confusing or leading

policy research

information gathering and processing activities that public agencies engage in to facilitate decision making.

policy analysis

analysis of policy before it is undertaken.

analysis for policy

analysis of policy illuminating the causes and effects of policies without affecting the policy's outcomes.

critical thinking

process of evaluating claims or hypotheses and making judgments about them on the basis of well-supported evidence

hypothesis

a prediction stated as a testable proposition, usually in the form of an if-then statement

variables

specific factors or characteristics that are manipulated and measured in research

data

numbers that represent research findings and provide the basis for research conclusions

operational definition

a statement of the specific methods used to measure a variable; a detailed explanation of the variable

theory

cluster of explanations of a phenomenon that help predict, explain, and control that behavior

naturalistic observation

method gathering descriptive information involving watching behaviors, without interfering, as they naturally occur

case study

used to collect descriptive data through the intensive examination of a phenomenon in a particular individual, group, or setting (particularly useful for rare or complex phenomena)

survey

questionnaire or interview administered to a large group; designed to obtain descriptions of peoples' behaviors/beliefs

correlational studies

research method that examines relationships between variables in order to analyze trends in data, test predictions, etc. (they do NOT discern cause and effect relationships)

experiment

the only research method to show causation, this involves obtaining a random sample of subjects and using control and experimental groups; allows a researcher to control the data-collection process

independent variable

controlled by the researcher, experienced by the control group, this is what the researcher thinks will HAVE an effect on some other behavior

dependent variable

behavior affected by another variable, it is observed and measured (usually before and after and experiment takes place)

experimental group

receives the critical part of the experiment (the independent variable)

control group

provides a baseline for comparison, does not receive critical treatment (independent variable)

experimenter bias

occurs when experimenters ask leading questions or otherwise search for evidence that supports their hypothesis and don't look for evidence that refutes it

random variable

a confounding variable in which uncontrolled factors affected the dependent variable along with or instead of the independent variable

random assignment

random distribution of participants to experimental or control groups - used to distribute the impact of uncontrolled variables randomly, and most likely evenly, across the groups, minimizing the chance they will distort the results

placebo effect

improvement caused by a participant's knowledge and expectations: can be from a treatment that contains nothing known to be helpful, but that nevertheless produces benefits because a person believes it will be beneficial.

confounding variable

any factor that affects the dependent variable, along with or instead of the independent variable

double-blind design

design for research in which neither the experimenter nor the subjects know who is in the experimental or control group

sampling

the process of selecing participants for research who are members of the population the researcher wishes to study

generalize

to apply the results of one's study to people beyond just the researcher's sample

representative sample

a group of subjects whose characteristics fairly reflect the characteristics of the population they belong to

random sample

a group of subjects selected froma population whose members all had an equal chance of being selected

biased sample

a group of research subjects selected froma population whose members did not all have an equal chance of being chosen

sampling error

part of a sampling process that results in a biased sample

convenience sample

when researchers draw participants from the populations that are readily available to them

twin studies

study the heredity-environment question by comparing the similarity seen in identical twins with those of nonidentical pairs

descriptive statistics

numbers that describe and summarize a set of research data

inferential statistics

set of mathematical procedures that help researchers learn if their research data reflects a true relationship or could be due to random chance

mode

measure of central tendency that is the value that occur most frequently in a data set

median

measure of central tendency that is the halfway point in a set of data

mean

measure of central tendency that is the arithmetic average of the scores in a set of data

range

measure of variability that is the difference between the highest and lowest values in a set of data

standard deviation

measure of variability that is the average difference between each score and the mean of the data set (demonstrates consistency)

correlation

the degree to which one variable is related to another

correlation coefficient

a statistic (r) that summarizes the strength and direction of a relationship between two variables

statistical significance

a term used to describe research results that have been shown by a statistical test to be UNLIKELY to be due to random chance

ethics

code used by psychologists dictating that they minimize discomfort or risk for research participants

hindsight bias

tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it.

theory

set of assumptions used to explain phenomena & offered for scientific study

hypothesis

testable prediction, often implied by a theory

operational definition

statement of procedures used to define research variables which helps to enable replication

replication

repeating of research study to determine if its finding extends to other participants and circumstances

case study

descriptive research technique in which one person or a small group is studied in depth in hope of revealing universal principles

survey

research method in which info is obtained by asking many individuals a fixed set of questions

false consensus effect

tendency to overestimate extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors

population

all cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study

random sample

sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.

naturalistic observation

descriptive research that involves observing and recording behavior without trying to manipulate and control the situation.

correlation

measure of the extent to which two factors vary together which can be positive or negative or non

scatterplot

graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables.

illusory correlation

perception of a correlation between variables where none exists.

experiment

research method in which investigator manipulates one or more factors (IV) to observe effect on some behavior or mental process (DV)

control condition

condition of experiment that contrasts with experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.

double-blind procedure

experimental procedure in which both research participants and research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo.

experimental condition

condition of experiment that exposes participants to treatment, that is, to one version of the IV

placebo effect

experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent.

dependent variable

variable that may change in response to manipulations of the IV (what is measured)

independent variable

experimental factor that is manipulated; variable whose effect is being studied.

mean

arithmetic average of a distribution,

median

middle score in a distribution; half scores are above it and half are below it.

mode

most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution.

range

difference between highest and lowest scores in a distribution.

standard deviation

computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.

statistical significance

statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance - expressed as p or sig.

ubiquitous

present or appearing everywhere

paradox

a seeming contradiction

ambiguity

capability of being understood in two or more ways

ambivalent

entertaining contradictory emotions towards the same person or thing

ethos

the character of the speaker

pathos

appeals to emotions

logos

appeals to reason

objective

not influenced by personal feelings or opinions when considering facts

subjective

influenced by personal feelings or opinions when considering facts

acquiesce

to agree or comply without open opposition

aloof

removed or distant in interest

ambiguous

open to having many meanings or interpretations

ambivalence

the coexistence within an individual of positive and negative feelings

arbitrary

subject to individual will or judgement without restriction

belligerent

fond of fighting

brevity

shortness of time or duration

complacent

pleased especially with one's self or one's merit

concise

expressing in few words

candor

frankness; the quality of being open or honest in expression

apathy

absence or suppression of passion, emotion, or excitement

appease

to bring to a state of peace, quiet, ease, calm, or contentment; pacify; soothe

coerce

to compel by force, intimidation, or authority, esp. without regard for individual desire or volition

concede

to acknowledge as true, just, or proper admit, to make a concession

didactic

to teach or learn, used or intended for teaching or instruction

dogmatic

asserted and opinionated; doctrinal

extricate

to free or release from entanglement

incorrigible

bad beyond correction or reform

lethargic

deficient in alertness or activity

obstinate

unreasonably determined to have one's own way; stubborn

plausible

seeming reasonable or something that can happen

quandary

a state of perplexity or uncertainty

verbose

full of words; using or containing too many words

whimsical

suddenly fascinating or enthralling

erratic

random, irrational, having no fixed purpose

hindsight bias

the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (Also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon.) (Myers Psychology 8e p. 020)

critical thinking

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 024)

theory

an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 024)

hypothesis

a testable prediction, often implied by a theory. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 025)

operational definition

a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 025)

replication

repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 025)

case study

an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 026)

survey

a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 027)

false consensus effect

the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 028)

population

all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study. (Note: Except for national studies, this does not refer to a country's whole population.) (Myers Psychology 8e p. 028)

random sample

a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 028)

naturalistic observation

observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 029)

correlation

a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other. The correlation coefficient is the mathematical expression of the relationship, ranging from -1 to 1. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 030)

scatterplot

a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation). (Also called a scattergram or scatter diagram.) (Myers Psychology 8e p. 031)

illusory correlation

the perception of a relationship where none exists. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 033)

experiment

a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 036)

control condition

the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 037)

double-blind procedure

an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 037)

experimental condition

the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 037)

placebo [pluh-SEE-bo] effect

experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 037)

random assignment

assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 037)

dependent variable

the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 038)

independent variable

the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 038)

mean

the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 041)

median

the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 041)

mode

the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 041)

range

the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 042)

standard deviation

a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 042)

statistical significance

a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 043)

culture

the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 045)

objective data

Data verifiable by others

subjective data

Personal opinions, not verifiable by others

quantitative data

the quantity or amount of what is being studied, how much of something there is.

qualitative data

can be descriptions, words, meanings or pictures which provides information about what is being studied.

median

middle number in a set of data

independent variable

variable that is manipulated by the experimenter

Situational Variable

variables associated with the experimental situation itself that may affect the outcome

Extraneous variables

a variable that can cause a chage in the results of an experiment, besides the independent variable

Participant variables

individual characteristics that participants bring with them to the experiment

Experimental group

this group is exposed to the experimental condition and the IV is always present

Control group

group that has controlled conditions and the IV is not present

Experimental design

used to test whether one variable influences a change in another variable

Laboratory setting

when an experiment is conducted in strictly controlled conditions

Field setting

the environment of the experiment is less controlled and is usually more natural conditions

Variable

something that can change the results of an experiment over time

Random assignment

everyone has a equal chance of being part of the experimental group or the controlled group

Research Methods

methods that are used to obtain information that is reliable

A Graph

Representation of data in picture form

Delphi Technique

A technique which uses a series of self administered questionaires and feedback to obtain the opinion of experts in a field of interest.

Focus groups

A group interview technique that obtains data through discussion between research participants in a group setting.

Quantitative

Data in numerical form.

Qualitative

Data in non-numerical form about the characteristics of what has been studied.

Reliability

The consistency and stability of the results obtained from a research study

Validity

means that the research study has produced results that accuretly measure the behaviour or event that it claims to have measured.

External validity

whether the results obtained in the laboratory would be valid in the 'real world'.

Sample

A subsection, or smaller group, of research participants selected from a larger group(population) of reseach interest.

Population

The entire group of research interest from which a sample is drawn.

Steps in the Research Process

1) select topic, 2) focus question, 3) design study, 4)collect data, 5) Analyze data, 6)interpret data, 7) inform others

What is a Research Question:

the organizing principle for an individual study. It clarifies exactly what the researcher wants to understand, describe, or explain

Characteristics of a Good Research Question:

1) It elicits an explanation or description, not an answer 2) It links contructs & suggests associations or relationships 3) It can be addressed w/ empirical evidence 4) It is focused and feasible

PICO approach

Patient/problem, intervention, comparison intervention, outcomes. Works best for quantitative designs

Confidence intervals:

allow us to use sample data to estimate a population value like the ture mean or the true proportion. EX: what is the true avg amount students spend weekly on alcohol

Hypothesis testing:

Allows us to use sample data to test a claim about a population, such as testing whether a population proportion or population mean = some #. EX: is the true avg amount that students spent weekly on alcohol $20

Null hypothesis:

always represents the status quo, i.e. the hypothesis that requires no change in current behavior.

Alternative hyposthesis

is the conclusion that the researcher is trying to make.

Using the PubMed database

Identify the key concepts in your research question. Example: Find citations about bronchodilators for treating asthma in children.The key concepts are bronchodilators, asthma and children Enter the significant terms into the search box. Press the Enter key or click Go

Currency

how up to date the information that is being used

Writing References in APA style

Author (alphabetical) month/year, journal name, article name, where it was retrieved

Difference between a literature review and a research paper

Research paper - supports your own argument. Literature review-summary and synthesis of the arguments and ideas of others

Literature review strategies

Find a focus - organize around an idea, Construct a working thesis statement, Organize: Basic categories include: Introduction Body Conclusions Organizing the body methods include: Chronological, Thematic, Methodological

Reasons behind making outlines

Aids in the process of writing, Helps organize ideas

Purpose statement

a declarative sentence which summarizes the specific topic and goals of a document. It is typically included in the introduction to give the reader an accurate, concrete understanding what the document will cover and what he/she can gain from reading it. To be effective it should be: specific and precise, concise, clear, goal oriented

Thesis

The answer to the question is the thesis statement for the paper.

Types of Outlines

Alphanumeric, Full Sentence, Decimal

Keys to a Successful Presentation:

Define Objectives, Know Your Audience, Organize Your Presentation, Develop Visual Aids, Address Your Delivery, Develop Your Q&A, Check Out Your Environment

Scientific Structure

Report of Literature Search, Methodology/Techniques, Results, Interpretation/Discussion, Future Implications

The 3 step outline of a presentation

Step One: Tell them what you will tell them Step Two: Tell them Step Three: Tell them what you told them

Importance of visual aids

Increase Audience Interest, Focus Audience Attention, Induce Audience Participation, Reinforce Points of Emphasis, Increase Retention of Content

What % of what we learned is by sight?

87%

What % of what % of we learn is from what we see and hear

50%

What % of what we learn is by participation

70%

Effective delivery factors

Enthusiasm, Audience Bonding, Posture/Movement, Gestures, Eye Contact, Voice Quality

Hazards of presentations

Poor Introduction, Equipment Failure, Missing Materials, Lighting, Hecklers, Late Returners

Effective/Ineffective purpose statement: "The purpose of this paper is to describe the changes that are occurring in corporate America

ineffective: too vague

Ineffective/effective purpose statement:"The purpose of this report is to discuss the eating disorders Anorexia and Bulimia

Ineffective: to vague

ineffective/effective purpose statement: This article will cover the different ways a company can become organized

Ineffective: obscure and misleading

Ineffective/effective purpose statement:This paper will describe four common causes of co-worker conflict in organizations and explain how to use a five-step procedure to constructively manage this conflict

effective: very specific

Ineffective/effective purpose statement: This report will explain how supervisors can use four planning strategies to improve employee productivity in the workplace

effective: very specific

Ineffective/effective purpose statment: This purpose of this report is to describe the main causes of traffic congestion in Seattle

Effective: leaves no doubt about the reporters main purpose

Research Ethics

3 Principles: Beneficence, Respect, Justice 6 Norms: Valid Research Design, Researcher Competence, Identify Consequences, Appropriate Sample Selection, Voluntary Informed Consent, Inform Participants whether harm will be compensated

Undoing Deception

Debriefing, Dehoaxing, Guarding Privacy & Confidentiality of Participants, Obtain fully informed consent

Autonomy

the right or condition of self-government

Beneficence

maximizing good outcomes for science, humanity, and the individual research participants & minimizing or avoiding unnecessary risk, harm, or wrong

Voluntary Participation

without threat or undue inducement

Informed Consent

agree to participate without threat or undue inducement knowing what a reasonable person in the same situation would want to know before giving consent & explicitly agreeing to participate

Random Assignment

assignment of subjects/participants so that both the criteria of equal probability and independence are fullfilled

Random Selection

the selection of each unit is independent of the selection of any other unit; every person in a population has equal probability of being selected

Defining Characteristics of Experimental Research

1) change x & observe y 2) control as many variables as possible, manipulate 1 to yield causation 3) results are interpreted as "true" within a certain degree of probability

Confounds

other factors that can affect an outcome in an experiment- not measured, but explains results

Independent Variable

a variable that is managed or manipulated in an experiment to determine whether it affects a dependent variable

Dependent Variable

a variable that is observed or measured in an experiment to determine whether it is affected by an independent variable

Criterion Variable

a variable being studied in a correlational project, regarding the extent to which it is correctly predicted by one or more predictor variables

Predictor Variable

a variable being studied in a correlational project, regarding the extent to which it correctly predicts one or more criterion varialbes

Internal Validity

an aspect of design validity: the extent to which all extraneous variables are controlled, enabling results to be interpreted unambiguously regarding the people, setting & occasions studied

External Validity

Generalizability of results to other people, times, places & circumstances than those studied, as relevant to the project's mission

Null Hypothesis

a statistical hypothesis of "no difference" or "no relation" in populations represented by the samples

Experimental Hypothesis

a statement that expresses a prediction about what the answer to a research question will be or an idea about the phenomenon being studied

Control Group

composed of subjects that are alike in all preexisting characteristics to the experimental group, except for the treatment experienced by the experimental group

Correlational Coefficient

a statistical measure expressing the relationship between two or more variables with a single number between 1 & 1, inclusive

Correlational Research

investigate relationships among variables studied

Cross Sectional Research

"cohort design" based on independent group comparisons among samples who have reached different stages of development at the time the study is conducted

Longitudinal Research

studies the same people at different times; inferences about the developmental variable are based on repeated measures comparisons

Reliability

a measure of consistency

Validity

evidence that an instrument/study measures the construct it claims to

Case Study

descriptive research approach- studies intensively a given social unit (individual, group, institution, etc.)

Ethnographic Research

research method designed to describe & analyze practices & beliefs of cultures & communities; involves entering into first hand interaction with people in their everyday lives

Participatory Research

participants participate in the research process- Cooperative Inquiry or Participatory Action Research

Focus Group

a semistructured group interview procedure

Descriptive Research

describes what is without inferring causation

Threats to Internal Validity

1) History 2) Maturation 3) Testing 4) Instrumentation 5) Statistical Regression 6) Differential Selection 7) Experimental Mortality 8) Selection-Maturation Interaction 9) Experimental Treatment Diffusion 10) Compensatory Rivalry by Control Group- John Henry Effect 11) Compensatory Equalization Diffusion 12) Resentful Demoralization of the Control Group

Stratified Sampling

a method of sampling in which the population is subdivided according to one or more stratification variables before the sample is selected, each subdivision of the population is represented by a corresponding subdivision in the sample

Intensity Sampling

sites or individuals are selected in which the phenomenon of interest is strongly represented , but not necessarily extreme

Simple Random Sampling

random sampling applied to the entire frame at once; requires access to the entire population-every person has equal probability of being selected

Cluster Sampling

a procedure in which intact groups rather than individuals are sampled

Probability Sampling

sample is drawn in such a way that makes it probable that the sample is approximately the same as the population on the variables to be studied (SRS, systematic, stratified, cluster, multistage)

Convenience Sampling

a set of individuals studied in a research project because they are conveniently available, without regard to whether they are representative of a population

Operational Definition

experimentally accessible population; moving from a theoretical definition of a concept to something that can be measured; practical, measurable

Conceptual Definition

a theoretical definition of a concept that uses other constructs to explain the meaning

Constructivist Paradigm

reality is socially constructed, research-attempt to understand from POV of those experiencing ; research can not be separated from researcher bias

Postpositivist Paradigm

rational, empiricist, value free & causal nature of what we observe can be concluded; prefer experimental design & random assignment

Percentile Scores

refer to the percentage of cases in a norm sample who scored below an individual's score

Standardized Tests

have instructions for uniform administration, procedures and norms & have been put through rigorous developmental cycles

Measures of Central Tendency

mean, median, mode

Meaning of p Values

Power-ability to detect deviations from the null hypothesis; ex. .5% chance will detect statistical significance if it is present

Statistical Significance

of a magnitude rarely obtained by random sampling from populations for which the null hypothesis is true; probability that the difference in scores occurred because of reasons other than error

Norm Referenced Tests

individuals performances can be compared with the norm group; results from 1 or more large samples with known characteristics

ANOVA

analysis of variance- a test for the significance of differences among three of more means; parametric

T test

inferential statistical test- used to compare two groups; parametric

Chi Square

test of statistical significance for categorical date; non-parametric

Linear Regression

defines a line of best fit for correlational data that can be used as a prediction equation

clustered vs. distributed neurons

two binary choices that will decide between localizationist and holist positions; functionally homogeneous neurons are either one or the other

shared vs. dedicated neurons

neurons perform duties 'across functions' or are solely devoted to a specific language function

dependent variable

what you use to make measurements; i.e. words to write, read, etc. when studying aphasia

independent variable

the results of what you are testing; errors and correct answer, how long it takes to answer correctly, etc. when studying aphasia

functional architecture

box and arrow flowchart, not like neuroanatomy, based on a patient's performance on multi-related language tasks, from sensory input (visual/auditory) to output (written/spoken)

phonologically plausible

(like kids spelling) fabric > phabric; cabin > kabbin

semantic paragraphias

truck > bus; leopard > tiger; apple > orange

orthographic related errors

brush > bpush; happy > fabby; soft > ssoft

morphological paragraphias

learn > learning; powerful > powerfully; picked > pick

event-related potentials

using scalp electrodes, small electrical responses to specific inputs can only be observed by averaging the EEG traces over a series of trials

content words or "open class"

carry meaning; numerous; variable lengths; can add new ones to language; mainly consist of nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs

function words or "closed class"

do not carry meanings by themselves; can't add new ones to language, usually small words (grammatical morphemes and endings); articles, conjunctions, prepositions, pronouns, quantifiers

lexicon

mental dictionary in brain

aggrammatism

Broca's aphasics show evidence for selective loss of closed class words while retaining open class

fMRI

add blood volume flow analysis: oxygenated blood has different magnetic properties relative to de-oxygenated blood, hence bigger signal

MRI

magnetic resonance imaging

PET

positron emission tomography

practice effects

practicing and repeating an experimental task can affect blood flow over a few trials. So test and control must have the same effect.

stimulus presentation rate

14 items/min to 60 items/min in 5 studies reviewed

words with acoustic features

bugle, siren, horn, bell, whistle, sing, thunder

words without acoustic features

think, grass, rubber, plant, pensive, loneliness

N400

reflects postlexical process involved in lexical integration of words in sentence

syntactic positive shift

a positive shift in the ERP waveform after the syntactic violation

Peterson study

by subtracting a "control state" from the current "stimulus state" one could isolate areas of activation related to mental operations present in the stimulus state, but not in the control state

subtraction method

built-in assumption of "forward only" processing

Authoritarian government

A political system that allows little or no participation in decision making by individuals and groups outside the upper reaches of the government.

Balance of power

A concept that describes the degree of equilibrium (balance) or disequilibrium (imbalance) of power in the global or regional system. 44,

Biopolitics

This theory examines the relationship between the physical nature and political behavior of humans.

Bureaucracy

The bulk of the state's administrative structure that continues even when leaders change.

Cognitive decision making

Making choices within the limits of what you consciously know.

Crisis situation

A circumstance or event that is a surprise to decision makers, that evokes a sense of threat (particularly physical peril), and that must be responded to within a limited amount of time.

Decision-making process

The manner by which humans choose which policy to pursue and which actions to take in support of policy goals. The study of decision making seeks to identify patterns in the way that humans make decisions. This includes gathering information, analyzing information, and making choices. Decision making is a complex process that relates to personality and other human traits, to the sociopolitical setting in which decision makers function, and to the organizational structures involved.

Democratic government

The governmental system a country has in terms of free and fair elections and levels of participation.

Ethology

The comparison of animal and human behavior.

Foreign policy process

A concept that includes the influences and activities within a country that cause its government to decide to adopt one or another foreign policy.

Formal powers

Authority to act or to exert influence that is granted by statutory law or by the constitution to a political executive or to another element of government.

Frustration-aggression theory

A psychologically based theory that frustrated societies sometimes become collectively aggressive.

Gender opinion gap

The difference between males and females along any one of a number of dimensions, including foreign policy preferences.

Groupthink

How an individual's membership in an organization/ decision-making group influences his or her thinking and actions. In particular there are tendencies within a group to think alike, to avoid discordance, and to ignore ideas or information that threaten to disrupt the consensus.

Head of government

The ranking official in the executive branch who is politically and constitutionally invested with the preponderance of authority to administer the government and execute its laws and policies.

Hegemonic power

A single country or alliance that is so dominant in the international system that it plays the key role in determining the rules and norms by which the system operates. As the dominant power in the system, it has a central position in both making and enforcing the norms and modes of behavior.

Heuristic devices

A range of psychological strategies that allow individuals to simplify complex decisions. Such devices include evaluating people and events in terms of how well they coincide with your own belief system ("I am anticommunist; therefore all communists are dangerous"), stereotypes ("all Muslims are fanatics"), or analogies ("appeasing Hitler was wrong; therefore all compromise with aggressors is wrong").

Horizontal authority structure

A system in which authority is fragmented, like the international system.

Idiosyncratic analysis

An individual-level analysis approach to decision making that assumes that individuals make foreign policy decisions and that different individuals are likely to make different decisions.

Individual-level analysis

An analytical approach that emphasizes the role of individuals as either distinct personalities or biological/psychological beings.

Informal powers

Authority to act or to exert influence that is derived from custom or from the prestige within a political system of either an individual leader or an institution.

Interest group

A private (nongovernmental) association of people who have similar policy views and who pressure the government to adopt those views as policy.

Intermestic

The merger of international and domestic concerns and decisions. 8,

Issue areas

Substantive categories of policy that must be considered when evaluating national interest.

Leader-citizen opinion gap

Differences of opinion between leaders and public, which may have an impact on foreign policy in a democratic country.

Leadership capabilities

A range of personal job skills including administrative skills, legislative skills, public persuasion abilities, and intellectual capacity that affect the authority of political leaders.

Levels of analysis

Different perspectives (system, state, individual) from which international politics can be analyzed.

Mirror-image perception

The tendency of two countries or individuals to see each other in similar ways, whether positive or negative.

Operational code

A perceptual phenomenon that describes how an individual acts and responds when faced with specific types of situations.

Operational reality

The process by which what is perceived, whether that perception is accurate or not, assumes a level of reality in the mind of the beholder and becomes the basis for making an operational decision (a decision about what to do).

Poliheuristic theory

A view of decision making that holds it occurs in two stages. During the first stage, nonrational considerations such as how an issue and the response to it will affect a decision maker's political or professional future are applied to narrow the range of choices. Then in the second stage decision makers use strategic considerations and other rational criteria to make a final policy choice.

Political culture

A concept that refers to a society's general, long-held, and fundamental practices and attitudes. These are based on a country's historical experience and on the values (norms) of its citizens. These attitudes are often an important part of the internal setting in which national leaders make foreign policy.

Political executives

Those officials, usually but not always in the executive branch of a government, who are at the center of foreign policy-making and whose tenures are variable and dependent on the political contest for power.

Power pole

An actor in the international system that has enough military, economic, and/or diplomatic strength to often have an important role in determining the rules and operation of the system. They have generally beeneither (1) a single countryorempire or (2) agroup of countries that constitute an alliance or bloc.

Role

How an individual's position influences his or her thinking and actions.

State-centric system

A system describing the current world system wherein states are the principal actors.

State-level analysis

An analytical approach that emphasizes the actions of states and the internal (domestic) causes of their policies.

System-level analysis

An analytical approach that emphasizes the importance of the impact of world conditions (economics, technology, power relationships, and so forth) on the actions of states and other international actors.

Two-level game theory

The concept that in order to arrive at satisfactory international agreements, a country's diplomats actually have to deal with (at one level) the other country's negotiators and (at the second level) legislators, interest groups, and other domestic forces at home.

Unipolar system

A type of international system that describes a single country with complete global hegemony.

Vertical authority structure

A system in which subordinate units answer to higher levels of authority.

Conclusion.

A decision made by the researcher about whether the hypothesis was supported based on the results obtained in an experiment

Confidentiality

the ethical principle whereby a professional does not disclose to others information n given in confidence to them by a client/patient. In research studies, personal information should only be collected if it is relevant to the study and can only be reported in such a way that subjects' identities are not revealed. If subjects are dissatisfied after debriefing, they can demand that their data is destroyed. (In therapeutic situations, the patient's consent is required before the practitioner can disclose any information of a personal nature. Exceptions to this occur in cases with minors where discussions are held with parents or in cases where the client threatens, either directly or through their behaviour, to cause harm to themselves or others, in which case the professional is obligated to attempt to prevent such an occurrence.)

Confounding variable

An unwanted factor occurring in the procedures, experimenters or subjects in an experiment that has an effect on the dependent variable, along with or instead of the dependent variable.

Control condition

A condition in an experiment used as a baseline or comparison with the experimental condition involving the treatment variable. Thus, subjects experiencing the control condition should be identical in characteristics and experience similar standardised conditions to those experiencing the experimental condition; however they should not experience the independent variable.

Control Group

A group for which all conditions are identical to those of the experimental group except that participants are not exposed to the manipulation of the independent variable. This enables the researcher to determine whether the independent variable has affected the dependent variable.

Controlled variables

A type of extraneous variable whose influence has been removed from the research via sampling, experimental method and/or statistical control.

Convenience sampling

The process of selecting members of a population to participate in research who are easily obtainable. Examples include newspaper polls and radio station phone-ins, as well as approaching individuals in a shopping centre. Such a sample may not be representative of the population as individuals actively volunteering to participate in the study, or drawn from a narrow strata of the population, may be biased.

Correlation

A statistical measure of the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables, events or measures that occur together so that changes in one are accompanied by changes in the other. It is not a causative measure, meaning that it does not explain the reason behind a relationship between two variables.

Correlation coefficient

An indication of the strength and direction of a correlation between two variables. It ranges from -1.00, indicating a strong negative relationship to, + 1.00, indicating a strong positive relationship. 0.00 indicates no correlation. Furthermore, a correlation level of 0.05 is needed in order to consider a correlation as being moderately strong, an indication of statistical significance.

Correlational method

A research method that identifies and describes the relationship between two variables, events or measures.

Cross-sectional study

Research in which individuals of differing ages drawn from a representative sample are compared in a single study.

Counterbalancing

Reversing the order of presentation for half the participants so that fatigue and practice effects occur in different orders to 'balance' their effects

Debriefing

Feedback given to experimental subjects about the purposes and results of the research of which they were a part. Such feedback should remove any misconceptions caused by deception within the experimental design, and should provide results and interpretations to the participants. The aim is to ensure that subjects leave the experiment in as similar a state as possible as they entered it.

Descriptive statistics

Statistics that describe or summarise the data and typically include a measure of central tendency and dispersion

Dependent variable (DV)

A factor or characteristic of a subject's behaviour or experience that can be observed or measured as being changed in some way as a result of being manipulated by the independent variable. This measure is obtained to test the outcome of the experiment.

Direct observation

A research method involving investigating overt or directly measurable behaviour through the process of watching and recording it as it occurs.

Double-blind study

A test in which neither the experimenters or subjects are aware of which subjects have been allocated to the experimental group.

Empirical evidence

Scientific research gathered using the direct method of systematic observation.

Ethics

A set of moral principles and practices that have been used by psychologists to provide guidelines relating to what is acceptable conduct in terms of right or wrong that researchers follow when considering using humans or animals as research subjects.

Experiment

-A method of data collection used to systematically measure the relationship between variables which have been operationalised in an hypothesis.

Experimental condition

- The condition in an experiment which contains the presence of the independent variable.

Experimental design

The structure of the experiment

Experimental group

The subjects in an experiment who are allocated the independent variable which is changed or manipulated in order to observe its effects on their behaviour or experience.

Experimenter bias

An unconscious expectation of the experimenter which may influence their observations of data.

Experimenter effect

Occurs when the unconscious expectations, personal characteristics or treatment of the data by the experimenter may adversely affect the dependent variable which may bias the experimental results. This may occur when the experimental and control groups are treated differently.

Extraneous variables

Any potential independent variable that is of no direct interest to the researcher, but may have an effect on the dependent variable. The two types of extraneous variables are controlled and uncontrolled variables.

Generalisation

The applications of the conclusions based on the results obtained to other settings outside the study. Extending or applying the results for a sample more widely to the population from which the sample was drawn or another population

Hawthorne effect

The notion that subjects who are aware that they are participants of an experiment may behave according to what they perceive to be the experimenter's expectations. The improved performance may be attributed to this factor, rather than the influence of the independent variable.

Hypothesis

A testable predication that an independent variable(s) or treatment(s) will cause an effect on the dependent variable(s).

Independent-groups design

A research design in which subjects are randomly allocated to groups and it is assumed that relevant variables are balanced between the groups. This makes it equally likely for an individual to be in the experimental or control group.

Independent variable (IV)

The treatment variable (the factor or the characteristic) in an experiment that has been deliberately varied or systematically manipulated by the experimenter in order to measure whether it produced a change in the dependent variable, measured by a change in the subjects' behaviour or performance

Inferential statistics

Statistics that use mathematical procedures to measure and make judgments about how likely it is that the results are obtained in an experiment came about by chance

Informed consent

The process whereby an experimental subject is given all the necessary details in order to reach a decision to agree to being a part of an experiment. Such information should point out any potential risks that may be present in the research design.

Integrity

A commitment by the researcher to the search for knowledge, to recognised principles for conducting research and in the honest and ethical conduct of research (including reporting)

Justice

Ensuring the fair distribution of benefits and burdens with the population of interest and well as for any research participant

Level of significance

Probability that an outcome is statistically significant

Longitudinal study

Research in which a sample of individuals is studied over a long time period.

Matched-subjects design

A research design involving the placement of equivalent pairs of subjects into each group, matched on relevant characteristics such as gender, intelligence scores, age. Subjects are paired on variables which, if not controlled, may have a confounding effect on the research.

Mean

The statistical average for a set of measurements/scores.

Median

When all scores in a set of measurements are arranged in order, the median is the middle score within the set.

Mode

In a set of scores/measurements, the mode is the score that occurs most frequently. There may be more than one mode in any given set of scores.

Negative correlation

Indicates that two variables share a relationship to one another which occurs in an opposite direction.' Thus, as one variable increases, the other variable decreases. For example, as the amount of study time increases, failure rate tends to decrease.

Non-participant observation

- A scientific research method in which the researchers endeavour to conceal their presence when recording their observations.

Null hypothesis.

- A testable prediction that there is no evidence that the treatment has an effect. Thus, any difference between the experimental and control groups is due to chance. If one rejects the null hypothesis, they accept the experimental hypothesis. One cannot accept the null hypothesis

Objective data

Data that has been gathered using systematic observation which is not influenced by any personal bias.

Observation

A scientific research method which involves watching and recording behaviour as it occurs in a clinical or naturalistic setting.

Observer bias

The interference of an observer's personal expectations, motives and prior experience which detracts from the accuracy their research.

Operational definition

The precise, comprehensive description of the concept to be measured in an experiment, and the procedures that will be utilised to measure that concept.

Operational hypothesis

The expression of a hypothesis in terms of how the researcher will determine the presence and levels of the variables under investigation; that is, how the experimenter is going to put their hypothesis into operation.

Opportunity sampling

Also called convenience sampling. Participants are selected from groups that are readily available

Order effect

The potential impact on the results of the order in which an experimental task is completed by participants

p value

The probability level which forms basis for deciding if results are statistically significant (not due to chance).

Participant observation

A scientific research the study; analysing the data; communicating the method in which the researcher watches and records the behaviour to be observed while engaging in the activity themselves in the hope of being mistaken by the subjects as a member of the activity

Participant allocation

Process of assigning participants to different groups (or conditions in a research study)

Placebo selection

Process of choosing participants (sample) from a larger group for research study

placebo

A fake treatment often used in medical research in the form of sugar tablets or injections. It has no medical or pharmacological effects. It is often used as a control condition in experiments, to counter the effect of subjects knowing they have taken something.

Placebo effect

Any observed change in functioning or behaviour that is 'caused' by a placebo, where there is a demonstrated difference between those taking the placebo treatment and those offered no treatment.

Population

The entire group of individuals related to the problem of interest that the researcher is testing. A sample is drawn from the population

Positive correlation

Indicates that two variables share a relationship to one another that occurs in the same direction. Thus, as one variable increases the other variable also tends to increase. For example, as the amount of exercise an individual performs increases, fitness level also tends to increase.

Qualitative data

Factual or descriptive pieces of information about the qualities of the characteristics or behaviours being measured.

Quantitative data

Numerical measures/values used to quantify, /describe the characteristics or behaviours being measured.

Random assignment / allocation

The allocation of subjects to different groups in an experiment ensuring that each subject has an equal chance of being selected in any of the groups to be utilised.

Random sampling

A form of allocating subjects from the population of interest to form part of the sample in such a manner that each member of the population has an equal chance to be selected. One method of doing this is using random number tables of selection. If the sample is of sufficient size, it is usually representative of the population.

Range

the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a frequency distribution. The range is the simplest measure of variability.

Repeated-measures design

One group undertakes both experimental conditions, the experimental condition and the control condition.

Representative sample

A characteristically resemblant portion of the population of interest.

Respect for persons

Proper regard by the researcher for the welfare, rights, beliefs, perceptions, customs and cultural heritage of all individuals involved in research.

Sample

- A subset of the population that is used for research purposes.

Sampling

The method used to select subjects for a study. Types of sampling include random sampling and stratified sampling.

Scatter diagram (scattergram; scatterplot)

A graphical representation of the strength and the direction of the relationship between variables.

Scientific method

A series of orderly steps on clearly defined goals, objectivity and to obtain empirical evidence. are: preparing the study; conducting research reporting findings; and replicating or repeating the study.

Self-report measures

Forms of gaining data which rely on spoken or written responses to questions posed by the researcher. Examples include interviews, surveys and questionnaires.

Single-blind study

An experiment in which subjects are unaware of the experimental or control condition to which they have been assigned. This reduces the likelihood of the Hawthorne effect occurring.

Standard deviation

A measure of the variability of scores in a distribution indicating the average difference between the scores and their mean.

Standardised instructions and procedures

Instructions and procedures used with all groups to make sure only the independent variable differs between them

Statistically significant

When the likelihood of results (e.g. the difference in the mean scores for an experiment) being due to change factors is at an acceptably low level. In scientific research, a level of 0.05 significance is commonly used as a benchmark to gauge whether a difference obtained in the findings is truly due to the influence of the independent variable and not attributed to chance. A 0.05 significance level occurs when the probability of chance is 5 or fewer times in 100 repetitions of the research. Stricter probability values (p) of significance are sometimes employed, such as < 0.01 (less than 1 in 100); and p <0.001 (less than 1 in 1000).

Statistical significance

The term used to indicate whether the results obtained in an experiment do not occur by chance and may therefore be the result to other variables.

Stratified sampling

A method of subject selection used to attempt to prevent biases by making the sample more representative of the population. It involves identifying some of the factors (strata) present in the population such as age, sex, or income level and then selecting a separate sample from each stratum in the same proportions.

Stratified random sampling

Sampling technique in which the population as a whole is divided into parts or 'strata' and each stratum has participants drawn from it.

Subject

A participant in an experiment.

Subjective data

Data obtained by self-report measures in which subjects give verbal or written responses to a series of research questions.

Systematic study

The scientific approach of carrying out and reporting research.

T test

A mathematical procedure that involves a comparison of the means of two groups or treatment conditions to establish statistical significance.

Test of significance

A statistical test used to determine whether the mean scores of two groups differ significantly.

Uncontrolled variables

Those variables that have influenced the result as their presence was not accounted for (and removed) in the experimental method. Uncontrolled variables which cause a change in the value of the dependent variable are termed 'confounding variables'.

Variable

A factor pertaining to the property of an individual or object that can alter in amount or kind and can be measured.

Voluntary participation

Where subjects become a part of an experiment because they choose to do so. This choice is often based on being provided with some information as to the purposes, nature and procedures involved in the research design

Withdrawal rights

The right of experimental subjects to remove themselves from the research situation at any point they decide (such as when the experiment is seen by the subjects as causing too much personal discomfort or distress).

Beneficence

The researchers responsibility to maximize the potential benefits of research and minimise the risks of harm or discomfort to all research participants

Case study

An in-depth study of some particular behaviour or phenomenon of interest in a particular individual, group or situation.

If the law you find is not ______nothing else matters

On Point

Case of 1st Impression

an issue before a court that has never been answered or heard before

All legal material fall into what 2 categories

Primary Authority or Secondary Authority

Primary Authority

thought of as the law, cases, statutes or regulation

Examples of Primary Authority

Cases, statutes, constitutions

Examples of Secondary Authority

Legal Dictionaries, Treatises, Practice Guides, Form Books, Horn Books, Digests, Restatements, Legal Encyclopedias, Legal Periodicals, American Law Reports

Legal Dictionaries

Used to look up terminology, it is hard to look things up from context

Form Book

Book that has forms

Practice Guides

tells you what steps you have to take to achieve something (like a cookbook)

Hybrid Treatises

treatises that has elements of a form book and a practice guide built in

Examples of Hybrid Treatises

Texas Transaction Guide & Texas Litigation Guide

Horn Book

It is 1 volume, and used for instructional puposes only. It's intent is to give you a general overview of the law. Not something you can use for research.

Digests

contain short summaries of points of law found in cases

Main Digest in Texas

West's Texas Digest

How is a digest kept current