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Research Methods and Statistics

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PLAY
critical thinking
process of evaluating claims or hypotheses and making judgments about them on the basis of well-supported evidence
hypothesis
a prediction stated as a testable proposition, usually in the form of an if-then statement
variables
specific factors or characteristics that are manipulated and measured in research
data
numbers that represent research findings and provide the basis for research conclusions
operational definition
a statement of the specific methods used to measure a variable; a detailed explanation of the variable
theory
cluster of explanations of a phenomenon that help predict, explain, and control that behavior
naturalistic observation
method gathering descriptive information involving watching behaviors, without interfering, as they naturally occur
case study
used to collect descriptive data through the intensive examination of a phenomenon in a particular individual, group, or setting (particularly useful for rare or complex phenomena)
survey
questionnaire or interview administered to a large group; designed to obtain descriptions of peoples' behaviors/beliefs
correlational studies
research method that examines relationships between variables in order to analyze trends in data, test predictions, etc. (they do NOT discern cause and effect relationships)
experiment
the only research method to show causation, this involves obtaining a random sample of subjects and using control and experimental groups; allows a researcher to control the data-collection process
independent variable
controlled by the researcher, experienced by the control group, this is what the researcher thinks will HAVE an effect on some other behavior
dependent variable
behavior affected by another variable, it is observed and measured (usually before and after and experiment takes place)
experimental group
receives the critical part of the experiment (the independent variable)
control group
provides a baseline for comparison, does not receive critical treatment (independent variable)
experimenter bias
occurs when experimenters ask leading questions or otherwise search for evidence that supports their hypothesis and don't look for evidence that refutes it
random variable
a confounding variable in which uncontrolled factors affected the dependent variable along with or instead of the independent variable
random assignment
random distribution of participants to experimental or control groups - used to distribute the impact of uncontrolled variables randomly, and most likely evenly, across the groups, minimizing the chance they will distort the results
placebo effect
improvement caused by a participant's knowledge and expectations: can be from a treatment that contains nothing known to be helpful, but that nevertheless produces benefits because a person believes it will be beneficial.
confounding variable
any factor that affects the dependent variable, along with or instead of the independent variable
double-blind design
design for research in which neither the experimenter nor the subjects know who is in the experimental or control group
sampling
the process of selecing participants for research who are members of the population the researcher wishes to study
generalize
to apply the results of one's study to people beyond just the researcher's sample
representative sample
a group of subjects whose characteristics fairly reflect the characteristics of the population they belong to
random sample
a group of subjects selected froma population whose members all had an equal chance of being selected
biased sample
a group of research subjects selected froma population whose members did not all have an equal chance of being chosen
sampling error
part of a sampling process that results in a biased sample
convenience sample
when researchers draw participants from the populations that are readily available to them
twin studies
study the heredity-environment question by comparing the similarity seen in identical twins with those of nonidentical pairs
descriptive statistics
numbers that describe and summarize a set of research data
inferential statistics
set of mathematical procedures that help researchers learn if their research data reflects a true relationship or could be due to random chance
mode
measure of central tendency that is the value that occur most frequently in a data set
median
measure of central tendency that is the halfway point in a set of data
mean
measure of central tendency that is the arithmetic average of the scores in a set of data
range
measure of variability that is the difference between the highest and lowest values in a set of data
standard deviation
measure of variability that is the average difference between each score and the mean of the data set (demonstrates consistency)
correlation
the degree to which one variable is related to another
correlation coefficient
a statistic (r) that summarizes the strength and direction of a relationship between two variables
statistical significance
a term used to describe research results that have been shown by a statistical test to be UNLIKELY to be due to random chance
ethics
code used by psychologists dictating that they minimize discomfort or risk for research participants
hindsight bias
tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it.
theory
set of assumptions used to explain phenomena & offered for scientific study
hypothesis
testable prediction, often implied by a theory
operational definition
statement of procedures used to define research variables which helps to enable replication
replication
repeating of research study to determine if its finding extends to other participants and circumstances
case study
descriptive research technique in which one person or a small group is studied in depth in hope of revealing universal principles
survey
research method in which info is obtained by asking many individuals a fixed set of questions
false consensus effect
tendency to overestimate extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
population
all cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study
random sample
sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
naturalistic observation
descriptive research that involves observing and recording behavior without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
correlation
measure of the extent to which two factors vary together which can be positive or negative or non
scatterplot
graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables.
illusory correlation
perception of a correlation between variables where none exists.
experiment
research method in which investigator manipulates one or more factors (IV) to observe effect on some behavior or mental process (DV)
control condition
condition of experiment that contrasts with experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
double-blind procedure
experimental procedure in which both research participants and research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo.
experimental condition
condition of experiment that exposes participants to treatment, that is, to one version of the IV
placebo effect
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent.
dependent variable
variable that may change in response to manipulations of the IV (what is measured)
independent variable
experimental factor that is manipulated; variable whose effect is being studied.
mean
arithmetic average of a distribution,
median
middle score in a distribution; half scores are above it and half are below it.
mode
most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution.
range
difference between highest and lowest scores in a distribution.
standard deviation
computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.
statistical significance
statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance - expressed as p or sig.
Steps in the Research Process
1) select topic, 2) focus question, 3) design study, 4)collect data, 5) Analyze data, 6)interpret data, 7) inform others
What is a Research Question:
the organizing principle for an individual study. It clarifies exactly what the researcher wants to understand, describe, or explain
Characteristics of a Good Research Question:
1) It elicits an explanation or description, not an answer 2) It links contructs & suggests associations or relationships 3) It can be addressed w/ empirical evidence 4) It is focused and feasible
PICO approach
Patient/problem, intervention, comparison intervention, outcomes. Works best for quantitative designs
Confidence intervals:
allow us to use sample data to estimate a population value like the ture mean or the true proportion. EX: what is the true avg amount students spend weekly on alcohol
Hypothesis testing:
Allows us to use sample data to test a claim about a population, such as testing whether a population proportion or population mean = some #. EX: is the true avg amount that students spent weekly on alcohol $20
Null hypothesis:
always represents the status quo, i.e. the hypothesis that requires no change in current behavior.
Alternative hyposthesis
is the conclusion that the researcher is trying to make.
Using the PubMed database
Identify the key concepts in your research question. Example: Find citations about bronchodilators for treating asthma in children.The key concepts are bronchodilators, asthma and children Enter the significant terms into the search box. Press the Enter key or click Go
Currency
how up to date the information that is being used
Writing References in APA style
Author (alphabetical) month/year, journal name, article name, where it was retrieved
Difference between a literature review and a research paper
Research paper - supports your own argument. Literature review-summary and synthesis of the arguments and ideas of others
Literature review strategies
Find a focus - organize around an idea, Construct a working thesis statement, Organize: Basic categories include: Introduction Body Conclusions Organizing the body methods include: Chronological, Thematic, Methodological
Reasons behind making outlines
Aids in the process of writing, Helps organize ideas
Purpose statement
a declarative sentence which summarizes the specific topic and goals of a document. It is typically included in the introduction to give the reader an accurate, concrete understanding what the document will cover and what he/she can gain from reading it. To be effective it should be: specific and precise, concise, clear, goal oriented
Thesis
The answer to the question is the thesis statement for the paper.
Types of Outlines
Alphanumeric, Full Sentence, Decimal
Keys to a Successful Presentation:
Define Objectives, Know Your Audience, Organize Your Presentation, Develop Visual Aids, Address Your Delivery, Develop Your Q&A, Check Out Your Environment
Scientific Structure
Report of Literature Search, Methodology/Techniques, Results, Interpretation/Discussion, Future Implications
The 3 step outline of a presentation
Step One: Tell them what you will tell them Step Two: Tell them Step Three: Tell them what you told them
Importance of visual aids
Increase Audience Interest, Focus Audience Attention, Induce Audience Participation, Reinforce Points of Emphasis, Increase Retention of Content
What % of what we learned is by sight?
87%
What % of what % of we learn is from what we see and hear
50%
What % of what we learn is by participation
70%
Effective delivery factors
Enthusiasm, Audience Bonding, Posture/Movement, Gestures, Eye Contact, Voice Quality
Hazards of presentations
Poor Introduction, Equipment Failure, Missing Materials, Lighting, Hecklers, Late Returners
Effective/Ineffective purpose statement: "The purpose of this paper is to describe the changes that are occurring in corporate America
ineffective: too vague
Ineffective/effective purpose statement:"The purpose of this report is to discuss the eating disorders Anorexia and Bulimia
Ineffective: to vague
ineffective/effective purpose statement: This article will cover the different ways a company can become organized
Ineffective: obscure and misleading
Ineffective/effective purpose statement:This paper will describe four common causes of co-worker conflict in organizations and explain how to use a five-step procedure to constructively manage this conflict
effective: very specific
Ineffective/effective purpose statement: This report will explain how supervisors can use four planning strategies to improve employee productivity in the workplace
effective: very specific
Ineffective/effective purpose statment: This purpose of this report is to describe the main causes of traffic congestion in Seattle
Effective: leaves no doubt about the reporters main purpose
Research Ethics
3 Principles: Beneficence, Respect, Justice 6 Norms: Valid Research Design, Researcher Competence, Identify Consequences, Appropriate Sample Selection, Voluntary Informed Consent, Inform Participants whether harm will be compensated
Undoing Deception
Debriefing, Dehoaxing, Guarding Privacy & Confidentiality of Participants, Obtain fully informed consent
Autonomy
the right or condition of self-government
Beneficence
maximizing good outcomes for science, humanity, and the individual research participants & minimizing or avoiding unnecessary risk, harm, or wrong
Voluntary Participation
without threat or undue inducement
Informed Consent
agree to participate without threat or undue inducement knowing what a reasonable person in the same situation would want to know before giving consent & explicitly agreeing to participate
Random Assignment
assignment of subjects/participants so that both the criteria of equal probability and independence are fullfilled
Random Selection
the selection of each unit is independent of the selection of any other unit; every person in a population has equal probability of being selected
Defining Characteristics of Experimental Research
1) change x & observe y 2) control as many variables as possible, manipulate 1 to yield causation 3) results are interpreted as "true" within a certain degree of probability
Confounds
other factors that can affect an outcome in an experiment- not measured, but explains results
Independent Variable
a variable that is managed or manipulated in an experiment to determine whether it affects a dependent variable
Dependent Variable
a variable that is observed or measured in an experiment to determine whether it is affected by an independent variable
Criterion Variable
a variable being studied in a correlational project, regarding the extent to which it is correctly predicted by one or more predictor variables
Predictor Variable
a variable being studied in a correlational project, regarding the extent to which it correctly predicts one or more criterion varialbes
Internal Validity
an aspect of design validity: the extent to which all extraneous variables are controlled, enabling results to be interpreted unambiguously regarding the people, setting & occasions studied
External Validity
Generalizability of results to other people, times, places & circumstances than those studied, as relevant to the project's mission
Null Hypothesis
a statistical hypothesis of "no difference" or "no relation" in populations represented by the samples
Experimental Hypothesis
a statement that expresses a prediction about what the answer to a research question will be or an idea about the phenomenon being studied
Control Group
composed of subjects that are alike in all preexisting characteristics to the experimental group, except for the treatment experienced by the experimental group
Correlational Coefficient
a statistical measure expressing the relationship between two or more variables with a single number between 1 & 1, inclusive
Correlational Research
investigate relationships among variables studied
Cross Sectional Research
"cohort design" based on independent group comparisons among samples who have reached different stages of development at the time the study is conducted
Longitudinal Research
studies the same people at different times; inferences about the developmental variable are based on repeated measures comparisons
Reliability
a measure of consistency
Validity
evidence that an instrument/study measures the construct it claims to
Case Study
descriptive research approach- studies intensively a given social unit (individual, group, institution, etc.)
Ethnographic Research
research method designed to describe & analyze practices & beliefs of cultures & communities; involves entering into first hand interaction with people in their everyday lives
Participatory Research
participants participate in the research process- Cooperative Inquiry or Participatory Action Research
Focus Group
a semistructured group interview procedure
Descriptive Research
describes what is without inferring causation
Threats to Internal Validity
1) History 2) Maturation 3) Testing 4) Instrumentation 5) Statistical Regression 6) Differential Selection 7) Experimental Mortality 8) Selection-Maturation Interaction 9) Experimental Treatment Diffusion 10) Compensatory Rivalry by Control Group- John Henry Effect 11) Compensatory Equalization Diffusion 12) Resentful Demoralization of the Control Group
Stratified Sampling
a method of sampling in which the population is subdivided according to one or more stratification variables before the sample is selected, each subdivision of the population is represented by a corresponding subdivision in the sample
Intensity Sampling
sites or individuals are selected in which the phenomenon of interest is strongly represented , but not necessarily extreme
Simple Random Sampling
random sampling applied to the entire frame at once; requires access to the entire population-every person has equal probability of being selected
Cluster Sampling
a procedure in which intact groups rather than individuals are sampled
Probability Sampling
sample is drawn in such a way that makes it probable that the sample is approximately the same as the population on the variables to be studied (SRS, systematic, stratified, cluster, multistage)
Convenience Sampling
a set of individuals studied in a research project because they are conveniently available, without regard to whether they are representative of a population
Operational Definition
experimentally accessible population; moving from a theoretical definition of a concept to something that can be measured; practical, measurable
Conceptual Definition
a theoretical definition of a concept that uses other constructs to explain the meaning
Constructivist Paradigm
reality is socially constructed, research-attempt to understand from POV of those experiencing ; research can not be separated from researcher bias
Postpositivist Paradigm
rational, empiricist, value free & causal nature of what we observe can be concluded; prefer experimental design & random assignment
Percentile Scores
refer to the percentage of cases in a norm sample who scored below an individual's score
Standardized Tests
have instructions for uniform administration, procedures and norms & have been put through rigorous developmental cycles
Measures of Central Tendency
mean, median, mode
Meaning of p Values
Power-ability to detect deviations from the null hypothesis; ex. .5% chance will detect statistical significance if it is present
Statistical Significance
of a magnitude rarely obtained by random sampling from populations for which the null hypothesis is true; probability that the difference in scores occurred because of reasons other than error
Norm Referenced Tests
individuals performances can be compared with the norm group; results from 1 or more large samples with known characteristics
ANOVA
analysis of variance- a test for the significance of differences among three of more means; parametric
T test
inferential statistical test- used to compare two groups; parametric
Chi Square
test of statistical significance for categorical date; non-parametric
Linear Regression
defines a line of best fit for correlational data that can be used as a prediction equation
clustered vs. distributed neurons
two binary choices that will decide between localizationist and holist positions; functionally homogeneous neurons are either one or the other
shared vs. dedicated neurons
neurons perform duties 'across functions' or are solely devoted to a specific language function
dependent variable
what you use to make measurements; i.e. words to write, read, etc. when studying aphasia
independent variable
the results of what you are testing; errors and correct answer, how long it takes to answer correctly, etc. when studying aphasia
functional architecture
box and arrow flowchart, not like neuroanatomy, based on a patient's performance on multi-related language tasks, from sensory input (visual/auditory) to output (written/spoken)
phonologically plausible
(like kids spelling) fabric > phabric; cabin > kabbin
semantic paragraphias
truck > bus; leopard > tiger; apple > orange
orthographic related errors
brush > bpush; happy > fabby; soft > ssoft
morphological paragraphias
learn > learning; powerful > powerfully; picked > pick
event-related potentials
using scalp electrodes, small electrical responses to specific inputs can only be observed by averaging the EEG traces over a series of trials
content words or "open class"
carry meaning; numerous; variable lengths; can add new ones to language; mainly consist of nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs
function words or "closed class"
do not carry meanings by themselves; can't add new ones to language, usually small words (grammatical morphemes and endings); articles, conjunctions, prepositions, pronouns, quantifiers
lexicon
mental dictionary in brain
aggrammatism
Broca's aphasics show evidence for selective loss of closed class words while retaining open class
fMRI
add blood volume flow analysis: oxygenated blood has different magnetic properties relative to de-oxygenated blood, hence bigger signal
MRI
magnetic resonance imaging
PET
positron emission tomography
practice effects
practicing and repeating an experimental task can affect blood flow over a few trials. So test and control must have the same effect.
stimulus presentation rate
14 items/min to 60 items/min in 5 studies reviewed
words with acoustic features
bugle, siren, horn, bell, whistle, sing, thunder
words without acoustic features
think, grass, rubber, plant, pensive, loneliness
N400
reflects postlexical process involved in lexical integration of words in sentence
syntactic positive shift
a positive shift in the ERP waveform after the syntactic violation
Peterson study
by subtracting a "control state" from the current "stimulus state" one could isolate areas of activation related to mental operations present in the stimulus state, but not in the control state
subtraction method
built-in assumption of "forward only" processing
Conclusion.
A decision made by the researcher about whether the hypothesis was supported based on the results obtained in an experiment
Confidentiality
the ethical principle whereby a professional does not disclose to others information n given in confidence to them by a client/patient. In research studies, personal information should only be collected if it is relevant to the study and can only be reported in such a way that subjects' identities are not revealed. If subjects are dissatisfied after debriefing, they can demand that their data is destroyed. (In therapeutic situations, the patient's consent is required before the practitioner can disclose any information of a personal nature. Exceptions to this occur in cases with minors where discussions are held with parents or in cases where the client threatens, either directly or through their behaviour, to cause harm to themselves or others, in which case the professional is obligated to attempt to prevent such an occurrence.)
Confounding variable
An unwanted factor occurring in the procedures, experimenters or subjects in an experiment that has an effect on the dependent variable, along with or instead of the dependent variable.
Control condition
A condition in an experiment used as a baseline or comparison with the experimental condition involving the treatment variable. Thus, subjects experiencing the control condition should be identical in characteristics and experience similar standardised conditions to those experiencing the experimental condition; however they should not experience the independent variable.
Control Group
A group for which all conditions are identical to those of the experimental group except that participants are not exposed to the manipulation of the independent variable. This enables the researcher to determine whether the independent variable has affected the dependent variable.
Controlled variables
A type of extraneous variable whose influence has been removed from the research via sampling, experimental method and/or statistical control.
Convenience sampling
The process of selecting members of a population to participate in research who are easily obtainable. Examples include newspaper polls and radio station phone-ins, as well as approaching individuals in a shopping centre. Such a sample may not be representative of the population as individuals actively volunteering to participate in the study, or drawn from a narrow strata of the population, may be biased.
Correlation
A statistical measure of the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables, events or measures that occur together so that changes in one are accompanied by changes in the other. It is not a causative measure, meaning that it does not explain the reason behind a relationship between two variables.
Correlation coefficient
An indication of the strength and direction of a correlation between two variables. It ranges from -1.00, indicating a strong negative relationship to, + 1.00, indicating a strong positive relationship. 0.00 indicates no correlation. Furthermore, a correlation level of 0.05 is needed in order to consider a correlation as being moderately strong, an indication of statistical significance.
Correlational method
A research method that identifies and describes the relationship between two variables, events or measures.
Cross-sectional study
Research in which individuals of differing ages drawn from a representative sample are compared in a single study.
Counterbalancing
Reversing the order of presentation for half the participants so that fatigue and practice effects occur in different orders to 'balance' their effects
Debriefing
Feedback given to experimental subjects about the purposes and results of the research of which they were a part. Such feedback should remove any misconceptions caused by deception within the experimental design, and should provide results and interpretations to the participants. The aim is to ensure that subjects leave the experiment in as similar a state as possible as they entered it.
Descriptive statistics
Statistics that describe or summarise the data and typically include a measure of central tendency and dispersion
Dependent variable (DV)
A factor or characteristic of a subject's behaviour or experience that can be observed or measured as being changed in some way as a result of being manipulated by the independent variable. This measure is obtained to test the outcome of the experiment.
Direct observation
A research method involving investigating overt or directly measurable behaviour through the process of watching and recording it as it occurs.
Double-blind study
A test in which neither the experimenters or subjects are aware of which subjects have been allocated to the experimental group.
Empirical evidence
Scientific research gathered using the direct method of systematic observation.
Ethics
A set of moral principles and practices that have been used by psychologists to provide guidelines relating to what is acceptable conduct in terms of right or wrong that researchers follow when considering using humans or animals as research subjects.
Experiment
-A method of data collection used to systematically measure the relationship between variables which have been operationalised in an hypothesis.
Experimental condition
- The condition in an experiment which contains the presence of the independent variable.
Experimental design
The structure of the experiment
Experimental group
The subjects in an experiment who are allocated the independent variable which is changed or manipulated in order to observe its effects on their behaviour or experience.
Experimenter bias
An unconscious expectation of the experimenter which may influence their observations of data.
Experimenter effect
Occurs when the unconscious expectations, personal characteristics or treatment of the data by the experimenter may adversely affect the dependent variable which may bias the experimental results. This may occur when the experimental and control groups are treated differently.
Extraneous variables
Any potential independent variable that is of no direct interest to the researcher, but may have an effect on the dependent variable. The two types of extraneous variables are controlled and uncontrolled variables.
Generalisation
The applications of the conclusions based on the results obtained to other settings outside the study. Extending or applying the results for a sample more widely to the population from which the sample was drawn or another population
Hawthorne effect
The notion that subjects who are aware that they are participants of an experiment may behave according to what they perceive to be the experimenter's expectations. The improved performance may be attributed to this factor, rather than the influence of the independent variable.
Hypothesis
A testable predication that an independent variable(s) or treatment(s) will cause an effect on the dependent variable(s).
Independent-groups design
A research design in which subjects are randomly allocated to groups and it is assumed that relevant variables are balanced between the groups. This makes it equally likely for an individual to be in the experimental or control group.
Independent variable (IV)
The treatment variable (the factor or the characteristic) in an experiment that has been deliberately varied or systematically manipulated by the experimenter in order to measure whether it produced a change in the dependent variable, measured by a change in the subjects' behaviour or performance
Inferential statistics
Statistics that use mathematical procedures to measure and make judgments about how likely it is that the results are obtained in an experiment came about by chance
Informed consent
The process whereby an experimental subject is given all the necessary details in order to reach a decision to agree to being a part of an experiment. Such information should point out any potential risks that may be present in the research design.
Integrity
A commitment by the researcher to the search for knowledge, to recognised principles for conducting research and in the honest and ethical conduct of research (including reporting)
Justice
Ensuring the fair distribution of benefits and burdens with the population of interest and well as for any research participant
Level of significance
Probability that an outcome is statistically significant
Longitudinal study
Research in which a sample of individuals is studied over a long time period.
Matched-subjects design
A research design involving the placement of equivalent pairs of subjects into each group, matched on relevant characteristics such as gender, intelligence scores, age. Subjects are paired on variables which, if not controlled, may have a confounding effect on the research.
Mean
The statistical average for a set of measurements/scores.
Median
When all scores in a set of measurements are arranged in order, the median is the middle score within the set.
Mode
In a set of scores/measurements, the mode is the score that occurs most frequently. There may be more than one mode in any given set of scores.
Negative correlation
Indicates that two variables share a relationship to one another which occurs in an opposite direction.' Thus, as one variable increases, the other variable decreases. For example, as the amount of study time increases, failure rate tends to decrease.
Non-participant observation
- A scientific research method in which the researchers endeavour to conceal their presence when recording their observations.
Null hypothesis.
- A testable prediction that there is no evidence that the treatment has an effect. Thus, any difference between the experimental and control groups is due to chance. If one rejects the null hypothesis, they accept the experimental hypothesis. One cannot accept the null hypothesis
Objective data
Data that has been gathered using systematic observation which is not influenced by any personal bias.
Observation
A scientific research method which involves watching and recording behaviour as it occurs in a clinical or naturalistic setting.
Observer bias
The interference of an observer's personal expectations, motives and prior experience which detracts from the accuracy their research.
Operational definition
The precise, comprehensive description of the concept to be measured in an experiment, and the procedures that will be utilised to measure that concept.
Operational hypothesis
The expression of a hypothesis in terms of how the researcher will determine the presence and levels of the variables under investigation; that is, how the experimenter is going to put their hypothesis into operation.
Opportunity sampling
Also called convenience sampling. Participants are selected from groups that are readily available
Order effect
The potential impact on the results of the order in which an experimental task is completed by participants
p value
The probability level which forms basis for deciding if results are statistically significant (not due to chance).
Participant observation
A scientific research the study; analysing the data; communicating the method in which the researcher watches and records the behaviour to be observed while engaging in the activity themselves in the hope of being mistaken by the subjects as a member of the activity
Participant allocation
Process of assigning participants to different groups (or conditions in a research study)
Placebo selection
Process of choosing participants (sample) from a larger group for research study
placebo
A fake treatment often used in medical research in the form of sugar tablets or injections. It has no medical or pharmacological effects. It is often used as a control condition in experiments, to counter the effect of subjects knowing they have taken something.
Placebo effect
Any observed change in functioning or behaviour that is 'caused' by a placebo, where there is a demonstrated difference between those taking the placebo treatment and those offered no treatment.
Population
The entire group of individuals related to the problem of interest that the researcher is testing. A sample is drawn from the population
Positive correlation
Indicates that two variables share a relationship to one another that occurs in the same direction. Thus, as one variable increases the other variable also tends to increase. For example, as the amount of exercise an individual performs increases, fitness level also tends to increase.
Qualitative data
Factual or descriptive pieces of information about the qualities of the characteristics or behaviours being measured.
Quantitative data
Numerical measures/values used to quantify, /describe the characteristics or behaviours being measured.
Random assignment / allocation
The allocation of subjects to different groups in an experiment ensuring that each subject has an equal chance of being selected in any of the groups to be utilised.
Random sampling
A form of allocating subjects from the population of interest to form part of the sample in such a manner that each member of the population has an equal chance to be selected. One method of doing this is using random number tables of selection. If the sample is of sufficient size, it is usually representative of the population.
Range
the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a frequency distribution. The range is the simplest measure of variability.
Repeated-measures design
One group undertakes both experimental conditions, the experimental condition and the control condition.
Representative sample
A characteristically resemblant portion of the population of interest.
Respect for persons
Proper regard by the researcher for the welfare, rights, beliefs, perceptions, customs and cultural heritage of all individuals involved in research.
Sample
- A subset of the population that is used for research purposes.
Sampling
The method used to select subjects for a study. Types of sampling include random sampling and stratified sampling.
Scatter diagram (scattergram; scatterplot)
A graphical representation of the strength and the direction of the relationship between variables.
Scientific method
A series of orderly steps on clearly defined goals, objectivity and to obtain empirical evidence. are: preparing the study; conducting research reporting findings; and replicating or repeating the study.
Self-report measures
Forms of gaining data which rely on spoken or written responses to questions posed by the researcher. Examples include interviews, surveys and questionnaires.
Single-blind study
An experiment in which subjects are unaware of the experimental or control condition to which they have been assigned. This reduces the likelihood of the Hawthorne effect occurring.
Standard deviation
A measure of the variability of scores in a distribution indicating the average difference between the scores and their mean.
Standardised instructions and procedures
Instructions and procedures used with all groups to make sure only the independent variable differs between them
Statistically significant
When the likelihood of results (e.g. the difference in the mean scores for an experiment) being due to change factors is at an acceptably low level. In scientific research, a level of 0.05 significance is commonly used as a benchmark to gauge whether a difference obtained in the findings is truly due to the influence of the independent variable and not attributed to chance. A 0.05 significance level occurs when the probability of chance is 5 or fewer times in 100 repetitions of the research. Stricter probability values (p) of significance are sometimes employed, such as < 0.01 (less than 1 in 100); and p <0.001 (less than 1 in 1000).
Statistical significance
The term used to indicate whether the results obtained in an experiment do not occur by chance and may therefore be the result to other variables.
Stratified sampling
A method of subject selection used to attempt to prevent biases by making the sample more representative of the population. It involves identifying some of the factors (strata) present in the population such as age, sex, or income level and then selecting a separate sample from each stratum in the same proportions.
Stratified random sampling
Sampling technique in which the population as a whole is divided into parts or 'strata' and each stratum has participants drawn from it.
Subject
A participant in an experiment.
Subjective data
Data obtained by self-report measures in which subjects give verbal or written responses to a series of research questions.
Systematic study
The scientific approach of carrying out and reporting research.
T test
A mathematical procedure that involves a comparison of the means of two groups or treatment conditions to establish statistical significance.
Test of significance
A statistical test used to determine whether the mean scores of two groups differ significantly.
Uncontrolled variables
Those variables that have influenced the result as their presence was not accounted for (and removed) in the experimental method. Uncontrolled variables which cause a change in the value of the dependent variable are termed 'confounding variables'.
Variable
A factor pertaining to the property of an individual or object that can alter in amount or kind and can be measured.
Voluntary participation
Where subjects become a part of an experiment because they choose to do so. This choice is often based on being provided with some information as to the purposes, nature and procedures involved in the research design
Withdrawal rights
The right of experimental subjects to remove themselves from the research situation at any point they decide (such as when the experiment is seen by the subjects as causing too much personal discomfort or distress).
Beneficence
The researchers responsibility to maximize the potential benefits of research and minimise the risks of harm or discomfort to all research participants
Case study
An in-depth study of some particular behaviour or phenomenon of interest in a particular individual, group or situation.
If the law you find is not ______nothing else matters
On Point
Case of 1st Impression
an issue before a court that has never been answered or heard before
All legal material fall into what 2 categories
Primary Authority or Secondary Authority
Primary Authority
thought of as the law, cases, statutes or regulation
Examples of Primary Authority
Cases, statutes, constitutions
Examples of Secondary Authority
Legal Dictionaries, Treatises, Practice Guides, Form Books, Horn Books, Digests, Restatements, Legal Encyclopedias, Legal Periodicals, American Law Reports
Legal Dictionaries
Used to look up terminology, it is hard to look things up from context
Form Book
Book that has forms
Practice Guides
tells you what steps you have to take to achieve something (like a cookbook)
Hybrid Treatises
treatises that has elements of a form book and a practice guide built in
Examples of Hybrid Treatises
Texas Transaction Guide & Texas Litigation Guide
Horn Book
It is 1 volume, and used for instructional puposes only. It's intent is to give you a general overview of the law. Not something you can use for research.
Digests
contain short summaries of points of law found in cases
Main Digest in Texas
West's Texas Digest
How is a digest kept current
by the slot in the back cover called the pocket part sent each year
Restatements
a scholarly compilation of the common law by the American Law Institute.
Restatements are ______Authority
Secondary
How are Legal Encyclopedias Organized
Alphabetically by topic, further subdivided into sections
3 Legal Encyclopedias
American Jurisprudence 2nd Edition, Texas Jurisprudence 3rd edition & Corpus Juris Secundum
Abbreviations for the 3 Legal Encyclopedias
Am Jur, Tex Jur & CJS
How are American Law Reports kept current
by the Pocket Part.
Are CJS & Am Jur National or Federal?
National
Is Tex Jur National?
No, Restricted to Texas
Legal Periodicals examples
Newspapers, legal magazines, law reviews
Which Legal Periodical is most beneficial for research?
Law Reviews
Law Reviews are published by?
Law Schools 4 x a year in paperback format
How can you locate what you are looking for in a law review
By Author, Title or Topic
American Law Reports
this is a mixture of a whole bunch of things, it is more complex
What authority are American Law Reports
Secondary
Abbreviation for American Law Reports
ALR
Types of Primary Authority
Case Opinions, Statutes, Codes, Agency Regulations, Constitutions, Ordinances, Treaties
Statute
come from legislature
Code
is a grouping of statutes
Constitutions
the bases of it all
Ordinances
a miniature statute for a city or a county
Treaties
an agreement between 2 or more countries
If a statute etc is in conflict with the constitution, who wins
The Constitution
Where do we find cases?
In Reporters
Trial Level has
Judges
Apellate Level has
Justices
3 stages in the publication of a case
Slip opinion, Advanced sheets, reporter
Advanced sheets are published
in paper back books weekly
Reporters are published
In Hard Bound Volumes
Reporters are organized
Chronologically
Are reporters official or unofficial
Both
Official reporters are published by
Government
Unofficial reporters are published by
A private Company
Does official mean better in researching cases
No
There are 6 reporters
United States Reporters, Supreme Court Reporter, United States Supreme Court Reports, Federal Reporter, Federal Supplement, South Western Reporter
3 Supreme Court Reporters
Untied States Reports, Supreme Court Reporter, United States Supreme Court Reports
1 US Court of Appeals Reporter
Federal Reporter
1 US District Court Reporter
Federal Supplement
1 Texas Region Reporter
South Western Reporter
The only official Reporter is
United States Reports
How do you identify a case in a reporter?
by it's volume & page
The US District Court's Reporter has more than one series
True
The States' system for Reporters is called
National Reporter System
The South Western Reporter has more than one series
True
Credentials needed to subscribe to the SW Reporter
Money
Citation means
Reference
Parallel Citations
When a case can be found in more than one reporter
Doctrine of Precedent
doctrine that requires a court to follow the law established in a prior decision, unless good cause exists to change it
In order to determine when a court will have to follow something or not, you break it down into
Patterns
The 4 Patterns are
The case and the court are in the same jurisdiction, One state does not have to follow what aother state did, Does state court have to follow a federal case, does federal court have to follow a state case
The case and the court are in the same jurisdiction
ask yourself if the case came from a higher court, if yes, you must follow.
Mandatory Authority
when a case came from a higher court, you must follow it
Persuasive Authority
when a case did not come from a higher court, you don't have to follow it
Is a court ever bound by their own prior decisions
No
Two different states, do not have to follow what each other says
Exceptions: Conflicts of Law or Full Faith and Credit
Does state court have to follow a federal case
generally no Exceptions: when there is a federal question (involves us Constitution)
Does a federal court have to follow a state case
generally no Exceptions: When they are required to interpret state law
When talking about the US court of appeals, Texas is in the
5th Circuit
Disposition
what the current court did with the case
The 3 dispositions
affirmed, reversed & rendered, reversed & remanded
Affirmed
we agree. decision stays the same
Reversed & Rendered
appeals court fixes it themselves
Reversed & Remanded
prior court messed up, send back to lower court to fix
What do courts use as their filing systems
Docket Numbers
Headnotes
summary that the publisher made to make your life easier
Attorneys
tells you who the attorneys were for each of the parties
Justices on the panel
the panel that hears the case (average case is heard by a the panel
Majority
how cases are decided (majority Opinion)
Majority Opinion is written by?
one of the members of the panel is chose to write this
Dissenting Opinion is written by?
a Justice that says the majority messed up
Concurring Opinion is written by?
written by a person that agrees with the result, but for different reasons
Appeallate level, who hears case
Justice
Trial Court level, who hears case
Judge
Topic & Key Number System
West's key number system
Secondary Authority
an aid to finding or understanding the law
ways laws can change
legislature can amend existing statutes or enact a new statute, court can apply its own interpretation to an existing statute or they can make law where there is no statute, supreme court can declare something unconstitutional
A court is never bound by its own prior decision
true
encyclopedias have two kinds of index
general and topic
Conclusion
A judgement or decision about what the results obtained from an investigation mean
Confidentiality
Where the results of an experiment are not disclosed to other participants or the participants' details remain anonymous when reporting on the experiment
Confounding Variable
A variable that is uncontrolled and allowed to change together with the IV, thereby having an unwanted effect on the DV
Control Group
The group of participants that is not exposed to the IV providing a standard against which the experimenter can compare the performance of the experimental group
Convenience Sampling
A group that is selected for an investigation from a population that is first encountered when sampling
Correlation
The relationship between the IV and the DV
Debriefing
Where the experimenter informs the participant of the purpose of the investigation at the conclusion of the research, including correcting any mistaken beliefs
Dependent Variable
A variable which shows any effects of the IV; the observed or measured response of the participants
Descriptive Statistics
Used to analyse, summarise, organise and describe important features of data so they can be further interpreted
Double-blind procedure
An experimental procedure where both the experimenter and participant are unaware of the experimental conditions
Ethics
Standards that guide individuals to identify good, desirable or acceptable conduct
Experiment
A research methods used to test a hypothesis under controlled conditions in order to measure effects of an IV on a DV
Experimental Group
The participants exposed to the IV
Experimenter Bias
When the experimenter shows bias in the collection and treatment of data
Experimenter Effect
When the experimenter's personal characteristics, actions or treatment of data affect the accuracy of results
Experimental Design
An experiment&#039;s specific procedures for data collection, particularly the types of groups used - independent groups, matched participants &amp; repeated measures
Extraneous Variables
Any variable other than the IV that can cause change in the DV and therefore affect results in an unwanted way
Generalisation
Applying the results for a sample more widely to the population from which the sample was drawn
Hawthorne Effect
If participants are aware they are part of an experimental group they may simply improve because of that fact
Operational Hypothesis
A prediction of how the variables being studied will be manipulated, observed and measured as well as the population from which the sample was taken
Independent Groups Design
An experimental design in which each participant is randomly allocated to one of two or more entirely separate groups
Independent Variable
A variable which is manipulated or varied by the experimenter in order to measure its effect on the DV
Inferential Statistics
Statistics used to make judgements about whether the results for a sample would be the same for the population - how likely the results occurred by chance
Informed Consent
Participants are made aware of the nature and purpose of the investigation beforehand and usually involves signed a consent form
Matched Participants Design
An experimental design that involves selection of pairs of participants who are similar in a characteristic that can influence the DV, then allocating each member of the pair to a different group
Mean
The arithmetical average of all individual scores in a set of scores
Median
The middle scores in a set of scores
Mode
The most frequently occurring score in a set of scores
Negative Correlation
When one variable increases, the other goes down on a scatter diagram
Null Hypothesis
A predicted where there is no relationship between variable being studied - it is made to be disproved
Observation
A research method that involves watching and describing behaviour as it occurs
p value
A probability value that shows the statistical level at which chance is likely to have operated on the results obtained from research
Participant
Person selected to take part in a research study or experiment
Participant Allocation
Process of assigning participants to different groups
Participant Selection
Process of choosing participants from a larger group for a research study
Placebo
A fake treatment
Placebo Effect
When a participant's response is changed by their belief that they are receiving some kind of experimental treatment as opposed to change caused by the actual experimental treatment
Population
The larger group from which a sample is drawn for a research study
Positive Correlation
Relationship between two variables in which a high rank on one is accompanied by a high rank on the other
Qualitative Data
Actual numerical data or statistical information collected during an investigation
Quantitative Data
Data that is obtained by questionnaire, self-report or observation
Random Allocation
A procedure for assigning participants to the various groups in an experiment which ensures that participants have an equal chance of selection to each group
Random Sampling
The procedure for selecting a group of participants from a population that ensures each member has an equal chance of being chosen
Repeated Measures Design
An experimental design which uses the same participants in both the experimental and control groups
Representative Sample
The selected group must represent the individual differences that exist in the population.
Sample
A study group which is selected from the population for allocation to the experimental and control groups
Scientific Method
A series of orderly steps which are followed in conducting and reporting scientific research
Single-blind procedure
A procedure in an experiment to ensure participants are not aware of the group to which they have been allocated
Statistically Significant
When the likelihood of results being due to chance is at an acceptably low level (p<0.05)
Stratified Sample
A procedure that involves diving the population to be sampled into distinct groups (or strata) then selecting a sample from each stratum
Subjective Data
Information based on self-reports given by participants
Voluntary Participation
Participants are not placed under any pressure or coercion to participate in the investigation
Withdrawal Rights
The experimenter informs the participants that they are free to participate, decline or withdraw from the research at any time without reason should they wish to do so
null hypothesis
hypothesis that states there is no difference between two or more sets of data making it opposite of the research hypothesis
single-blind procedure
procedure in which info that could introduce bias the result is withheld from participants, but experimenter will be in full possession of facts
extraneous variables
any variables other than IV variable that seem likely to influence the DV
confounding of variables
when two variables are linked together in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their specific effects.
quasi-experiment
researchers takes subjects & conditions as they naturally occur, with little if any control over what happens.
cross-sectional research
people of different ages are compared to one another at a single point in time
longitudinal research
research in which the same people are re-studied and re-tested over a long period
reliability
extent to which a test yields consistent results - a measure is repeatable
validity
extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to - test accuracy
test-retest reliability
if you take the same test 2x's & you get the same results it shows ______ reliability
alternate form reliability
A type of reliability, where different versions of same instrument are used and scores are compared
split half reliability
A test is divided into 2 halves and scores on the halves are compared to see if test is consistent within itself. Ex. compare odds & evens
inter-rater reliability
More than one individual scores same test, regardless of who rates test - scores should be the same for _____ reliability
construct validity
Extent to which scores suggest that a test is actually measuring an ABSTRACT theoretical idea (such as anxiety, personality, introversion, etc.).
content validity
degree to which test is representative of total domain its supposed to cover.
criterion validity
form of validity in which a psychological measure is able to predict some future behavior or is meaningfully related to some other measure
face validity
measures whether a test looks like it tests what it is supposed to test as determined by a quick look or evaluation by a non expert
nominal data
data of categories only. Data cannot be arranged in an ordering scheme. (Gender, Race, Religion)
ordinal data
data exists in categories that are ordered but differences cannot be determined or they are meaningless. (Example: 1st, 2nd, 3rd)
interval data
differences between values can be found, but is NO absolute ZERO. Examples: temperature F, time
ratio data
data with an absolute 0. Ratios are meaningful. (Length, Width, Weight, Distance)
Historiography
A study of the procedures that different historians use in their research; also a study of the changing revisions and interpretations of the past.
Grounded theory
Qualitative procedures that are used to develop detailed concepts or conditional propositions for situations; also, summaries of facts.
Ex post facto research
Research that investigates events that have already occurred and implies a cause-and-effect relationship from the results.
Ethnography
A description and interpretation of a culture, social group, or system.
Emergent design
A research plan in which each step depends on the results of the field data obtained in the previous step.
Descriptive research
Refers to research that describes an existing or past phenomenon in quantitative terms.
Case study
Qualitative research that examines a bounded system over time in detail, employing multiple sources of data found in the setting.
Basic research
Research that tests or refines theory; not designed to be applied immediately to practice.
Analytical research
An analysis of documents to investigate historical concepts and events.
Action research
studies undertaken by practitioners in schools that address an actual problem or issue in the school or classroom.
Secondary Research
Using existing and more qualitative research that has to do with...archival research, reference books, computer databases, and online searches.
content analysis
the systematic and objective counting or categorizing of information
copy testing
when the target audience is asked to read or view the material in draft form before it is mass-produced and distributed.
ethnographic technique
an anthropology approach to conduct research through observation of group behavior
random sample (aka probability sample)
everyone in the target audience (as defined by the researcher) has an equal or known chance of being selected for the survey.
non-probability sample
i.e. mall-intercept interviews. NOT random at all. Different people are present at different times
advocacy research
research that is done by organizations who send out surveys w/ questions that use highly charged words that elicit an emotional reaction from the respondent
"loaded questions"
intentionally skewed questions that generate a predictable response
benchmarking
when companies use software programs to track and monitor a client's reputation almost on a daily basis
courtesy bias
when respondents often choose answers they think are "politically correct" or what the sponsor wants to hear
mail questionnaires
(1) researchers have more control of who gets them. (2) large geographic areas can be covered economically. (3) less expensive to use a paper-base. (4) large #s of people can be reached at minimal cost
telephone surveys
(1) feedback is immediate (2) more personal form of comm. (3) less intrusive than door-2-door. (4) response rate can be higher
omnibus surveys (piggyback survey)
when an organization "buys" 1 or 2 questions in a national survey conducted by a national polling firm
Web/E-mail surveys
(1) large samples in short amount of time (2) more economical than mail or questionnaires (3) data can be analyzed continually
Qualitative Research
research that is good for probing attitudes and perceptions, assessing penetration of messages, and testing messages
Quantitative Research
research that involves polls and surveys using highly precise scientific sampling methods
Hawthorne Effect
change in subject's behavior caused simply by awareness of being studied
positive correlation
correlation where as one variable increases, the other also increases, or as one decreases so does the other. Both variables move in same direction.
negative correlation
association between increases in one variable and decreases in another
correlational study
research project designed to discover degree to which two variables are related to each other
z score
in a normal distribution it tells you how far a number is above or below mean in terms of standard deviations.
positive (right) skew
skewed distribution where data has many more scores toward the lower end of the distribution
negative (left) skew
skewed distribution with many more scores on the higher end of the distribution
operational definition
statement that describes how to measure a particular variable or define a particular term specifically in a study
social desirability bias
tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about oneself.
random assignment
Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to different groups.
stratified sample
sample drawn in such a way that known subgroups within a population are represented in proportion to their numbers in general population
experimenter bias
expectations by researcher that might influence results of experiment or its interpretation
frequency histogram
type of bar graph that shows frequency distributions
frequency polygon
type of line graph that shows frequency distributions
ANOVA
statistical method for making simultaneous comparisons between two or more means
correlation coefficient
statistical measure of strength of association between two variables ranging from -1.0 to 1.0
illusory correlation
perception of relationship where none exists.
CINAHL database
covers references to virtually all English-language nursing and allied health journals, as well as to books, book chapters, dissertations, and selected conference proceedings
keyword
important term used to search for references on topic in bibliographic database
literature review
critical summary of research on topic, often prepared to put research problem in context or to summarize existing evidence
MEDLINE database
developed by US National Library of Medicine and is widely recognized as premier source for bibliographic coverage of biomedical literature; covers about 5,000 medical, nursing, and health journals published in about 70 countries and contains more than 16 million records dating back to mid 1960s; abstracts of reviews from Cochrane Collaboration are also available
primary source
first hand reports of facts or findings; in research, original report prepared by investigator who conducted study
PubMed
where MEDLINE database may be accessed for free
secondary source
second hand accounts of events or facts; in research, description of study prepared by someone other than original researcher
subject heading
subject codes
accessible population
population of ppl available for particular study--often nonrandom subset of target population
cluster sampling
form of sampling in which large groupings ("clusters") are selected first (eg nursing schools), with successive subsampling of smaller units (eg nursing students)
consecutive sampling
recruitment of all ppl from accessible population who meet eligibility criteria over specific time interval or for specified sample size
convenience sampling
selection of most readily available persons as participants in study
data saturation
collection of qualitative data to point where sense of closure is attained because new data yield redundant info
eligibility criteria
criteria designating specific attributes of target population, by which ppl are selected for inclusion in study
maximum variation sampling
sampling approach used by qualitative researchers involving purposeful selection of cases with wide range of variation
nonprobability sampling
selection of sampling units (eg ppl) from population using nonrandom procedures (eg convenience and quota sampling)
nonresponse bias
bias that can result when nonrandom subset of ppl invited to participate in study decline to participate
population
entire set of individuals or objects having some common characteristics (eg all RNs in New York); sometimes called universe
power analysis
procedure for estimating either needed sample size for study or likelihood of committing Type II error
probability sampling
selection of sampling units (eg participants) from population using random procedures (eg simple random sampling)
purposive sampling
nonprobability sampling method in which researcher selects participants based on personal judgment about who will be most informative; also called judgmental sampling
quota sampling
nonrandom sampling method in which "quotas" for certain sample characteristics are established to increase representativeness of sample
response rate
rate of participation in study, calculated by dividing number of some individuals to respond to items in characteristic ways (eg always agreeing) independently of item content
sample size
number of subjects in sample, major issue in conducting and evaluating quantitative research
sampling
process of selecting potion of population to represent entire population
sampling bias
distortions that arise when sample is not representative of population from which it was drawn
sampling error
fluctuation of value of statistic from one sample to another drawn from one sample to another drawn from same population
simple random sampling
basic probability sampling involving selection of sample members from sampling frame through completely random procedures
snowball sampling
selection of participants through referrals from earlier participants; also called network sampling
strata
subdivisions of population according to some characteristics (eg males and females)
stratified random sampling
random selection of study participants from two or more strata of population independently
systematic sampling
selection of sample members such that every kth (every 10th) person or element in sampling frame is chosen
target population
entire population in which researcher is interested and to which he or she would like to generalize study results
theoretical sampling
in qualitative studies, selection of sample members based on emerging findings to ensure adequate representation of important theoretical categories
Theoretical Population
the group of objects to which an explanation applies
Units of analysis (cases)
Each subject about which the data are gathered; objects
Sample
All the units we are analyzing
Properties
Characteristics, attributes, or types of behavior of the units
Variables
a set of numbers or values you get after measuring a property
Qualitative
Units classified by type
Quantitative
Units classified by degree or quantity
Dichotomous
A property or variable for which the units are classified into just one of two categories
Hypothesis
A statement asserting that specific variation in one property results in or causes specific variation in the property we are seeking to explain.
Dependent property (variable)
The property we are seeking to explain
Independent property (variable)
The property that is asserted to cause the variation
Causal association
Variation in the independent property tends to cause directly or indirectly variation in the dependent variable
Theories
General explanations
Professional literature
Books, publications, or journals with regular research; the primary source of explanations for more empirical research
Literature review
A detailed discussion of how your research fits into the existing body of research on the subject
Replication
The retesting of hypotheses to see whether they are confirmed with different unit of analysis (justified)
Sample
a subset of the theoretical population
Levels of measurement
ordinal, interval, nominal
Interval level
Quantitative type variables
Ordinal level
They indicate only relative amount of a property
Nominal level
no actual relative amount of a property
Reliable
It must yield the same results in the same circumstances the same way, regardless of who does the measuring
Valid
measures the property as it was defined
Likert scaling
question with the high number always indicating that more of the property being measured is present
Indicators of central tendency
reflect the middle, central, or most common value in a distribution: mode, mean, and median
Indicators of dispersion
indicates the extent to which the values of the units are spread out or concentrated together: variation and standard deviation
Frequency distribution
shows the distribution of how much there is of items
Bar graph
a series of bars, one for each number of units or percentage of units in a category
Mode
the category that contains the largest number of units
Median
it is the middle category or value of a distribution
Range
indicates the highest and lowest categories in which the units of analysis are found
Interquartile range
indicates the high and low categories of the middle 50% of the units
Line graph
a continuous line that represents the distribution of interval variables
Mean
average, the sum of the values divided by the number of units
Variance
computed by finding the difference from each value and the mean for category; then squaring and averaging those differences
Standard deviation
the square root of the variation
Unimodal
units clustered about a single value
Bimodal
units concentrate around two nonadjacent values
Uniform distributions
the cases are distributed more or less evenly across the range of categories, may have no modal areas
Symmetrical
values are equally distributed on each side of the midpoint
Left-skewed (negative)
mean is lower than the median; outlying cases are lower than the midpoint of the distribution
Right-skewed (positive)
mean is greater than the median; the outlying cases are higher than the midpoint of the distribution
Stratum
a subgroup of the theoretical population that has some identifying characteristics in common
Cross-sectional analysis
if the independent property is measured for different units at a given point in time then the units that differ with regard to the independent variable will tend to differ in a specified manner with respect to the dependent
z-score
divide the standard deviation from the value of d
Longitudinal analysis
if the independent property is measured for different point in time then the units that differ with regard to the independent variable will tend to differ in a specified manner with respect to the dependent
Meta-Analysis
A research procedure that uses statistical techniques to synthesize the results of prior independently conducted studies.
Mixed method
Refers to a study that combines qualitative and quantitative techniques and/or data anaylsis within different phases of the research process.
Oral history
A form of historical research in which individuals' spoken words and testimonies about the past are recorded.
Phenomenological
Research that describes the meanings or essence of a lived experience.
Policy analysis
Research to investigate and formulate policies and programs.
Prediction study
Research in which behaviors or skills are predicted by one or several variables.
Qualitative research
a type of research that refers to in-depth study using face-to-face or observation techniques to collect data from people in their natural settings.
Quantitative research
A research paradigm in which objective data are gathered and analyzed numerically.
Quasi-experimental design
Research designs in which there is no random assignment of subjects.
Replication
A study that duplicates the findings of a prior study using different participants, settings, or techniques.
Survey research
The use of a questionnaire or interview to assess the current opinions, beliefs, and attitudes of members of a known population.
Respondent
a person who provides data for analysis by responding to a survey questionnaire
Questionnaire
a document containing questions and other types of items designed to solicit information appropriate for analysis. Used primarily in survey research but also in experiments, field research, and other modes of observation
Open-ended questions
questions for which the respondent is asked to provide his or her own answers. In-depth qualitative interviewing relies almost exclusively on open-ended
Close-ended questions
survey questions in which the respondent is asked to select an answer from among a list provided by the researcher. These are popular in survey research because they provide a greater uniformity of responses and are more easily processed
Bias
that quality of a measurement device that tends to result in a misprepresentation, in a particular direction, of what is being measured
Contingency Question
A survey question intended for only some respondents, determined by their responses to some other question. p279 for example
Response Rate
the number of people participating in a survey divided by the number selected in the sample, in the form of a percentage. Also called Completion Rate or, in self-administered surveys, the Return Rate: the percentage of questionnaires sent out that are returned.
Interview
a data-callection encounter in which one person asks questions of another. May be conducted face-to-face or bu telephone.
Probe
a technique employed in interviewing to solicit a more complete answer to a question. It is a nondirective phrase or question used to encourage a respondent to elaborate on an answer. Ex. "Anything more?" and "How is that?"
Secondary Analysis
a form of research in which the data collected and processed by one researcher are reanalyzed by another. Especially appropriate in the case of survey data.
face validity
idea that a test shoud appear to any person to be a test of what it is supposed to test
content validity
a test should sample the range of the behaviour that is represented by the theoretical concept being tested
criterion validity
idea that a test should correlate with other measures of the same theoretical construct
construct validity
a test that the measurements actually measure the constructs they are designed to measure but no others
error variance
variability in the dependent variable that is not associated with the dependent variable
dependent variable
a measure of the behaviour of the subject on one of several different dimensions
independent variable
one that is maipulated
subject variable
an independent variable that the researcher doesnt manipulate but measures instead
confounded variable
is one whose effect cant be separated from the supposed independent variable
quantitative variables
vary in the amount
categorical variables
differ in kind
continuous variable
one that is not limited to a certain number of values
discrete variable
one that falls into a certain number of distinct bins
systematic error
constant bias
nominal measurement
similarities and differences. classifies objects or events into categories same event get same number
nominal example
types of defense mechanisms
ordinal measurement
ranks objects/events inorder of their magnitude. the position of the numbers on the scale must represent the rank order of the psychological attributes of the object
ordinal example
preferences
interval measurement
one in which the differences between the numbers on the scale are meaningful. equal differences between the numbers on the scale must represent equal differences between the event or objects
interval example
IQ
ratio measurement
one that has a meaningful 0 point as well as meaningful differences btw the numbers on the scale. the ratios btw the numbers on the scale must represent the ratios btw the evnts/objects
ratio example
stevens law of sensation magnitude
latency
the amount of time between an instrction and when the behaviousis actually performed
topogrpahy
the shape or style of the behavious
force
intensity or strength of a behaviour
locus
where the behaviour occurs in the environment
internal validity
extent to which a study provides evidence of a cause-effect relationship btw the independent and dependent variable
construct validity
extent to which the results support the theory behind the research
manipulation check
aspect of an experiement designed to make certain that varible have changed in the way that was intended
external validity
how well the findings of an experiment generalize to other situatons or populations; different subjects, settings, times, etc
ecological validity
extent to which an experiemtnal situatuon mimics a real world situation
statistical validity
extent to which data are shown to be he result of cause-effect relationships rather than accident
threats to validity
events outside the laboratory, maturation, effects of testing, regression effect, selection, mortality
maturation
the amount of time btw measurements
regression effect
tendency of subject with extreme score closer to the mean on a second testing
mortality
the dropping out of some subjects before an experiment is completed
threats to construct validity
loose connection between the theory and method, ambiguous effect of independent variable
threats to external validity
other subjects, other times, other settings
threats to statistical validity
improper use of statistics in analyzing the data
practice effect
performance improves with repated exposure
fatigue effect
performance deteriorates with exposure
spatial imagery
the ability to manipulate a mental image of an object
cause and effect relationships
They are determined by manipulating the independant variable, measuring the dependant variable, and controlling all other variables
experimental group
Where the independant variable is being manipulated
control group
Research done with no treatment and no independant variable manipulation
within subjects design
Research done where conditions are tested within individual subjects and each subject recieves every manipulation
non-experimental research
Research that looks at variables by comparing different groups of scores and uses less manipulation of variables than experimental research
quasi-experimental research
Research with a more reasonable level of control in comparison to experimental and may even require no manipulation at all
measurement validity
It asks if the measurement procedures actually measure what you intend to measure
experimental validity
It asks if the experiment actually answered the intended question
confounding variables
They make the independant variable and dependant variable relationship unclear
obscuring variables
They are factors which make changes in the dependant variable hard to observe and also cause increased measurement error and more noise in the data
quantitative variables
numerical and can be ordered and ranked
continuous variable
A quantitative variable that can assume an uncountable number of values
discrete variable
a quantitative variable whose values are countable
systematic error
When there is a constant bias
nominal scale
A set of categories for classifying objects
ordinal scale
scale indicating order or relative position of items according to some criterion
interval scale
scale with equal distances between the points or values, but without a true zero
ratio scale
scale with equal distances between the points or values and with a true zero
latency scale
A scale which records the amount of time between an instruction and when the behaviour is atually performed
topography scale
A scale which measures the shape and style of the behaviour
force scale
A scale which measures the intensity or strength of a behaviour
locus scale
A scale which measures where in the environment the behaviour occurs
confounded variable
Is the result of the independant variable being manipulated and cannot be separtated from the results
meta analysis
statistically combines and re-evaluates data from several primary papers
symposia
collection of talks 45 mins each, all on related theme/topic
method is written in
past tense
discussion is written in
present tense
Applied survey research
consumer research, job selection, law enforcement
Theoretical survey research
gender differences in teen drug use
likert scale
5 choices. ex pain on a scale from 1 to 10
visual analogue scale
___________ based on that line how much does it hurt?
branching items
answer different question sets based on prior answers ex drinking portion on a health questionnaire
Non-probability sampling
haphazard, purposive, convenience
probability sampling
random, systematic
haphazard sampling
literary digest election poll
purposive sample
closer to sampling the whole population than conveniencce sampling
quota sampling
population numerical composition is maintained. data collected haphardly. ex study males in caf
Simple random
everyone has an equal chance
systematic sample
everyone person from the first 10th on the list
stratified random sample
subgroups compiled. representative according to predetermined proportions
cluster sample
groupings from a larger population. ex. 1/10 of student of every class... not 1/10 of every class
between subjects design
all about comparison, experimental group/control group
within subjects design
subjects act as their own controls, each subject recieves every manipulation
non-experimental research
attempts to descrie variables. looks at variables as they exist naturally, identify correlations btw variables by comparing
Quasi- experimental research
aim to define cause-effect relationships, fails to manipulate independent variable, often compares pre-existing groups(factory in ottawa vs. one in toronto)
Ways to increase control
Random assignment, nuisancem statistical control, replication,
random assignment
equal chance of being in either group
Matching
pre-test ppts on an important(potentially confounding) variable so that it can be controlled for
nuisance variables
potential confounds that can't be easily removed so made as IV as a means of control
statistical control
inferential stats, allows us to determine if the effect is due to chance
Systematic replication
based on an extensionof theory, most common type, ex if this theory is correct the following should happen
direct replication
the same experiment is repeated, uncommon, only happens if systematic replication fails
within subjects control
using same ppts for different experiment
Non experimental research
qualitative, correlation, archival
qualitative research
asks questions regarding how people make meaning out of the world
correlation research
measures 2 or more variables to determine the degree of relationship btw them
archival research
examines pre-existing records
hermeneutic approach
the principle of interpretation of a text's meaning. ex biblical research
nonreactive
another term for naturalistic observation, emphasize ppts are unaware of observation
mutually exclusive
categories defined so that membership to one rules out membership to other. ex cant be both graduate and under grad student
exhaustive
all categories must fall into one case or another ex. bachelor degree
verification key
a collection of items on a questionnaire designed to detect dishonest answers
acquiescence
tendency to agree regardless on content
purposive sample
not random selection, certain characteristics
sampling frame
the population you will work with
element
individual memer of a sampling frame
multistage sampling
a form of cluster sampling in whcih clisters are further broken down by taking samples from each cluster
true experiments
experiemnter has complete control
order effects
changes in a subjects performance resulting fromthe postion in which a condition appears in an experiment
sequence effects
changes in a subjects performance resulting from interactions among the conditions themselves
counterbalancing
controlling for order and sequence effects by arranging that subjects experience the various conditions in differeent orders
block randomization
control procedure in wich the order of conditions is randomized but with each condition being presented once before any condition is repeated
reverse counter balancing
method of control in which conditions are presented in order the first time and then in reverse order
latin square
control procedure in which each subject experiences each condition in a different order from other subjects
two codnition design
simplest, all subjects experience both conditions, yes-no questions
multiple conditions design
compare several variables/treatments for effectiveness, not usually yes/no questions, subjects experience all conditions
one group posttest only design
research design that measures the behaviour of a single group of subjects after they are given a treatment, threats to validity uncontrollable
one group pretest postest design
measures the behavious of a single group of subjects both before and after treatment, know the behavious change, may be considered a quasi experiment
A-B Design
2 phase experimental design consisting of a pre-treatment baseline condition (A) followed by a treatment condition (B),
A-B-A Design
3-phase design consisting of initial baseline phase (A) until steady state (B) implemented until behavior has changed and steady state, return to baseline (A) by withdrawing IV (B)",
A-B-A-B Design
A-B-A design with addition of second intervention phase to see if initial treatment effects are replicated
multielement design
Design in which baseline period is followed by a second phase in which 2 IVs are administered, and the more effective IV is continues to phase 3
A-B Design
2 phase experimental design consisting of a pre-treatment baseline condition (A) followed by a treatment condition (B),
A-B-A Design
3-phase design consisting of initial baseline phase (A) until steady state (B) implemented until behavior has changed and steady state, return to baseline (A) by withdrawing IV (B)
A-B-A-B Design
A-B-A design with addition of second intervention phase to see if initial treatment effects are replicated,
Applied Research
Research that is technologically useful??,
Ascending trend
An increasing data path
Baseline
Condition of an experiment in which IV is not present; data obtained during baseline is basis for determining effects of IV.
Behavior
The portion of an organism's interaction with it's environment
Changing Criterion Design
Design in which baseline is followed by phases of successive and gradually changing criteria
Confound
Extraneous variables that effect the IV
Continuous Measurement
Measurement conducted so that all instances of the response class are detected during the observation period
Discontinous Measurement
Any form of measurement in which some instances of the response class may not be detected
Dependent Variable
The variable in an experiment measured to determine if it changes as a result of manipulations of the IV
Descending Trend
A decreasing data path
Empirical
Verifiable or provable by means of observation or experiment
Event Recording
Documents individual occurrences of a response or stimulus during an observation period
Experiment
Comparison of some measure of the DV under 2 or more different conditions in which the IV differs from one condition to another
Experimental Control
When a predictable change in the DV can be produced by the systematic manipulation of the IV
Experimental Design
Type and sequence of conditions in a study so that comparisons of the effects of the presence and absence of the IV can be made
Experiment Question
A statement of what the researcher seeks to learn by conducting the experiment
Extraneous Variable
Other variables in the environment that may affect experimental control
Frequency
Ratio of count per observation time
Functional Relation
When a change in the DV is produced by systematic manipulations of the IV and the change unlidely to be result of other extraneous variables
Independent Variable
The variable that is systematically manipulated to see whether changes in the IV produce reliable changes in the DV
Inter observer agreement
When 2 or more observers report the same observed values after measuring the same event
Irreversibility
When the level of responding in a previous phase cannot be reproduced even thought conditions are the same
Latency
Time from the onset of a stimulus to the initiation of a response
Partial Interval Recording
Observation is divided into brief time intervals; observer records whether target behavior occurs at ANY TIME during interval
Percent Correct
Number of correct responses expressed as a number of parts per 100
Permanent Product
Measuring a behavior after it occurred by measuring it's effects on the environment
Replication
Repeating of experiments to determine the reliability and usefulness of findings and determine mistakes
Reversal Design
Design in which to verify the effect of the IV by reversing responding to a level in a previous level
Single Subject research designs
Demonstrate experimental control within a single subject
Social Validity
The extent to which target behaviors are socially appropriate and the extent to which significant changes are produced
Trend
The overall direction of a data path
Validity
Extent to which data from measurement are relevant to the target behavior and to the reason for measuring it
Withdrawal design
Design in which an effective treatment is withdrawn to promote maintenance of behavior
scatter plot
a graph of data points
line of best fit
approximates the trend in data
model
sometimes a line or an equation used to represent data
Stroop Test
correlates a person's perception of words and colors for a list
matching list
the color of ink matches the color of the word
non-matching list
the color of ink does not match the color of the word
median
the middle of a set of data
median-median line
a method for calculating the line of best fit using the median
least squares method
a method of calculating the line of best fit using the distance each point is from the line of best fit
Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient
a measure of how well the regression equation fits the data
r
the correlation coefficient that varies from 0 to +/- 1
regression equation
the equation found to represent a set of data
causation
when one event causes a second event
necessary condition
a correlation needed for causation
sufficient condition
a correlation does not show causation
quadratic regression
used to model quadratic data
If we use knowledge of SAT scores to predict his or her GPA. wHAT IS THE PREdicTOR AND WHAT IS THE CRITERION?
sat IS PREDICTOR AND GPA IS CRITERION
How do we translate S2y'?
The sample variance of the Y scores around the Y'.
When r=0.0, the Y-intercept is equal to?
the mean of all the Y scores in the sample
If we can claim to account for .65 of the vvariance in Y scores by knowing a relationship, it means that?
We are on average, 65% more accurate at predicting Y' scores than we would be if we did not know the relationship.
In general, the greater the proportion of variance accounted for...
the more accurately we can predict the behaviour
If heterodasticity is present Sy' will be?
greater than the actual average error in predictions of Y for some scores and less than the actual average error for other X scores
The regression line can be thought of as a series of points representing?
all the possible Y' values associated with all possible X scores
Standard error of the mean is defined as?
Average spread of actual Y scores around the predicted Y scores
Linear regression is defined as the procedure for determining?
the best-fitting straight line in a linear relationship
When we square hte correlation coefficient to produce r2, the result is equal to the?
proportion of variance accounted for
The Y-intercept of a line is the?
value of Y at the point where the regression line crosses the Y axis
Suppose you have several different predictor variables and one criterion variable. all your variables are measured using interval or rations scales. What is the appropriate statistical test to use?
Multiple regression
The absence of random assignemnt in any study allows for what?
potential confounding
The absolute value of a correlation coefficient indicates the?
strength of the relationship
We should always draw a scatterplot of the data when we compute a correlation because hte scatterplot allows us to?
see the nature of the relationship between the two variables
The best-fitting straight line through a scatterplot is known as the?
regression line
When your scale correlates with other procedures or scales that are valid, it has__________ validity ?
Convergent
When your scale does not correlate with other unrelated procedures or scales it has ________validity?
discriminant
When the relationship between two variables is high (for example, r=.98) the variability in the Ys at each X is ____________ realtive to the overall variability of Y scores in the sample.
smaller
In general, a positive linear relationship means that?
as the values of one variable increase, there is a tendency for the values of the other variable to also increase.
Suppose you find a restriction of range in your study of IQ scores and school achievement at school. Restricting the range is likely to _____ the correlation coefficient.
decrease the size of
Whe consistency of participants responses to the same test at two different times determines?
test-retest reliability
The consistency of participant response on different versions of the same test determines?
split-half reliability
If we plot a scatterplot, and the data points form a shape that appears to be random dots and is far from forming a slanted straight line as possible, the correlation for the data is?
0.0: there is no relationship
THe defining formula for the Pearson correlation coefficient shows that it is the?
average correspondence of paired X and Y z-scores
Predictive validity
Extent to which a procedure is correlated with future behaviour
Concurrent validity
Extent to which a procedure is correlated with present behaviour
What procedure would be used to find out whether there is a relationship between SAT scores and GPA?
The Pearson correlation coefficient
The best-fitting line through a scatterplot is known as the?
regression line.
In general a positive relaitonship means that?
As one variable increases the other variable also increases
We should always draw a scatterplot of the data when we compute a correlation because it alows us to see?
the nature of the relationship between the two variables
r2
coefficient of determination
Linear regression is defined as?
the best fitting straight line in a linear relationship
In the fomula Y' what does Y" stand for {Y'= (b)(x) + a}?
predicted Y score
In this formula,{Y'= (b)(x) + a} what does the "a" stand for?
the value of Y that hits the Y axis
Define the Standard error of the estimate
the average spread of Y scores around predicted Y scores
What value of "r" would yield the smallest Sy'(standard error)?
the highest numbered "r"
As the variability--differences--in Y scores at each X become larger, the relationship does what?
becomes weaker and results in a smaller correlation coefficient
Zero association means that?
No linear relationship is present
The larger the correlation coeficient (whether pos. or neg.), the stronger the relationship. Why?
The less the Ys are spread out at each X and the closer the data come to forming a straight line
What is another word for the degree of efficeincy in a relationship?
coefficient although it DOES NOT directly measure units of consistency
Define the purpose of computing a correlation coefficient.
Statistical technique for demonstrating the reliability and the validity of a measurement procedure in any experiment or correlational design.
What are the types of reliability that a correlation coefficient is used to show?
test-retest, inter-rater, split-half
inter-rater reliability
the consistency of ratings by any two raters
test-retest reliability
Test in which participants receive the same score when tested at different times
How high does a coefficient have to be in order to be considered reliable?
+.80 or higher
Face validity
Procedure is valid because it looks valid/Extent to which a measurement procedure appears to measure what it was intended to measure
Convergent Validity
Extent to which scores obtained from one procedure are positively correlated with scores obtained from another procedure that is already accepted
Discriminant validity
Extent to which scores obtained from one procedure are not correlated with scores from another procedure that measures OTHER variables or constructs.
Criterion validity
Extent to which a procedure correlates with a behavior.
Concurrent validity
Extent to which a procedure correlates with an individuals current behavior
Predictive validity
Extent to which a procedure correlates with an individuals future behavior
What is the range of a coefficient?
0-+/-1.0
What is the most common method of correlation coefficient?
Pearson correlation coefficient
Define the Pearson correlation coefficient
Corelation coeffieccient that describes the strength and type of a linear relationship between interval and ratio variables, symbolized by r.
Define the Spearman Rank order coefficient
The correlation coefficient that describes the linear relationship between pairs of ranked scores (ex: any two ordinal variables OR tied rank variables, symbolized by Rs
Tied rank variables
occcurs when two aprticipants receive the same ranking score in SPearman's rank coefficient, resolved by averaging the score and assigning it to both participant to correlate their scores.
Point biserial correlation coefficient
Describes the linear relationship between the scores from one continuous variable and one dichotomous variable (ex: correlating male/female with interval scores from a personality test).Can be used for one continuous interval or ration and one dichotomous, symbol is Rpb.
How does a restricted range affect a correlation coefficient?
reduces the accuracy, producing a smaller coefficient than if hte range were not restricted and leads to an underestimate of the degree of association between the two variables. Avoiding this increases power.
Why is the correlation coefficient important?
It is one number that allows us to envision and summarize the important information in a scatterplot, in terms of it's strength and direction.
what does a horizontal scatterplot, with a horizontal regression line indicate?
no relationship
The smaller the absolute value of the coefficient, the greater the ?
variability of the Ys at each X, the vertical width of the scatterplot, and the less accurately Y scores can be predicted from X
How can the power of a correlational design be increased?
Minimizing error variance and avoiding a restricted range, so that thelargest possible coefficient is obtained.
If it passes through the proper inferential procedure, a sample correlation coefficient is used to estimate what?
the corresponding population correlation coefficient: r=p,Rs estimates Ps, Rpb estimates Ppb.
Define linear regression
THe statistical procedure for using a relationship to predict scores aka the statistic that summarizes the linear relationship.It produces the line that summarzes the relationship
How is Y' pronounced
Y prime
What does the symbol Y' stand for
a predicted Y score. Our best prediction of the Y score at a corresponding X
Define regression line
straight line that summarizes the linear relationship in a scatterplot by,on average, passing through the center of the Y scores at each X and it consists of the predicted Y score-the Y'-for every possbile X
Why is "r" computed first?
to determine if a relationship exists. If r=0 their is no relationship
What is the importance of linear regression?
It is used to predict a individual's unknown Y score based on his/her X score from a correlated variable. Usually more external validity and more accurate description of the relationship.USed to predict unknown Y scores based on X scores from correlated variable.
Linear regression equation [(b)(x) + a]
equation that creates the straight line by producing a value of Y' at each X, define sthe line that summarzies the relationship. Describes it's slope and Y intercept.
Linear regression equation to calculate regression line points for scatterplot
Y'=[(b)(x) + a]
Y intercept equation
a=mean of Y- (b) (mean of x)
Slope equation
b
coefficient of determination
r2
SEE (Sy) is acronym for
Standard error of estimate which is the standardized difference between predicted Y' and actual Y scores
How do you calculate proportion of variance accounted for?
r2 which is also known as "coefficient of determination"
When r=0, the standard erro of the estimate is at it's max. and that is equal to?
the standard deviation of all Y scores in the sample (Sy)
Stonger correlations produce what size SEE
smaller SEE
What does the equation r2 aka coefficient of determination aka proortion of variance indicate?
How important the realtionship is by comparing amount of error obtained using the regression equation for XY to errors without the regression equation for XY
what does Sy2 refer too?
Describes the error variance when using regressinon to predict Y scores, measures error in prediction.
Sr'
Standard error of estimate
Sr' definitional formula/average error
subtract Y' from Y and square each deviation/divide by N then find hte square root of that to get the error of the estimate
proportion of variance
is the amount we reduce errors in predicting Y scores when we use the relationship, compared too if we did not. Equals r2
a=
y-intercept
Y intercept
value of Y when it corsses the Y axis
Y' is the predicted Y score for what?
the corresponding X
The differences (and error) between Y and Y' is also summarized by what?
the variance of the Y scores around Y' (S2y)
If there is a large R there is a week or strong relationship?
stronger the relationship and a small value of Sy and S2y, because the Y scores are closer to Y', thus the smaller difference between Y and Y'
When r=0 what doe Sy and S2y equal?
Sy and S2y equal each other
When R= +/- 1 how much is the eror in predictions
Zero error and Sy' equals zero.
another term for r
Is the correlation coefficient
Proportion of variance accounted for indicates what?
The importance of a relationship
heteroscedasticity
An unequal spread of Y scores around the regression line (that is around the values of Y')
Homodasticity
An equal spread of Y scores around the regression line (that is the values of Y')
Symbol for Pearson correlation coefficeint
r symbol
Coefficient of alienation
1- r2
Sr
standard error ofthe estimate symbol
Sx
sample standard deviation symbol
S2x
sample variance symbol
sideways px
population standard deviation symbol
rs
Spearman correlation coefficient symbol
rpb
point-biserial correlation coefficient sign
Bivariate relationship
the relationship between X (independent) and Y (dependent) (2 variables)
Percentage crosstables
When there are few (2-3) categories to the dependent variable, one uses a percentage crosstable (calculated down, read across)
Comparisons of central tendency
4-5 categories of the DV, one uses a comparison of central tendency - a table showing the mean or median value of Y for each category of X
Correlation coefficient
Indicates the strength and direction displayed in a table - (positive, negative) summarizes the findings of each table in a single number
Marginals
the crosstables' showing of the number (N) of cases in each column (the number the percentages are based on) and perhaps each row
Positive associations
higher values of Y are more common as values of X increase
Negative associations
lower values of Y are more common as values of X increase
Correlation coefficients
dealt with after comparisons of central tendency, not as easily understood to the reader, summarizes the strength and direction displayed in a table (phi, Somer's d, Tavb, Tauc, and Gamma)
Perfect association
the values of the IV (X) and the DV (Y) are paired the same (1=1)
Zero association
the X and Y values are paired in such a way that knowing the X value of a unit is no help in predicting its Y value - statistically independent
Strength of association
further away from O towards +1 or -1 (.3 or .4 = moderate support)
Direction of association
how the Y values are paired with X values (+ or -)
Positive correlation
high values of one variable are paired with high values in another (+)
Negative correlation
high values of one variable are paired with low values of another (-)
Phi
used for summarizing bivariate (2*2) tables - it is a special case of correlation coefficient for interval variables calculated: (ad-bc)/√(a+b)(a+c)(c+d)(b+d)
Tests of significance
test that tell us how likely it is that an association as strongly supportive as the one observed in a sample would be found when no supportive association exists in the population (showing it&#039;s not by chance) - can tell the odds are very small
Sampling error
the distributions in samples are likely to be somewhat different from the distributions in the theoretical population (±4%)
Level of statistical significance
it is reported as a proportion indicating the maximum probability of incorrectly finding that an association exists (.05 level = 5 chances out of 100)
Known sampling distribution
statisticians have already determined the likelihood of getting each value when samples with given characteristics are drawn from a population in which there is no association (X2, t, z, and F)
Tails
the two ends of the graph = the tails of the distribution
One-tail test
any test of significance in which the direction of association is hypothesized in advance, and only an association in that direction can be statistically significant - indicates the probability that an association as strongly supportive of the hypothesis would have occurred by chance in a sample drawn from a population in which there was no association - test hypotheses
Two-tail test
a test of significance in which an association in either direction can be statistically significant - test exploratory research
Chi square x2
use for percentage difference, tables with 2*2, and difference between medians - values indicate how unlikely it is that the observed sample results came from a theoretical population with no association between X and Y
Degrees of freedom (df)
reflect the number of cells in the table: (number of rows - 1)(number of columns - 1)
F-Test
for difference between the means
Sum of Squares Within (SSw)
gained when calculated the variance - it is the sum of the squared deviations for each X category
Sum of Squares Between (SSb)
calculated from the squared deviations of the means for each X category about the mean for the whole sample - N1(mean - mean for entire sample)2 + N2 (mean - mean for the entire sample)2
Asymptotic standard error
a measure similar to standard deviation , measures how much dispersion one would expect in correlation coefficients - no association
Controlling
required for associations to be proved causal, controls for the effects that other variables have on the association
Condition
variables that make the relationship different for types of units
Intervening variables
variables caused by the IV, they intervene in a causal sequence between the IV and DV
Path diagrams
shows the cause and effect of a z variable on X and Y
Control variables
past research and theory, guiding to show what might need to be controlled
Experimental research
research in which the scientists determine the amount or level of the independent variable to which each unit is exposed (rarely used)
Scatter plot
a graphic presentation in which a dot represents the X and Y value of each unit
Pearson's r
summarizes the relationship of several things - measures the extent to which the Y values of units can be estimated from the X values of those units by using an equation of the type: Y′ = a + bX - a = intercept value / X = variable / b = coefficient slope (the explanation)
Slope coefficient
the corresponding increase as X increases by _, Y increases by b
Linear association
what r measures the extent of between X and Y (dots closer to the line - higher number / farther dots - low number)
Extreme outlier
a unit whose X or Y value is extremely far from the values of the other units
Regression line
the line that best estimates the Y values from the X values
Regression equation
the equation for the regression line
Regression coefficient (slope)
the one that multiplies times the X value , the amount by which Y is estimated to increase/decrease for each increase of 1 in the value of X)
Intercept
the constant that is added to or subtracted from the multiple of X - the point where the regression line crosses the Y axis - it is the value if X were zero, Y would be it (a)
Residual
the difference between a Y value estimated from the regression equation and the actual Y value for each unit - the lower the values of r, the larger the residuals will be
R2 and adjusted r2
virtually the same if the sample is 50 or larger, tells us how much of the variance in Y in the sample was explained by X (same as proportion of explained variance)
alpha (a)
Ŷ - B X
Annotation
description of a research source
Access date
date a researcher retrieves information from a computerized source
Bibliography
a complete or selective list of works complied upon some common principle, as authorship, or subject
Boolean search
searching the web or databases using limiting or expanding Boolean terms, including AND, NOT or OR
Block quote
quote of 4+ lines that is offset from the main body text with 2 tabs
Database
collection of reliable research material stored on a regular website
Frame
material around a direct quotation that helps to introduce and contextualize a quote
Hanging Indent
in citation entries, the first line flush with the margin, each consecutive line is indented 1/2 inch
MLA style
paper formatting and citation system used by most English and humanities classes
Plagiarism
presenting others' thoughts, ideas, words, or facts as your own
Primary source
information directly from someone involved in an event (diaries, lab results, newspaper reports from the time)
Secondary source
a source analyzing or commenting on a primary source
Popular source
articles based on journalistic reporting & widely available to the pubic
Scholarly source
contains the work of experts & academics in a given field, circulated to a limited, expert audience
Quote
using a source's exact words in your own text
Paraphrase
using material from a source in your own words & sentence structures, points are in the order the original author presents them
Summarize
a significantly shortened version of source material that captures main ideas in your own words
Voice marker
phrases indicating whether the writer of the paper is speaking, or if they are using outside source materal
Works Cited
bibliographic information on an MLA style paper
Parenthetical citation
MLA in text- citation typically consisting of the source author's name & a pg. no. or in the case of no author, a key word from the title
Non-probability sampling designs
Accidental sampling, quota sampling, and purposive sampling
Accidental sampling
non-probability design in which you use the most readily available persons as subjects. May use snowball sampling. Most commonly used because its convenient and least costly.
Quota sampling
non-probability design in which you identify a significant extraneous variable and use accidental sampling to select a predetermined number of subjects from each strata
Purposive sampling
non-probability design in which you handpick subjects on the basis of personal judgment about their representativeness.
Probability sampling designs
simple random sampling, stratified random sampling, cluster sampling, systematic sampling
Simple random sampling
probability design in which a table of random numbers is used to draw a sample from the population.
Stratified random sampling
probability design in which you identify a significant extraneous variable and randomly select a predetermined number of subjects from each stratum.
Cluster sampling
probability design in which large groupings or clusters are randomly selected first with successive random sub-sampling of smaller units. Most commonly used for large-scale surveys because it is more economical and practical. Contains more sampling errors
Systematic sampling
probability design in which you select the every Kth case from a list. It may not be random if the list is arranged so certain types of elements are listed at particular intervals.
equation to determine the sampling interval width (k)
estimated number of people in population / desired sample size
data collection methods
questionnaires (open structured vs close-ended structured), Interviews, diaries, scales (likert, guttman, semantic differential, and visual analog)
Questionnaires
data collection method which is low cost, little time, anonymous, has no interviewer bias, can not clarify, has a low response rate, and has little control over subject.
Interviews
data collection method which has a higher cost, takes more time, is not anonymous, has interviewer bias, has a high response rate, can control subjects, and can clarify questions.
Open-ended questions
Questions that are unstructured, have no predetermined response, provides a depth of response, takes a long time to administer, and is hard to analyze
Closed-ended questions
Dichotomous question (yes or no), multiple-choice question, "cafeteria" question, rank ordered, forced-choice, and rating questions.
Unstructured Interview
Interview that is conversational but meant to determine the subjects' perception of phenomenon. It is taped, lasts several hours, and latter transcribed.
Focused interview
interview that is an encouraged conversation with a set of questions or a topic guide
Life histories
a narrative self disclosure about ideas and chronological experience regarding a theme
Diaries
a daily diary log on an aspect of life over a period of time
Think about method
subjects audio-record problem solving and decisions being made over a period of time
Critical Incidents technique
asking subjects to describe critical incidents related to behavior being studied
Likert Scale
The most commonly used scale that is composed of a series of favorable and unfavorable statements that the subject indicated their degree of agreement or disagreement.
Guttman scale
Scale in which items are arranged in a hierarchy. Subject picks a "yes or agree" to all items lower and "no or disagree" to all items higher. often used to test child development.
Semantic Differential scale
subjects rate concepts on a series of 7 or 8 point bipolar rating scales.
Visual Analog scale
scale that rates the amount of sensation experienced on a 100mm long line. Score is derived by measuring distance from end of the line to the subjects mark.
Nonprobability Sampling design
sampling design most commonly used in quantitative research
Probability Sampling design
sampling design most commonly used in qualitative research
Types of purposive sampling
Maximum variation, extreme/deviant case, and typical case sampling
Maximum variation sampling
Purposefully handpicking subjects with a wide variation on the dimension of interest
Extreme/deviant case sampling
purposefully selecting subjects that are the most unusual or extreme with regard to the dimension of interest
Typical case sampling
purposefully selecting subjects who are typical or average with regard to the dimension of interest
Types of response bias
Guessing, social desirability, acquiescence, and deviation
Guessing
The subjects tendency to guess when in doubt about the answer to an item. Control by instructing to or not to guess or by using a correction formula
Social Desirability
Subjects tendency to respond in socially desirable ways or consistent with social mores. Control with anonymity
Acquiescence
Tendency to consistently agree or disagree with attitudinal statements. control by constructing scales so some items are phrased negative and some are positive.
Deviation
Tendency to give unusual answers. Control with a forced-choice format.
Observational locations
Single positioning, Multiple positioning, and Mobile positioning
Single positioning
When the observer staying in one spot and observes subjects
Multiple positioning
When the observer chooses several locations to observe subjects from
Mobile positioning
When the observer gets the consent to follow the subject around.
Observational bias'
Enhancement of contrast effect, central tendency, assimilatory, halo effect, error of severity
Enhancement of contrast effect
Distorting observations into clear-cut entities or categories
Central Tendency
Distorting observations of extreme events toward a middle ground
Assimilatory
Distorting observations in the direction of identity with previous input or data (looking for regularities)
Halo effect
Tendency for observers to rate everything positively
Error of severity
Tendency for observers to rate everything negatively
In vivo measurement
a measurement that is made directly in or on a subject
In vitro measurement
a measurement that is extracted from a subject and then conduct lab tests
Projective data collection techniques
Pictorial (thematic apperception test (TAT), Rorschah Test, projective cartoon), verbal (word association, sentence completion), expressive (playing with dolls, drawing, painting, role playing).
Thematic apperception test (TAT)
subject is given twenty cards that contain pictures and are asked to make up a story about each picture.
Rorschah Test
subjects are given cards containing pictures of ink blots and are asked to describe the picture
projective cartoon
subjects are given an uncompleted cartoon and are asked to complete it.
Word association
Subject is told a series of neutral and emotionally laden words and asked to respond to each word with the first thing that comes to mind.
Sentence completion
Subjects are given a series of incomplete sentences about an object or event and are asked to complete the sentences
pros/cons of projective techniques
less susceptible to faking, easy to build rapport with subjects, useful with children, questionable reliability and validity
Q-sort distribution
data collection method in which the subject is given 50-120 cards with statements on them and are told to sort them into categorical piles.
Existing data
Data collection method which entails collecting data that has already been gathered (health records, historical research, secondary analysis (data from previous study), and meta-analysis (combining data from several studies)).
Time sampling
Collecting data from subjects based on the time of day, week, etc.
Event sampling
Collecting data from subjects based on an event that is happening.
Accessible populations
include who, what, where, and when to make a good representation of the target population.
annotation
description of a research source
access date
date a researcher retrieves info from a computerized source
bibliography
a complete or selective list of works compiled upon some common principle, as authorship, or subject
boolean search
searching the web or databases using limiting or expanding boolean terms including: AND OR and NOT
block quote
quote of 4+ lines that is offset from the main body text with two tabs
database
collection or relliable research material stored on a regulated website
frame
materialaround a direct quotation that helps to introduce and contextualize a quote
hanging indent
in citation entries, the first line flush with the margin, each consecutive line is indented 1/2 inch
MLA style
paper formatting and citation system used by most English and humanities classes
plagiarism
presenting other's thoughts, ideas, or facts as your own
parenthetical citation
MLA in text citation typically consisting of the source author's name and a page number or in the case of no author, a key word from the title
primary source
info directly from someone involved in an event
secondary source
a source analyzing or commenting on a primary source
popular source
articles based on journalistic reporting and widely available to the public
scholarly source
contains the work of experts and academics in a gived field, circulated to a limited, expert audience
quote
using a source's exact words in your own text
paraphrase
using material from a source in your own words and sentence structures, points are in the order the original author presents them
summarize
a significantly shortened version of source material that captures main ideas in your own words
voice marker
phrases indicating whether the writer of the paper is speaking, or if they are using outside source material
works cited
bibliographic information on an MLA style paper
measurement
assignment of numbers to objects according to rules
data
numbers or measurements collected by observation
variable
characteristic that may take changing forms called values, eg variable gender: one value is male
qualitative variable
variable with values that alter in form but not quantity eg gender, eye colour, grade of moxa
quantitative variable
variable with values that alter in amount eg length, weight, height
continuous variable
variable that can have unlimited number of possible values eg length, mass, area, temp
discrete variable
varibale that may only take on specicifc, discrete values eg number of children in a fam, gender, number patients attending a clinic each day
population
a complete set of individuals/objecfts/measurements having some common observable characteristic eg census that measures all sorts of variables
sample
a subset of population selected according to some scheme eg 10 students out of 65
random sample
a subset of a population selected so that each member of the population has an equal opportunity of being selected, out of a hat
statistic
a number resulting in the manipulation of some data according to certain specified procedures eg mean age for students in class, add up all ages and divide by number of students
parameter
any characteristic of a population that is measureable eg mean age, gender split, number of individuals
mutually exclusive events
events that cannot occur simultaneously eg being dead and alive at same time
frequency distribution
placing values for a variable in order of magnitude to show the number of times each is score occurred eg number of visits 1 2 3 4 age 10 11 12 13
grouped frequency distribution
collapsing measuerment scale so scores assigned to mutually exclusive grouping intervals eg age group 10 to 20, 20 to 30 etc
Confounding variable
any extraneous variable that changes systematically with the IV and competes with the IV as the effect of the change in the DV
internal validity
the characteristic of an experiment that allows one to draw accurate inferences about the causal relationship between an independent and dependent variable
Post test-only design
experimental design that uses a test measure only after presentation of the IV
selection differences
Differences in the type of subjects who make up each group in an experimental design; this situation occurs when participants elect which group they are to be assigned to or when participants who form the two groups are chosen from existing natural groups
Pretest-Posttest design
the only difference between this and the posttest only is that this design gives a test prior to introducing the IV to ascertain that the groups were, in fact, equivalent at the beginning of the experiment
mortality effect
the drop out factor in experiments
independent group designs
participants are randomly assigned to the various conditions so that each participates in only one group
repeated measures design
an experiment in which the same subjects are assigned to each group
order effect
the order of presenting the treatments effects the DV. Types of order effects: practice effects and fatigue effect, contrast effect. To deal with these effects: employ counterbalancing techniques or devise a procedure in which the interval between conditions is long enough to minimize the influence of the first condition on the second condition
practice effect
is an improvement in performance as a result of repeated practice with a task
fatigue effect
is a deterioration in performance as the research participant becomes bored, tired, or distracted
contrast effect
occurs when the response to the second condition in the experiment is altered because the two conditions are contrasted to one another
counterbalancing
all possible orders of presentation are included in the experiment; by counterbalancing, it is possible to determine the extent to which order is influencing the results; these principles can be extended to experiments with 3 or more groups
Latin square
a technique to control for order effects without having all possible orders; a limited set of orders constructed to ensure that each condition appears at each ordinal position and each condition precedes and follows each condition one time
validity
measuring what it claims to measure
operational definition
standard that applies to all, none subjective
statement of fact, data
information, not necessarily the truth
standard deviation
square root of variance
dispersion
how far spread from mean
2 basic strategies of scientific research
Describe the relationship (descriptive designs & Correlational design), Explain the relationship (quasi-experimental designs & experimental design)
Goal of the experimental research
verify the existence of a cause and effect relationship between two variables
Why? Relationships between variables are complicated; cognitive biases for example
2 problems with variable relationships
directionality problem -does the first variable cause the second or does the second variable cause the first?
Third variable problem (alternative explanation)- sometimes we see relationships between variables that don't rule out alternative explanations where a third variable causes both
"A simple description of a relationship does not mean there is a cause and effect relationship" - prof.
establish cause and effect
Demonstrate a directional relationship between the variables; demonstrate that a change in one variable causes the change in the other variable. How? Manipulate one variable and measure the change in a second variable while controlling extraneous variables (any other variables within the situation we are studying)
Elements of an experiment
Independent variable (IV), Dependent variable (DV), Experimental Control, randomization
Independent variable (IV)
the causative variable, we think there is a cause because we have identified a correlational relationship can be manipulated (i.e., has levels)
What or who determines the levels of the IV?
experimenter - in true experimental design, the levels are selected by the experimenter in experimental designs in quasi-experimental designs, the levels are predetermined (can&#039;t change political affiliation or hair color, anything that has been set by nature or selected by the environment, we can&#039;t change)
Dependent variable (DV)
the changed variable - change in variable can be observed and/or measured change is brought about by the IV; doesn&#039;t occur in the absence of IV
Experimental Control
you want to control for everything except for your independent variable; control for any or all procedures that limit the possibility that the observed change in the DV is caused by some other variable that the IV. This is accomplished through random assignments - but still can never guarantee this 100%. When we control the experiment well, we can say that the experiment has high internal validity
extraneous variables
all other variables associated with the study
participant variables
includes things like beliefs, characteristics,emotional characteristics, how much sleep they've had
situational
characteristics of the environment that could have an effect and confuse our results
Rules for writing well (the 6 C's)
Be Correct, Clear, Coherent, Concise, Cautious, Creative
What are two levels of IV
2 experimental groups: compare a standard level of treatment with other levels of treatments / Placebo (control) group & treatment group: have to make sure everything experiences the same thing - same treatment, etc
How do you avoid confounding variables / unconfound
evaluate and determine if they will actually confound to issue, keep them constant across conditions; match values across conditions, make them as identical as possible
Why is it important to make the manipulation as strong as possible?
maximizes the differences between the two groups, increases the chances the IV will be effective for a real world match
Sensitivity
test has to be strong enough without being too difficult - ceiling and floor effects (best way to avoid these effects is to have multiple measures)
Solomon 4 group design
has 4 groups: 2 pretest/post-test & 2 post-test only; solves problem of pretest sensitization because it allows us to see if their was a pretest sensitization
quasiexperimental design
use when a true experimental design can not be used because there are variables we can not change; group/condition has been assigned by factors other than the experimenter; has nonequivalent groups, static groups; used for single subject or program evaluation
Longitudinal experiment
studies change as a function of age; same group of people at time 1, 2, 3; downsides-mortality, funding, harder to generalize
Cross Sectional experiment
studies differences as a function of age; same time with different age groups; downsides-cohort effect
History effects
if you are collecting data over a period of time and something happens in the real world that affects the study by changing attitudes or behaviors
Types of manipulations
Straightforward: manipulate variables with instructions and stimulus presentations; Staged: staging events that occur during the experiment in order to manipulate the independent variable successfully
confederate
accomplice, person who appears to be another participant but is actually part of the manipulation
Types of measures
self-report, behavioral measures, physical measures
self-report measures
can be used to measure attitudes, liking for someone, etc; rating scales with descriptive anchors are most commonly used
behavioral measures
direct observations of behavior
physiological measures
recordings of responses of the body
Examples of physiological measures
galvanic skin response: measures general emotional arousal and anxiety, electromyogram: measures muscle tension and is frequently used as a measure of stress, electroencephalogram: measures electrical activity of the brain cells
functional MRI
allows researchers to scan areas of the brain while a participant performs a physical or cognitive task
ceiling effect
the IV appears to have no effect only because participants quickly reach the max performance level
floor effect
a task is so difficult that hardly anyone can perform well
demand characteristics
any feature of an experiment that might inform participants about the purpose of the study
filler items
unrelated items on the questionnaire used to disguise the purpose of the study
experimenter bias/expectancy effects
experimenters are usually aware of the purpose of the study and thus may develop expectations about how participants should respond
main effect
of an IV - the effect of each IV taken by itself
interaction
the effect that an IV has on the DV depends on the level of the other IV
moderator variable
influences the relationship between two variables
repeated measures
the same individuals will participate in all the conditions
independent groups design
a different group of participants will be assigned to each of the four conditions
single case experimental design
used to determine whether an experimental manipulation had an effect on a single research participant
baseline
in a single case design, the subject's behavior during a control period before introduction of the experimental manipulation
reversal design
a single case design in which the treatment is introduced after a baseline period and is then withdrawn during a second baseline period; demonstrates 'reversibility'; helps show that the manipulation of the IV had an effect; called ABA design
multiple baseline design
the effectiveness of a treatment is demonstrated when a behavior changes only after the manipulation is introduced; to demonstrate the effectiveness of the treatment, change must be observed under multiple circumstances to rule out the possibility of extraneous variables
multiple baseline across behaviors
several different behaviors of a single subject are measured over time
program evaluation
research on programs that are proposed and implemented to achieve some positive effect on a group of individuals
maturation effects
any changes that occur systematically over time can cause changes from the pre to post tests
cohort
a group of people - here refers to a group of people born about the same time
sequential method
a combination of the cross-sectional and longitudinal design to study developmental research questions
reliability
refers to the consistency or stability of a measure of behavior
Every measure is comprised of:
a true score - the real score on the variable, and measurement error
test-retest reliability
a reliability coefficient determined by the correlation between scores on a measure given at one time with scores on the same measure given at a later time; assessed by measuring the same individuals at two points in time
internal consistency reliability
the assessment of reliability using responses at only one point in time
Cronbach's alpha
an internal consistency indicator of reliability; the researcher calculates the correlation of each item with every other item
unsupported assertion
no validation, but asserted
appeal to authority
argued that a statement is correct because the statement is made by a source that is regarded as authoritative
scientific evidence
empirical evidence that supports and is properly documented in accordance with scientific method such as is applicable to the particular field of inquiry
casual observation
untested, unreferenced statement, conclusion is unreliable; it may not be untrue, but it doesn't follow from the "evidence", eg evidence can be anecdotal in both senses: "Goat yogurt prolongs life: I heard that a man in a mountain village who ate only yogurt lived to 120."
hypothetical abstract construct
A hypothesis is a proposed explanation for an observable phenomenon, hypothetical: "being assumed to exist as an immediate consequence of a hypothesis,"
reliability
is the consistency of a set of measurements, used to describe a test
operational definition
demonstration of a process
validity
the extent to which a concept, conclusion or measurement is well-founded and corresponds accurately to the real world
abstract concept made concrete
Concrete thinking involves facts and descriptions about everyday, tangible objects, while abstract (formal operational) thinking involves a mental process
survey
employs questionnaires and interviews to ask people questions about themselves
inter-rater reliability
an indicator of reliability that examines the agreement of observations made by two or more raters
construct validity
the degree to which a measurement device accurately measures the theoretical construct it is designed to measure
face validity
does the study appear to accurately measure the variable?
criterion-oriented validity
assesses the relationship between scores on the measures and an specified outcome
predictive validity
the construct validity is measured by examining the ability of the measure to predict a future behavior
concurrent validity
examines whether groups of people differ on the measure in expected ways
convergent validity
the extent to which scores on the measure are related to scores on other measures of the same or similar construct
discriminant validity
examines the extent to which scores on the measure are not related to scores that measure some other unrelated construct
reactivity
a problem of measurement when being aware of being measured causes a change in behavior
nominal scales
nonnumerical scales
ordinal scales
numerical values with a rank order
interval scale
numerical values with equal distance in between the scores
ratio scale
interval with an absolute bottom
naturalistic observation
a descriptive method in which the experimenter observes people in natural settings/ natural social settings
systematic observation
observations made of a specific variable in a predefined setting
coding system
a set of rules used to categorize observations
psychobiography
a type of case study in which the life of an individual is analysed using psych theory
archival research
the use of existing sources of information for research
content analysis
like Lori's coloring book article - examines the subjects and ideas in media/written documents
response set
when someone goes down the line on a survey and selects one consistent answer every time
interviewer bias
intentional or unintentional influence exerted by an interviewer in such a way that the actual or interpreted behavior of respondents is consistent with the interviewer's expectations
panel study
in survey research, questioning the same people at two or more points in time
confidence interval
an interval of values within which there is a given level of confidence where the population value lies
stratified random sampling
ensures that the sample matches the important characteristics of the population
cluster sampling
similar to stratified
haphazard sampling
take participants any way you can get them; not that representative because they are volunteers
purposive sampling
type of haphazard sampling conducted to obtain pre-determined types of individuals for the sample
quota sampling
similar to stratified too; the sample is chosen to reflect the numerical composition of various subgroups in the population; ie: if UAA is 60% men and 40% women, our sample of UAA students would be 40% women and 60% men too but otherwise randomish
sampling frame
the individuals or clusters of individuals who might actually be selected for inclusion in the sample
response rate
number of people who complete your survey
true score
an individual's actual score without anything affecting it positively or negatively; can never get this score
measurement error
the degree to which a measured score deviates from the true score or value
why are data from naturalistic observation primarily qualitative?
they are descriptions of behavior
case study
the study of an single person whose behavior is rare, unique
3 types of archival research data
statistical records, survey archives, written and mass communications, documents
Validity
concerns the outcome of the test, not the test itself
types of validity
face, content
content validity
the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest (such as a driving test that samples driving tasks).
construct validity
predictive, discriminant and convergent/concurrent - the scores on similar types of measures come together and are similar
discriminant
also called divergent, our scores would be different than on tests that measure different things; can discriminate our construct from all other types of constructs
reliability
is necessary for validity, is not the same as validity
correlation coefficient
numerical index that represents the relationship between two variables; -1.00 to +1.00; represented by r
2 components of the relationship between two variables
strength -represented by the absolute value of r (0 to 1); direction - positive or negative; represented by the sign of r; direct has a positive sign, indirect is negative (Wesalowski likes terms direct/indirect over pos/neg)
primary limitation of correlational research
can not assess cause and effect for the most part, can tell us if they are related - no control of extraneous variables, this limitation is referred to as the directionality problem and the thrid variable problem
directionality problem
can't say which variable causes the change in the other; either variable could be the explanation
third variable problem
third variable causes both sides of a relationship; heat increases ice cream eating and murder
good questionnaires
(also applies to an interview) have a purpose/objective (big research question operationalized), short and sweet (solicit essential info only), directions are clear and explicit, include conditional information prior to key ideas (in directions), include transitions between sections, reliable, types of questions, vocabulary, questions short & concise (20 words or fewer), positive slant, consistent response formats within a section, edit questions, clear/specific/objective/forthright, avoid assumptions, avoid leading questions (suggest a right answer), avoid loaded questions (volatile, emotional), avoid double barreled (two questions at once), avoid insulting
increasing questionnaire reliability
improve appearance, proofread, test for understandability
types of questionnaire questions
open ended - advantages: get complete answers, reasoning, and unexpected information / disadvantages: hard to code, answers must be rated (categorized); closed ended - advantages: easy / disadvantage - simplistic answers, forced choices USE BOTH
social desirability
giving the answer that is most socially acceptable
sampling techniques
population, sample, representative - sample needs to represent the population, probability and non-probability
probability techniques
use if accuracy if representativeness is very important; simple random sampling, systematic random sampling (every kth person), stratified random sampling, cluster sampling
non-probability techniques
use when representativeness is less important, test theoretical hypothesis; experimental designs, don't know who is going to show up to participate; the probability of the population being selected is usually not known because sampling is based on convenience; sample may not truly represent the population, may reduce external validity
sampling error
amount of discrepancy between population's characteristics and sample's characteristics - random sampling error; smaller is better
avoiding bias
use random selection and assignment
manipulation check
an attempt to measure whether the independent variable manipulation has the intended effect on the participants
pilot study
a trial run of the experiment
factorial design
A design in which all levels of each independent variable are combined with all levels of the other independent variables. Allows investigation of the separate main effects and interactions of two or more independent variables.
Information garnered from factorial design
interaction and main effect
IV x PV design
allows examination of how types of people respond to the same manipulated variable
simple main effects
examines mean differences at each level of the independent variable; the results are analyzed as if we had separate experiments at each level
Why use more than 1 IV?
closer approximation of real world conditions
Instrument Decay
any decrease in the accuracy of your measurement tool; when you are making observations, sometimes you have raters who get tired or bored
Statistical regression
aka regression to the mean, extreme scores have the tendency to return to the mean; has to do with the idea that everyone/thing has a true score/innate ability, it's hard to measure because of confounds
To avoid or mitigate expectancy effects
use automated procedures - rehearse, script; use single and double-blind procedures
manipulation check question
did you notice anything.....? If they don't mention your IV, your IV did not effect them
Nonexperimental Research
making observations and asking questions; includes descriptive research, correlational research, Case study, Archival Research, Content analysis
Correlational research
purpose is to evaluate the strength and direction of the covariation of two variables; relationships and associations
Concealed observation, nonparticipating
nonreactive, ethical problems if you are doing this in a place where people expect privacy
Open observation, nonparticipating
eliminates ethics problem, possible reactivity problem
habituation
people or animals get used to the experimentor or camera is there
Ways to participate in natural observation
Concealed - join the group and not tell the group you&#039;ve joined and are collecting data; Open - tell the group and get their permission, can get valuable information - the why behind the what, problem: bias - can lose objectivity
problems with case study
generalizability, objectivity
3 ways to collect data on behavior
ask for self-report, Make direct observations, Record physiological and neurological responses
observed score
true score + measurement error
two types of error
method - related to the instrument being used; trait - participant characteristics
increasing reliability - reduce error
many items or observations brings us closer to the true score, eliminate unclear items, standardize conditions, make instructions clear, clear evaluation criteria
Descriptive statistics -
Mathematical techniques for organizing, summarizing, and displaying a set of numerical data.
Inferential statistics
term is used to label the portion of statistics dealing with the
principles and techniques that allow researchers to generalize their findings beyond the actual data sets obtained- when based upon sample data but designed to extend beyond the sample, are called statistical inferences
Non-response bias -
a mid-stream mini-study done to see whether a non-response bias exists to get a feel for whether less-than-perfect response rates will restrict the desired level of generalizability.
Probability sample
, if each member of the population has at least some chance of being included in the sample, if the probability of any member of the population being drawn is known, the resulting sample is referred to as a probability sample. The four types of probability samples that we will consider are called simple random samples, stratified random samples, systematic samples, and cluster samples (allprobability samples
Statistical inference
the educated guess as to the population's numerical characteristics is called a statistical inference
Confidence interval
(I-alpha) The confidence interval is the probability of correctly
concluding that there is no-treatment effect
One-tailed test -
a hypothesis that specifies a direction; for example, when your hypothesis predicts that your program will increase the outcome.
Two-tailed test
a hypothesis that does not specify a direction. For example, if your hypothesis is that your program or intervention will have an effect on an outcome, but you are unwilling to specify whether that effect will be positive or negative,
you are using a two-tailed hypothesis.
Significant
A probability value considered rare in the sampling distribution, specified under the null hypothesis where one is willing to acknowledge the operation of chance factors.
Common significance levels are .01, .05, .10.
Bonferroni technique
This method is used to insure that the overall experiment wise error rate does not exceed a=.05. Reduces the likelihood of a Type I error.
Example research question for t-test:
There will be no significant differences between Ele/Sec and HE students with respect to years of full time work experience
ANOVA
- Analysis of Variance is a Macro level Analysis of difference among or between 2 or more groups.
One-factor ANOVA
there is only one DV in factorial ANOVA, Factorial ANOVA has two independent variables which are crossed with each other and used as a
treatment on the DV.
One way ANOVA
test for difference between 2 or more groups, is strictly univariate in nature.
Simple ANOVA
test for difference between 2 or more groups.
f -
a cohen's effect size measure for ANOVA.
Interaction
Deals with the cell means, not the main effect means in a two-way ANOVA. Interaction exists to the extent that the difference between the levels of the first factor changes when we move from level to level of the second factor.
Main effect F
There are three values in the F column of a two-way ANOVA. Each of the three F's addresses a different null hypothesis. The first two Fs deal with the two sets of main effect menas. The third F deals with the interaction between the two factors with the focus of this F being on cell means
Mixed ANOVA
Means one of the two factors is between subjects, while the other factor is within subjects.
Adjusted means
Any group with an above-average mean on the covariate has it's mean on the dependent variable adjusted downward, while any group with a below-average mean on the covariate has its mean on the dependent variable adjusted upward. These adjusted means constitute the best estimates of how the two groups would have performed on the dependent variable if they had possessed identical mean on the control (i.e. covariate)
variable(s) used in the study.
Adjusted R2
Indicates the degree to which variability in the dependent variable is explained by the set of independent variables included in the analysis. Adjust R2 is always smaller
than regular R2 , because the adjustment anticipates the amount of shrinkage that would be observed if the study were to be replicated with a larger sample
Beta weight
a multiplier term added to each predictor variable in a multiple regression equation after the predictor variables have been converted to standard score form.
Bivariate regression
The simplest kind of regression analysis. It has only 2 variables, one serves as the dependent variable and the other serves as the independent variable. The purpose of this kind of regression can be either prediction or
explanation;
Multiple regression
A statistical procedure for determining the magnitude of the
relationship between a single dependent variable and 2 or more independent variables. (Regression is used to either predict or explain.)
Regression coefficient
Y' = a + bX is the regression equation, b is the regression
coefficient. When the regression line has been positioned within the data points of a scatter diagram, b simply indicates the slope of the line.
Slope
Rise over run" How many predicted units of change (either up or down) in the dependent variable there are, for any one unit increase in the independent variable.
R
Multiple correlation coefficients used in multiple regression studies, R quantifies the extent to which the regression analysis achieves its objectives.
R2
Coefficient of determination represents the proportion or percentage of the variability in the dependent variable that has been accounted for or explained by the study's independent variables. (Used in multiple regression analysis.)
Chi square
A test of statistical significance when the research data are in the form of frequency counts for two or more categories.
Pearson chi square (X2 )
a nonparametric test of statistical significance that is used when the research data are in the form of frequency counts for two or more categories.
Dependent variable
related to the measurement / data and it is the variable that we are measuring. The tendency is for this to be the demographic data.
Mode
A measure of central tendency corresponding to the most frequently occurring score in a distribution of scores.
Internal Validity Threats Quantitative
Testing, Instrumentation, statistical regression, differential selection, experimental treatment diffusion.
Internal Validity Threats Quantitative
Compensatory rivalry by the contol group, compensatory equallization of treatments, resentful demoralization of the control group.
External Validity of Research "Generalizability"
1) Explicit descrition of treatment 2) Multiple treatment interfernece, 3) Hawthron effect, 4) Novelty and disruption effects 4) Experimeter effect, 5) Pretest sensitization, 5) Measurment of dependent variable.
Meta Analysis
Method designed to increase the reliability of research by combining and analyzing the result of all types of the same product.
Interviewing
to obtain rich, descritpive data that is complex, subjective and details the particiapnts persepctive.
When would you use an interview?
Obtain percetions, feelings, attitudes, values. To obtain greater clarity. To build relationships.
What are some of the strengths of using an interview?
large amount of data quickly, wide range of info, large number of topics, immediate follow- up, allows for observation, allows for checking.
What are some of the limitations when using an interview?
Not familiar with jargon. Interviwers must be trained listeners and observers. Know hoe to construct converstation.
Depth Interviews
Researchers use to elicit info about beliefs, perceprtions, values
What are the three types of Depth Interviews
1) Unstructured-social conv-allows preliminary issues to surface 2) Semi Structured-Reseacher guides sequence, questions, probes. 3) Standardized structured-generally quantitative, tightly controlled, response options, no conversation
Waht are some of the limitations whe using Depth Interviews?
1) Bias becasue of interactions 2) Cooperation is essential 3) May not be truthful 4) Technique may compromise data
Qualitative Data Analysis
Long Table Approach-case study focus, group, interviews Content Analysis- Looking for patterns or themes. Coding can be used for both.
Types of Qualitative Research Design
1) Ethnographic- elicits cultural data 2) Phenomenological- real world, see thru eyes of others and can describe the essences of the experience. 3) Grounded theory-to find a basic problem or major concern.
Trustworthiness of Data
Credibility (triangulation), Dependability (stability of findings), Conformability(inquiry audit trail), Transferability (thick description), Authencticity( portray-mood, feelings)
When are case studies used?
1) The reasercher has little control over the events 2) The focus is on contemporary phenomenon within some real life context 3) "How" and "Why" questions are posted.
A case study is?
an empirical design inquiry that: investigates a contmeporary phenomenon within its real-life context especially when the boudries between the phenomenon and context are not clearly evident.
What are the four types of Case Study Designs
1) Single case-holistic 2) Single case embedded 3) Mutiple case-holistic 4) Multiple case-embedded
r
Symbol used for Pearson Correlation Coefficient ranges from -1.0 to +1.0
Type I error
Error of rejecting null hypothesis when in fact it is true (also called a "false positive"). You think you found a cause effect relationship but ONE IS NOT THERE
Type II error
error of failing to reject a null hypothesis when in fact it is false (also called a "false negative"). You think there is NO CAUSE EFFECT but THERE IS
cohort effects
Effects of being born and raised in a particular time or situation where all other members of your group has similar experiences makes your group unique from others
debriefing
giving participants in a research study a complete explanation of the study after the study is completed needed for deception
deception
in research, method by which participants are misinformed or misled about study's methods and purposes - must be told truth about this in debriefing
confederates
"fake subjects" that look & behave like real subjects in study.
n
Symbol used to represent the total number of subjects in a research study
p<.05
results of experiment are SIGNIFICANT - they are not likely caused by chance
percentile rank
Percentage of scores falling at or below a specific score.
normal distribution
bell-shaped curve that results when values of a trait in a population are plotted against their frequency
nominal
no order, number to a thing, eg colours, political pref
ordinal
in order, measurement rg, competition places, earthquake scale
ratio
comparison measurement, eg scale of tests, height
Systematic review, RCT, cohort study,homogeneity, case control study, case report
Types of Evidence and Research
Systematic Review (including meta-analysis)
a review in which the primary studies are summarized, critically appraised, and statistically combined; quantitative w/specific inclusion/exclusion criteria.
RCT (Randomized Controlled Trial)
experimental study, random sampling, random assignment to experimental or control group to receive different tx or placebo.
Cohort Study
prospective (forward in time) study; cohort w/similar condition is followed for defined period of time; comparison made to matched group w/out the condition.
Homogeneity
Systematic review free of variations in the directions and degree of results b/w individual studies.
Case Control Study
Retrospective (backward in time) study; group with similar condition compared with group that does not have condition to determine factors that might have played a role in the condition.
Case Report
Type of descriptive research in which only one individual is studied in depth, often retrospectively.
Levels of Evidence (best study design)
Level 1 (A), Level 2 (B) Level 3 (B) Level 4 (C)-Level 5(D)
Case series, poor quality cohort and case control studies. Descriptive
Level 4 (C)
Systematic review of cohort studies, prospective.
Level 2a (B)
Individual cohort study or low quality RCT (small N)
Level 2b (B)
Systematic review case controlled studies
Level 3a (B)
Individual case-control study, retrospective.
Level 3b (B)
Systematic review of multiple RCT's (large N)substantial agreement of size and direction of tx.
Level 1a (A)
Individual RCT w/narrow confidence level; tx effects precisely defined
Level 1b (A)
All or none case series. In absence of RCT, overwhelming evidence of substantial tx effect following intro of a new tx. (vaccine)
Level 1c (A)
Mean
average of all scores (X). Add all scores together and divide by the number of subjects (N). Used for interval and ratio data. Most common measure for central tendency.
median
midpoint, 50% of scores are above the mean and 50% are below, appropriate for ordinal data.
Mode
most frequently occurring score; used for nominal data.
Mean, Median, Mode
Measures of central tendency; determination of avg or typical scores.
Range, Standard Deviation, Normal distribution, Percentiles and quartiles
Measures of variability; determination of the spread of a groups scores
Range
difference b/w the highest score and lowest
SD (Standard Deviation)
determination of variability of scores (difference) from the mean. Subtract each score from the mean, square each difference, add up all the squares, and divide by the number of scores. For interval, ratio data.
Normal distribution
Symmetrical bell-shaped curve indicating the distribution of scores; the mean, median, and mode are similar. 1/2 the scores are above the mean and 1/2 below.
Normal distribution
Most scores are near the mean, within 1 SD; approx 68% of scores fall within +1 or -1 SD of mean.
Frequency of scores decreases further from the mean (Normal distribution)
95% of scores fall +2 or -2 SD of mean.
99% of scores fall +3 or -3 SD of the mean.
Percentiles
data divided in 100 equal parts
Quartiles
data divided into 4 equal parts and position of score is placed accordingly.
Inferential statistics
allow determination of how likely results of study of a sample can be applied to whole population.
Standard error of measurement
estimate of expected errors in individual's score; a measure of response stability or reliability.
Tests of significance
estimation of true differences, not due to chance; a rejection of the null hypothesis. ie. Probability levels or alpha levels.
Alpha levels (preselected level of statistical significance)
0.05 or 0.01; indicates expected difference is due to chance ie. 0.05, only 5 X out of 100 or 5% chance. P value. Allows rejection of null hypothesis; there are true differences on the measured DV.
Degrees of Freedom
based on # of subjects and # of groups; allows determination of level of significance based on consulting appropriate tables for each statistical test.
Standard Error
expected chance variation among the means, result of sampling error.
Type I Error
null hypothesis rejected by the researcher when it is true
Type II Error
null hypothesis is NOT rejected by the researcher when it is false.
Parametric statistics
based on population parameters; includes tests of significance based on interval and ratio data. Assume normal distribution in population, random sampling, variance in groups is equal.
T-test
parametric test compares 2 independent groups created by random assignment and identifies difference at a selected probability level ie 0.05.
T-test for independent sample, Paired samples; one tailed and two tailed T-tests.
Types of T tests
T-test for independent samples
compares the difference b/w 2 independent groups;
T-test for paired samples
compares difference b/w 2 matched samples; 2 subtests are one-tailed and two-tailed t-test.
One tailed t test
based on a directional hypothesis; evals difference in data only on 1 end of distribution, either negative or positive.
Two-tailed t-test
based on a nondirectional hypothesis; evals differences in data on both positive and negative ends of a distribution; tests of significance are almost always two-tailed.
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
parametric test too compare 3+ independent tx groups or conditions at a selected probability level.
empiricism
view that science flourishes through observation and experiment.
scientific method
series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions
overconfidence effect
we overestimate our accuracy and our changes of success and ability to predict and explain
random selection
procedure that ensures every person in a population has an equal chance of being chosen to participate
wording effects
when a specific word used in a question affects how respondents answer the question or the order of the questions
meta analysis
procedure for statistically combining results of many different research studies
Simple (one way) ANOVA
compares multiple groups on a single independent variable ie. 3 sets of posttest scores
Factorial ANOVA (multifactorial)
compares multiple groups on two or more independent variables.
Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)
parametric test used to compare 2 or more treatment groups or conditions while also controlling for the effects of intervening variables ie. subjects in one group taller than subjects in the second group-ht is covariate.
Nonparametric statistics
testing not based on population parameters; includes tests of significance based on ordinal or nominal data. Less powerful than parametric tests, more difficult to reject null hypothesis.
Chi square test
non-parametric test of significance used to compare data in the form of frequency counts occurring in 2 or more mutually exclusive categories ie. subjects asked to rate tx preferences.
Correlational statistics
to determine relative strength of a relationship b/w 2 variables.
Pearson product-moment coefficient (r)
used to correlate continuous data with underlying normal distribution on interval or ration scales. ie relationship b/w proximal and distal development in infants examined.
Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rss)(rho)
nonparametric test to correlate ordinal data ie. verbal and reading scores
Types of Correlational statistical tests
Pearson-product-moment coefficient (r)
Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rho), (rss)
Point biserial correlation
Rank biserial correlation
Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)
Strength of relationships
Common variance
Point biserial correlation
one variable is dichotomous (nominal) and other is ratio or interval eg. the relationship b/w elbow flexor spasticity and side of stroke.
Rank biserial correlation
one variable is dichotomous (nominal) and other is ordinal ie. relationship b/w gender and functional ability
Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)
a reliability coefficient based on an analysis of variance
Strength of relationships
Positive correlations range 0-+1.00; indicates as variable X increases so does Y
High Correlations
>0.76 to +1.00
Moderate correlations
0.51 to 0.75
Fair correlations
0.26 to 0.50
Low correlations
0.00 to 0.25, 0 means no correlation
Negative correlations
range from -1.0 to 0, indicates as variable X increases, variable Y decreases; an inverse relationship.
Common variance
representation of the degree that variation in one variable is attributable to another variable. Determined by squaring the correlation coefficient ie. coefficient of .70 means common variance is 49%.
Linear regression
used to establish relationship b/w 2 variables as a basis for prediction. X is the independent variable or predictor, Y is the dependent or criterion variable. ie. Can SBP be predicted from age?
Marketing Research
the systematic design, collection, interpretation, and reporting of information to help marketers solve specific marketing problems or take advantage of marketing opportunities
1st Marketing Research Step
Locating and defining issues and problems
2nd Marketing Research Step
Designing the research projects
3rd Marketing Research Step
Collecting Data
4th Marketing Research Step
Interpreting Research Findings
5th Marketing Research Step
Report findings
Research Design
an overall plan for obtaining the information needed to address the problem/issue
Hypothesis
an informed guess or assumption about a certain problem or set of circumstances based on prior knowledge/research
Exploratory Research
to gather more information about a topic or to make a tentative hypothesis more specific
Conclusive Research
designed to verify things through an objective procedure to help marketers in making decisions
Descriptive Research
conducted to clarify the characteristics of certain phenomena and thus solve a particular problem
Experimental Research
allows marketers to make casual inferences about relationships
Reliability
when a research method produces almost identical results in repeated trials
Validity
when a research method measures what it is supposed to measure
Primary Data
observed and recorded directly from respondents
Secondary Data
compiled both inside and outside of organization for some purpose other than current investigation
Internal sources of secondary data
databases, reports, financial statements
External sources of secondary data
government publications, periodicals, CNN, Lexis Nexis, U.S. Census
Sampling
the process of selecting representative units from a total population
Sample
a limited number of units to represent the characteristics of total population
Population
"universe," includes all elements, units, or individuals of interest in a specific study
Probability Sampling
every element in the population being studied has a known chance of being selected for study
Random Sampling
(probability) all units in a population have an equal chance of appearing in the sample
Stratified Sampling
(probability) the population of interest is divided into groups according to a common attribute, and a random sample is then chosen within a group
Non-Probability Sampling
when there is no way to calculate the likelihood that a specific element of the population being studied will be chosen
Quota Sampling
researchers divide the population into groups and then arbitrarily choose participants from each group
Observation
no direct contact with participant; focuses on beahvior characteristics
Mail survey
a research method in which respondents answer a questionnaire sent through the mail
Telephone survey
a research method in which respondents' answers to a questionnaire are recorded by interviewers on the phone
Online survey
a research method in which respondents answer a questionnaire via e-mail or on a website
Social Networking Sites
used to gather useful information in understanding consumer decisions
Personal Interview Survey
a research method in which participants respond to survey questions face to face
In-home interview
(door to door) a personal interview that takes place in respondent's home
Focus group interview
a research method involving observation of group interaction when members are exposed to an idea or concept
Customer Advisory Boards
small groups of actual customers who share ideas and feelings regarding a company's products and marketing stratedy
Telephone Depth Interview
an interview that combines the traditional focus group's ability to probe with the confidentiality provided by telephone surveys
Shopping Mall Intercept Interviews
a research method that involves interviewing a percentage of persons passing by "intercept" points in a mall
Statistical Interpretation
analysis of what is typical or deviates from the average
MIS
a framework for the management and structuring of information gathered regularly from sources inside and outside of an organization
Single source data
information provided by a single marketing research firm
Marketing Decision Support System
customized computer software that aids marketing managers in decision-making
Likert Scale
scaled response; from 1 to 5
quasi experiment
a research method that looks like an experiment BUT subjects are not randomly assigned to control and experimental groups (no cause and effect can be drawn)
random assignment
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
case study
An in-depth, intensive investigation of an individual or small group of people which involves interviews and personal interpretations by the experimenter. It may also be supplemented with psychological or medical tests
psychological test
A measuring device or procedure designed to measure psychology-related variables. A measurement that results in a score or result that is standardized
wording effects
occur when the questions asked on a sample survey are confusing or leading
policy research
information gathering and processing activities that public agencies engage in to facilitate decision making.
policy analysis
analysis of policy before it is undertaken.
analysis for policy
analysis of policy illuminating the causes and effects of policies without affecting the policy's outcomes.
critical thinking
process of evaluating claims or hypotheses and making judgments about them on the basis of well-supported evidence
hypothesis
a prediction stated as a testable proposition, usually in the form of an if-then statement
variables
specific factors or characteristics that are manipulated and measured in research
data
numbers that represent research findings and provide the basis for research conclusions
operational definition
a statement of the specific methods used to measure a variable; a detailed explanation of the variable
theory
cluster of explanations of a phenomenon that help predict, explain, and control that behavior
naturalistic observation
method gathering descriptive information involving watching behaviors, without interfering, as they naturally occur
case study
used to collect descriptive data through the intensive examination of a phenomenon in a particular individual, group, or setting (particularly useful for rare or complex phenomena)
survey
questionnaire or interview administered to a large group; designed to obtain descriptions of peoples' behaviors/beliefs
correlational studies
research method that examines relationships between variables in order to analyze trends in data, test predictions, etc. (they do NOT discern cause and effect relationships)
experiment
the only research method to show causation, this involves obtaining a random sample of subjects and using control and experimental groups; allows a researcher to control the data-collection process
independent variable
controlled by the researcher, experienced by the control group, this is what the researcher thinks will HAVE an effect on some other behavior
dependent variable
behavior affected by another variable, it is observed and measured (usually before and after and experiment takes place)
experimental group
receives the critical part of the experiment (the independent variable)
control group
provides a baseline for comparison, does not receive critical treatment (independent variable)
experimenter bias
occurs when experimenters ask leading questions or otherwise search for evidence that supports their hypothesis and don't look for evidence that refutes it
random variable
a confounding variable in which uncontrolled factors affected the dependent variable along with or instead of the independent variable
random assignment
random distribution of participants to experimental or control groups - used to distribute the impact of uncontrolled variables randomly, and most likely evenly, across the groups, minimizing the chance they will distort the results
placebo effect
improvement caused by a participant's knowledge and expectations: can be from a treatment that contains nothing known to be helpful, but that nevertheless produces benefits because a person believes it will be beneficial.
confounding variable
any factor that affects the dependent variable, along with or instead of the independent variable
double-blind design
design for research in which neither the experimenter nor the subjects know who is in the experimental or control group
sampling
the process of selecing participants for research who are members of the population the researcher wishes to study
generalize
to apply the results of one's study to people beyond just the researcher's sample
representative sample
a group of subjects whose characteristics fairly reflect the characteristics of the population they belong to
random sample
a group of subjects selected froma population whose members all had an equal chance of being selected
biased sample
a group of research subjects selected froma population whose members did not all have an equal chance of being chosen
sampling error
part of a sampling process that results in a biased sample
convenience sample
when researchers draw participants from the populations that are readily available to them
twin studies
study the heredity-environment question by comparing the similarity seen in identical twins with those of nonidentical pairs
descriptive statistics
numbers that describe and summarize a set of research data
inferential statistics
set of mathematical procedures that help researchers learn if their research data reflects a true relationship or could be due to random chance
mode
measure of central tendency that is the value that occur most frequently in a data set
median
measure of central tendency that is the halfway point in a set of data
mean
measure of central tendency that is the arithmetic average of the scores in a set of data
range
measure of variability that is the difference between the highest and lowest values in a set of data
standard deviation
measure of variability that is the average difference between each score and the mean of the data set (demonstrates consistency)
correlation
the degree to which one variable is related to another
correlation coefficient
a statistic (r) that summarizes the strength and direction of a relationship between two variables
statistical significance
a term used to describe research results that have been shown by a statistical test to be UNLIKELY to be due to random chance
ethics
code used by psychologists dictating that they minimize discomfort or risk for research participants
hindsight bias
tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it.
theory
set of assumptions used to explain phenomena & offered for scientific study
hypothesis
testable prediction, often implied by a theory
operational definition
statement of procedures used to define research variables which helps to enable replication
replication
repeating of research study to determine if its finding extends to other participants and circumstances
case study
descriptive research technique in which one person or a small group is studied in depth in hope of revealing universal principles
survey
research method in which info is obtained by asking many individuals a fixed set of questions
false consensus effect
tendency to overestimate extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
population
all cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study
random sample
sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
naturalistic observation
descriptive research that involves observing and recording behavior without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
correlation
measure of the extent to which two factors vary together which can be positive or negative or non
scatterplot
graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables.
illusory correlation
perception of a correlation between variables where none exists.
experiment
research method in which investigator manipulates one or more factors (IV) to observe effect on some behavior or mental process (DV)
control condition
condition of experiment that contrasts with experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
double-blind procedure
experimental procedure in which both research participants and research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo.
experimental condition
condition of experiment that exposes participants to treatment, that is, to one version of the IV
placebo effect
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent.
dependent variable
variable that may change in response to manipulations of the IV (what is measured)
independent variable
experimental factor that is manipulated; variable whose effect is being studied.
mean
arithmetic average of a distribution,
median
middle score in a distribution; half scores are above it and half are below it.
mode
most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution.
range
difference between highest and lowest scores in a distribution.
standard deviation
computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.
statistical significance
statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance - expressed as p or sig.
ubiquitous
present or appearing everywhere
paradox
a seeming contradiction
ambiguity
capability of being understood in two or more ways
ambivalent
entertaining contradictory emotions towards the same person or thing
ethos
the character of the speaker
pathos
appeals to emotions
logos
appeals to reason
objective
not influenced by personal feelings or opinions when considering facts
subjective
influenced by personal feelings or opinions when considering facts
acquiesce
to agree or comply without open opposition
aloof
removed or distant in interest
ambiguous
open to having many meanings or interpretations
ambivalence
the coexistence within an individual of positive and negative feelings
arbitrary
subject to individual will or judgement without restriction
belligerent
fond of fighting
brevity
shortness of time or duration
complacent
pleased especially with one's self or one's merit
concise
expressing in few words
candor
frankness; the quality of being open or honest in expression
apathy
absence or suppression of passion, emotion, or excitement
appease
to bring to a state of peace, quiet, ease, calm, or contentment; pacify; soothe
coerce
to compel by force, intimidation, or authority, esp. without regard for individual desire or volition
concede
to acknowledge as true, just, or proper admit, to make a concession
didactic
to teach or learn, used or intended for teaching or instruction
dogmatic
asserted and opinionated; doctrinal
extricate
to free or release from entanglement
incorrigible
bad beyond correction or reform
lethargic
deficient in alertness or activity
obstinate
unreasonably determined to have one's own way; stubborn
plausible
seeming reasonable or something that can happen
quandary
a state of perplexity or uncertainty
verbose
full of words; using or containing too many words
whimsical
suddenly fascinating or enthralling
erratic
random, irrational, having no fixed purpose
hindsight bias
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (Also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon.) (Myers Psychology 8e p. 020)
critical thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 024)
theory
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 024)
hypothesis
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 025)
operational definition
a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 025)
replication
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 025)
case study
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 026)
survey
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 027)
false consensus effect
the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 028)
population
all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study. (Note: Except for national studies, this does not refer to a country's whole population.) (Myers Psychology 8e p. 028)
random sample
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 028)
naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 029)
correlation
a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other. The correlation coefficient is the mathematical expression of the relationship, ranging from -1 to 1. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 030)
scatterplot
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation). (Also called a scattergram or scatter diagram.) (Myers Psychology 8e p. 031)
illusory correlation
the perception of a relationship where none exists. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 033)
experiment
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 036)
control condition
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 037)
double-blind procedure
an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 037)
experimental condition
the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 037)
placebo [pluh-SEE-bo] effect
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 037)
random assignment
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 037)
dependent variable
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 038)
independent variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 038)
mean
the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 041)
median
the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 041)
mode
the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 041)
range
the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 042)
standard deviation
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 042)
statistical significance
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 043)
culture
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 045)
objective data
Data verifiable by others
subjective data
Personal opinions, not verifiable by others
quantitative data
the quantity or amount of what is being studied, how much of something there is.
qualitative data
can be descriptions, words, meanings or pictures which provides information about what is being studied.
median
middle number in a set of data
independent variable
variable that is manipulated by the experimenter
Situational Variable
variables associated with the experimental situation itself that may affect the outcome
Extraneous variables
a variable that can cause a chage in the results of an experiment, besides the independent variable
Participant variables
individual characteristics that participants bring with them to the experiment
Experimental group
this group is exposed to the experimental condition and the IV is always present
Control group
group that has controlled conditions and the IV is not present
Experimental design
used to test whether one variable influences a change in another variable
Laboratory setting
when an experiment is conducted in strictly controlled conditions
Field setting
the environment of the experiment is less controlled and is usually more natural conditions
Variable
something that can change the results of an experiment over time
Random assignment
everyone has a equal chance of being part of the experimental group or the controlled group
Research Methods
methods that are used to obtain information that is reliable
A Graph
Representation of data in picture form
Delphi Technique
A technique which uses a series of self administered questionaires and feedback to obtain the opinion of experts in a field of interest.
Focus groups
A group interview technique that obtains data through discussion between research participants in a group setting.
Quantitative
Data in numerical form.
Qualitative
Data in non-numerical form about the characteristics of what has been studied.
Reliability
The consistency and stability of the results obtained from a research study
Validity
means that the research study has produced results that accuretly measure the behaviour or event that it claims to have measured.
External validity
whether the results obtained in the laboratory would be valid in the 'real world'.
Sample
A subsection, or smaller group, of research participants selected from a larger group(population) of reseach interest.
Population
The entire group of research interest from which a sample is drawn.
Steps in the Research Process
1) select topic, 2) focus question, 3) design study, 4)collect data, 5) Analyze data, 6)interpret data, 7) inform others
What is a Research Question:
the organizing principle for an individual study. It clarifies exactly what the researcher wants to understand, describe, or explain
Characteristics of a Good Research Question:
1) It elicits an explanation or description, not an answer 2) It links contructs & suggests associations or relationships 3) It can be addressed w/ empirical evidence 4) It is focused and feasible
PICO approach
Patient/problem, intervention, comparison intervention, outcomes. Works best for quantitative designs
Confidence intervals:
allow us to use sample data to estimate a population value like the ture mean or the true proportion. EX: what is the true avg amount students spend weekly on alcohol
Hypothesis testing:
Allows us to use sample data to test a claim about a population, such as testing whether a population proportion or population mean = some #. EX: is the true avg amount that students spent weekly on alcohol $20
Null hypothesis:
always represents the status quo, i.e. the hypothesis that requires no change in current behavior.
Alternative hyposthesis
is the conclusion that the researcher is trying to make.
Using the PubMed database
Identify the key concepts in your research question. Example: Find citations about bronchodilators for treating asthma in children.The key concepts are bronchodilators, asthma and children Enter the significant terms into the search box. Press the Enter key or click Go
Currency
how up to date the information that is being used
Writing References in APA style
Author (alphabetical) month/year, journal name, article name, where it was retrieved
Difference between a literature review and a research paper
Research paper - supports your own argument. Literature review-summary and synthesis of the arguments and ideas of others
Literature review strategies
Find a focus - organize around an idea, Construct a working thesis statement, Organize: Basic categories include: Introduction Body Conclusions Organizing the body methods include: Chronological, Thematic, Methodological
Reasons behind making outlines
Aids in the process of writing, Helps organize ideas
Purpose statement
a declarative sentence which summarizes the specific topic and goals of a document. It is typically included in the introduction to give the reader an accurate, concrete understanding what the document will cover and what he/she can gain from reading it. To be effective it should be: specific and precise, concise, clear, goal oriented
Thesis
The answer to the question is the thesis statement for the paper.
Types of Outlines
Alphanumeric, Full Sentence, Decimal
Keys to a Successful Presentation:
Define Objectives, Know Your Audience, Organize Your Presentation, Develop Visual Aids, Address Your Delivery, Develop Your Q&A, Check Out Your Environment
Scientific Structure
Report of Literature Search, Methodology/Techniques, Results, Interpretation/Discussion, Future Implications
The 3 step outline of a presentation
Step One: Tell them what you will tell them Step Two: Tell them Step Three: Tell them what you told them
Importance of visual aids
Increase Audience Interest, Focus Audience Attention, Induce Audience Participation, Reinforce Points of Emphasis, Increase Retention of Content
What % of what we learned is by sight?
87%
What % of what % of we learn is from what we see and hear
50%
What % of what we learn is by participation
70%
Effective delivery factors
Enthusiasm, Audience Bonding, Posture/Movement, Gestures, Eye Contact, Voice Quality
Hazards of presentations
Poor Introduction, Equipment Failure, Missing Materials, Lighting, Hecklers, Late Returners
Effective/Ineffective purpose statement: "The purpose of this paper is to describe the changes that are occurring in corporate America
ineffective: too vague
Ineffective/effective purpose statement:"The purpose of this report is to discuss the eating disorders Anorexia and Bulimia
Ineffective: to vague
ineffective/effective purpose statement: This article will cover the different ways a company can become organized
Ineffective: obscure and misleading
Ineffective/effective purpose statement:This paper will describe four common causes of co-worker conflict in organizations and explain how to use a five-step procedure to constructively manage this conflict
effective: very specific
Ineffective/effective purpose statement: This report will explain how supervisors can use four planning strategies to improve employee productivity in the workplace
effective: very specific
Ineffective/effective purpose statment: This purpose of this report is to describe the main causes of traffic congestion in Seattle
Effective: leaves no doubt about the reporters main purpose
Research Ethics
3 Principles: Beneficence, Respect, Justice 6 Norms: Valid Research Design, Researcher Competence, Identify Consequences, Appropriate Sample Selection, Voluntary Informed Consent, Inform Participants whether harm will be compensated
Undoing Deception
Debriefing, Dehoaxing, Guarding Privacy & Confidentiality of Participants, Obtain fully informed consent
Autonomy
the right or condition of self-government
Beneficence
maximizing good outcomes for science, humanity, and the individual research participants & minimizing or avoiding unnecessary risk, harm, or wrong
Voluntary Participation
without threat or undue inducement
Informed Consent
agree to participate without threat or undue inducement knowing what a reasonable person in the same situation would want to know before giving consent & explicitly agreeing to participate
Random Assignment
assignment of subjects/participants so that both the criteria of equal probability and independence are fullfilled
Random Selection
the selection of each unit is independent of the selection of any other unit; every person in a population has equal probability of being selected
Defining Characteristics of Experimental Research
1) change x & observe y 2) control as many variables as possible, manipulate 1 to yield causation 3) results are interpreted as "true" within a certain degree of probability
Confounds
other factors that can affect an outcome in an experiment- not measured, but explains results
Independent Variable
a variable that is managed or manipulated in an experiment to determine whether it affects a dependent variable
Dependent Variable
a variable that is observed or measured in an experiment to determine whether it is affected by an independent variable
Criterion Variable
a variable being studied in a correlational project, regarding the extent to which it is correctly predicted by one or more predictor variables
Predictor Variable
a variable being studied in a correlational project, regarding the extent to which it correctly predicts one or more criterion varialbes
Internal Validity
an aspect of design validity: the extent to which all extraneous variables are controlled, enabling results to be interpreted unambiguously regarding the people, setting & occasions studied
External Validity
Generalizability of results to other people, times, places & circumstances than those studied, as relevant to the project's mission
Null Hypothesis
a statistical hypothesis of "no difference" or "no relation" in populations represented by the samples
Experimental Hypothesis
a statement that expresses a prediction about what the answer to a research question will be or an idea about the phenomenon being studied
Control Group
composed of subjects that are alike in all preexisting characteristics to the experimental group, except for the treatment experienced by the experimental group
Correlational Coefficient
a statistical measure expressing the relationship between two or more variables with a single number between 1 & 1, inclusive
Correlational Research
investigate relationships among variables studied
Cross Sectional Research
"cohort design" based on independent group comparisons among samples who have reached different stages of development at the time the study is conducted
Longitudinal Research
studies the same people at different times; inferences about the developmental variable are based on repeated measures comparisons
Reliability
a measure of consistency
Validity
evidence that an instrument/study measures the construct it claims to
Case Study
descriptive research approach- studies intensively a given social unit (individual, group, institution, etc.)
Ethnographic Research
research method designed to describe & analyze practices & beliefs of cultures & communities; involves entering into first hand interaction with people in their everyday lives
Participatory Research
participants participate in the research process- Cooperative Inquiry or Participatory Action Research
Focus Group
a semistructured group interview procedure
Descriptive Research
describes what is without inferring causation
Threats to Internal Validity
1) History 2) Maturation 3) Testing 4) Instrumentation 5) Statistical Regression 6) Differential Selection 7) Experimental Mortality 8) Selection-Maturation Interaction 9) Experimental Treatment Diffusion 10) Compensatory Rivalry by Control Group- John Henry Effect 11) Compensatory Equalization Diffusion 12) Resentful Demoralization of the Control Group
Stratified Sampling
a method of sampling in which the population is subdivided according to one or more stratification variables before the sample is selected, each subdivision of the population is represented by a corresponding subdivision in the sample
Intensity Sampling
sites or individuals are selected in which the phenomenon of interest is strongly represented , but not necessarily extreme
Simple Random Sampling
random sampling applied to the entire frame at once; requires access to the entire population-every person has equal probability of being selected
Cluster Sampling
a procedure in which intact groups rather than individuals are sampled
Probability Sampling
sample is drawn in such a way that makes it probable that the sample is approximately the same as the population on the variables to be studied (SRS, systematic, stratified, cluster, multistage)
Convenience Sampling
a set of individuals studied in a research project because they are conveniently available, without regard to whether they are representative of a population
Operational Definition
experimentally accessible population; moving from a theoretical definition of a concept to something that can be measured; practical, measurable
Conceptual Definition
a theoretical definition of a concept that uses other constructs to explain the meaning
Constructivist Paradigm
reality is socially constructed, research-attempt to understand from POV of those experiencing ; research can not be separated from researcher bias
Postpositivist Paradigm
rational, empiricist, value free & causal nature of what we observe can be concluded; prefer experimental design & random assignment
Percentile Scores
refer to the percentage of cases in a norm sample who scored below an individual's score
Standardized Tests
have instructions for uniform administration, procedures and norms & have been put through rigorous developmental cycles
Measures of Central Tendency
mean, median, mode
Meaning of p Values
Power-ability to detect deviations from the null hypothesis; ex. .5% chance will detect statistical significance if it is present
Statistical Significance
of a magnitude rarely obtained by random sampling from populations for which the null hypothesis is true; probability that the difference in scores occurred because of reasons other than error
Norm Referenced Tests
individuals performances can be compared with the norm group; results from 1 or more large samples with known characteristics
ANOVA
analysis of variance- a test for the significance of differences among three of more means; parametric
T test
inferential statistical test- used to compare two groups; parametric
Chi Square
test of statistical significance for categorical date; non-parametric
Linear Regression
defines a line of best fit for correlational data that can be used as a prediction equation
clustered vs. distributed neurons
two binary choices that will decide between localizationist and holist positions; functionally homogeneous neurons are either one or the other
shared vs. dedicated neurons
neurons perform duties 'across functions' or are solely devoted to a specific language function
dependent variable
what you use to make measurements; i.e. words to write, read, etc. when studying aphasia
independent variable
the results of what you are testing; errors and correct answer, how long it takes to answer correctly, etc. when studying aphasia
functional architecture
box and arrow flowchart, not like neuroanatomy, based on a patient's performance on multi-related language tasks, from sensory input (visual/auditory) to output (written/spoken)
phonologically plausible
(like kids spelling) fabric > phabric; cabin > kabbin
semantic paragraphias
truck > bus; leopard > tiger; apple > orange
orthographic related errors
brush > bpush; happy > fabby; soft > ssoft
morphological paragraphias
learn > learning; powerful > powerfully; picked > pick
event-related potentials
using scalp electrodes, small electrical responses to specific inputs can only be observed by averaging the EEG traces over a series of trials
content words or "open class"
carry meaning; numerous; variable lengths; can add new ones to language; mainly consist of nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs
function words or "closed class"
do not carry meanings by themselves; can't add new ones to language, usually small words (grammatical morphemes and endings); articles, conjunctions, prepositions, pronouns, quantifiers
lexicon
mental dictionary in brain
aggrammatism
Broca's aphasics show evidence for selective loss of closed class words while retaining open class
fMRI
add blood volume flow analysis: oxygenated blood has different magnetic properties relative to de-oxygenated blood, hence bigger signal
MRI
magnetic resonance imaging
PET
positron emission tomography
practice effects
practicing and repeating an experimental task can affect blood flow over a few trials. So test and control must have the same effect.
stimulus presentation rate
14 items/min to 60 items/min in 5 studies reviewed
words with acoustic features
bugle, siren, horn, bell, whistle, sing, thunder
words without acoustic features
think, grass, rubber, plant, pensive, loneliness
N400
reflects postlexical process involved in lexical integration of words in sentence
syntactic positive shift
a positive shift in the ERP waveform after the syntactic violation
Peterson study
by subtracting a "control state" from the current "stimulus state" one could isolate areas of activation related to mental operations present in the stimulus state, but not in the control state
subtraction method
built-in assumption of "forward only" processing
Authoritarian government
A political system that allows little or no participation in decision making by individuals and groups outside the upper reaches of the government.
Balance of power
A concept that describes the degree of equilibrium (balance) or disequilibrium (imbalance) of power in the global or regional system. 44,
Biopolitics
This theory examines the relationship between the physical nature and political behavior of humans.
Bureaucracy
The bulk of the state's administrative structure that continues even when leaders change.
Cognitive decision making
Making choices within the limits of what you consciously know.
Crisis situation
A circumstance or event that is a surprise to decision makers, that evokes a sense of threat (particularly physical peril), and that must be responded to within a limited amount of time.
Decision-making process
The manner by which humans choose which policy to pursue and which actions to take in support of policy goals. The study of decision making seeks to identify patterns in the way that humans make decisions. This includes gathering information, analyzing information, and making choices. Decision making is a complex process that relates to personality and other human traits, to the sociopolitical setting in which decision makers function, and to the organizational structures involved.
Democratic government
The governmental system a country has in terms of free and fair elections and levels of participation.
Ethology
The comparison of animal and human behavior.
Foreign policy process
A concept that includes the influences and activities within a country that cause its government to decide to adopt one or another foreign policy.
Formal powers
Authority to act or to exert influence that is granted by statutory law or by the constitution to a political executive or to another element of government.
Frustration-aggression theory
A psychologically based theory that frustrated societies sometimes become collectively aggressive.
Gender opinion gap
The difference between males and females along any one of a number of dimensions, including foreign policy preferences.
Groupthink
How an individual's membership in an organization/ decision-making group influences his or her thinking and actions. In particular there are tendencies within a group to think alike, to avoid discordance, and to ignore ideas or information that threaten to disrupt the consensus.
Head of government
The ranking official in the executive branch who is politically and constitutionally invested with the preponderance of authority to administer the government and execute its laws and policies.
Hegemonic power
A single country or alliance that is so dominant in the international system that it plays the key role in determining the rules and norms by which the system operates. As the dominant power in the system, it has a central position in both making and enforcing the norms and modes of behavior.
Heuristic devices
A range of psychological strategies that allow individuals to simplify complex decisions. Such devices include evaluating people and events in terms of how well they coincide with your own belief system ("I am anticommunist; therefore all communists are dangerous"), stereotypes ("all Muslims are fanatics"), or analogies ("appeasing Hitler was wrong; therefore all compromise with aggressors is wrong").
Horizontal authority structure
A system in which authority is fragmented, like the international system.
Idiosyncratic analysis
An individual-level analysis approach to decision making that assumes that individuals make foreign policy decisions and that different individuals are likely to make different decisions.
Individual-level analysis
An analytical approach that emphasizes the role of individuals as either distinct personalities or biological/psychological beings.
Informal powers
Authority to act or to exert influence that is derived from custom or from the prestige within a political system of either an individual leader or an institution.
Interest group
A private (nongovernmental) association of people who have similar policy views and who pressure the government to adopt those views as policy.
Intermestic
The merger of international and domestic concerns and decisions. 8,
Issue areas
Substantive categories of policy that must be considered when evaluating national interest.
Leader-citizen opinion gap
Differences of opinion between leaders and public, which may have an impact on foreign policy in a democratic country.
Leadership capabilities
A range of personal job skills including administrative skills, legislative skills, public persuasion abilities, and intellectual capacity that affect the authority of political leaders.
Levels of analysis
Different perspectives (system, state, individual) from which international politics can be analyzed.
Mirror-image perception
The tendency of two countries or individuals to see each other in similar ways, whether positive or negative.
Operational code
A perceptual phenomenon that describes how an individual acts and responds when faced with specific types of situations.
Operational reality
The process by which what is perceived, whether that perception is accurate or not, assumes a level of reality in the mind of the beholder and becomes the basis for making an operational decision (a decision about what to do).
Poliheuristic theory
A view of decision making that holds it occurs in two stages. During the first stage, nonrational considerations such as how an issue and the response to it will affect a decision maker's political or professional future are applied to narrow the range of choices. Then in the second stage decision makers use strategic considerations and other rational criteria to make a final policy choice.
Political culture
A concept that refers to a society's general, long-held, and fundamental practices and attitudes. These are based on a country's historical experience and on the values (norms) of its citizens. These attitudes are often an important part of the internal setting in which national leaders make foreign policy.
Political executives
Those officials, usually but not always in the executive branch of a government, who are at the center of foreign policy-making and whose tenures are variable and dependent on the political contest for power.
Power pole
An actor in the international system that has enough military, economic, and/or diplomatic strength to often have an important role in determining the rules and operation of the system. They have generally beeneither (1) a single countryorempire or (2) agroup of countries that constitute an alliance or bloc.
Role
How an individual's position influences his or her thinking and actions.
State-centric system
A system describing the current world system wherein states are the principal actors.
State-level analysis
An analytical approach that emphasizes the actions of states and the internal (domestic) causes of their policies.
System-level analysis
An analytical approach that emphasizes the importance of the impact of world conditions (economics, technology, power relationships, and so forth) on the actions of states and other international actors.
Two-level game theory
The concept that in order to arrive at satisfactory international agreements, a country's diplomats actually have to deal with (at one level) the other country's negotiators and (at the second level) legislators, interest groups, and other domestic forces at home.
Unipolar system
A type of international system that describes a single country with complete global hegemony.
Vertical authority structure
A system in which subordinate units answer to higher levels of authority.
Conclusion.
A decision made by the researcher about whether the hypothesis was supported based on the results obtained in an experiment
Confidentiality
the ethical principle whereby a professional does not disclose to others information n given in confidence to them by a client/patient. In research studies, personal information should only be collected if it is relevant to the study and can only be reported in such a way that subjects' identities are not revealed. If subjects are dissatisfied after debriefing, they can demand that their data is destroyed. (In therapeutic situations, the patient's consent is required before the practitioner can disclose any information of a personal nature. Exceptions to this occur in cases with minors where discussions are held with parents or in cases where the client threatens, either directly or through their behaviour, to cause harm to themselves or others, in which case the professional is obligated to attempt to prevent such an occurrence.)
Confounding variable
An unwanted factor occurring in the procedures, experimenters or subjects in an experiment that has an effect on the dependent variable, along with or instead of the dependent variable.
Control condition
A condition in an experiment used as a baseline or comparison with the experimental condition involving the treatment variable. Thus, subjects experiencing the control condition should be identical in characteristics and experience similar standardised conditions to those experiencing the experimental condition; however they should not experience the independent variable.
Control Group
A group for which all conditions are identical to those of the experimental group except that participants are not exposed to the manipulation of the independent variable. This enables the researcher to determine whether the independent variable has affected the dependent variable.
Controlled variables
A type of extraneous variable whose influence has been removed from the research via sampling, experimental method and/or statistical control.
Convenience sampling
The process of selecting members of a population to participate in research who are easily obtainable. Examples include newspaper polls and radio station phone-ins, as well as approaching individuals in a shopping centre. Such a sample may not be representative of the population as individuals actively volunteering to participate in the study, or drawn from a narrow strata of the population, may be biased.
Correlation
A statistical measure of the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables, events or measures that occur together so that changes in one are accompanied by changes in the other. It is not a causative measure, meaning that it does not explain the reason behind a relationship between two variables.
Correlation coefficient
An indication of the strength and direction of a correlation between two variables. It ranges from -1.00, indicating a strong negative relationship to, + 1.00, indicating a strong positive relationship. 0.00 indicates no correlation. Furthermore, a correlation level of 0.05 is needed in order to consider a correlation as being moderately strong, an indication of statistical significance.
Correlational method
A research method that identifies and describes the relationship between two variables, events or measures.
Cross-sectional study
Research in which individuals of differing ages drawn from a representative sample are compared in a single study.
Counterbalancing
Reversing the order of presentation for half the participants so that fatigue and practice effects occur in different orders to 'balance' their effects
Debriefing
Feedback given to experimental subjects about the purposes and results of the research of which they were a part. Such feedback should remove any misconceptions caused by deception within the experimental design, and should provide results and interpretations to the participants. The aim is to ensure that subjects leave the experiment in as similar a state as possible as they entered it.
Descriptive statistics
Statistics that describe or summarise the data and typically include a measure of central tendency and dispersion
Dependent variable (DV)
A factor or characteristic of a subject's behaviour or experience that can be observed or measured as being changed in some way as a result of being manipulated by the independent variable. This measure is obtained to test the outcome of the experiment.
Direct observation
A research method involving investigating overt or directly measurable behaviour through the process of watching and recording it as it occurs.
Double-blind study
A test in which neither the experimenters or subjects are aware of which subjects have been allocated to the experimental group.
Empirical evidence
Scientific research gathered using the direct method of systematic observation.
Ethics
A set of moral principles and practices that have been used by psychologists to provide guidelines relating to what is acceptable conduct in terms of right or wrong that researchers follow when considering using humans or animals as research subjects.
Experiment
-A method of data collection used to systematically measure the relationship between variables which have been operationalised in an hypothesis.
Experimental condition
- The condition in an experiment which contains the presence of the independent variable.
Experimental design
The structure of the experiment
Experimental group
The subjects in an experiment who are allocated the independent variable which is changed or manipulated in order to observe its effects on their behaviour or experience.
Experimenter bias
An unconscious expectation of the experimenter which may influence their observations of data.
Experimenter effect
Occurs when the unconscious expectations, personal characteristics or treatment of the data by the experimenter may adversely affect the dependent variable which may bias the experimental results. This may occur when the experimental and control groups are treated differently.
Extraneous variables
Any potential independent variable that is of no direct interest to the researcher, but may have an effect on the dependent variable. The two types of extraneous variables are controlled and uncontrolled variables.
Generalisation
The applications of the conclusions based on the results obtained to other settings outside the study. Extending or applying the results for a sample more widely to the population from which the sample was drawn or another population
Hawthorne effect
The notion that subjects who are aware that they are participants of an experiment may behave according to what they perceive to be the experimenter's expectations. The improved performance may be attributed to this factor, rather than the influence of the independent variable.
Hypothesis
A testable predication that an independent variable(s) or treatment(s) will cause an effect on the dependent variable(s).
Independent-groups design
A research design in which subjects are randomly allocated to groups and it is assumed that relevant variables are balanced between the groups. This makes it equally likely for an individual to be in the experimental or control group.
Independent variable (IV)
The treatment variable (the factor or the characteristic) in an experiment that has been deliberately varied or systematically manipulated by the experimenter in order to measure whether it produced a change in the dependent variable, measured by a change in the subjects' behaviour or performance
Inferential statistics
Statistics that use mathematical procedures to measure and make judgments about how likely it is that the results are obtained in an experiment came about by chance
Informed consent
The process whereby an experimental subject is given all the necessary details in order to reach a decision to agree to being a part of an experiment. Such information should point out any potential risks that may be present in the research design.
Integrity
A commitment by the researcher to the search for knowledge, to recognised principles for conducting research and in the honest and ethical conduct of research (including reporting)
Justice
Ensuring the fair distribution of benefits and burdens with the population of interest and well as for any research participant
Level of significance
Probability that an outcome is statistically significant
Longitudinal study
Research in which a sample of individuals is studied over a long time period.
Matched-subjects design
A research design involving the placement of equivalent pairs of subjects into each group, matched on relevant characteristics such as gender, intelligence scores, age. Subjects are paired on variables which, if not controlled, may have a confounding effect on the research.
Mean
The statistical average for a set of measurements/scores.
Median
When all scores in a set of measurements are arranged in order, the median is the middle score within the set.
Mode
In a set of scores/measurements, the mode is the score that occurs most frequently. There may be more than one mode in any given set of scores.
Negative correlation
Indicates that two variables share a relationship to one another which occurs in an opposite direction.' Thus, as one variable increases, the other variable decreases. For example, as the amount of study time increases, failure rate tends to decrease.
Non-participant observation
- A scientific research method in which the researchers endeavour to conceal their presence when recording their observations.
Null hypothesis.
- A testable prediction that there is no evidence that the treatment has an effect. Thus, any difference between the experimental and control groups is due to chance. If one rejects the null hypothesis, they accept the experimental hypothesis. One cannot accept the null hypothesis
Objective data
Data that has been gathered using systematic observation which is not influenced by any personal bias.
Observation
A scientific research method which involves watching and recording behaviour as it occurs in a clinical or naturalistic setting.
Observer bias
The interference of an observer's personal expectations, motives and prior experience which detracts from the accuracy their research.
Operational definition
The precise, comprehensive description of the concept to be measured in an experiment, and the procedures that will be utilised to measure that concept.
Operational hypothesis
The expression of a hypothesis in terms of how the researcher will determine the presence and levels of the variables under investigation; that is, how the experimenter is going to put their hypothesis into operation.
Opportunity sampling
Also called convenience sampling. Participants are selected from groups that are readily available
Order effect
The potential impact on the results of the order in which an experimental task is completed by participants
p value
The probability level which forms basis for deciding if results are statistically significant (not due to chance).
Participant observation
A scientific research the study; analysing the data; communicating the method in which the researcher watches and records the behaviour to be observed while engaging in the activity themselves in the hope of being mistaken by the subjects as a member of the activity
Participant allocation
Process of assigning participants to different groups (or conditions in a research study)
Placebo selection
Process of choosing participants (sample) from a larger group for research study
placebo
A fake treatment often used in medical research in the form of sugar tablets or injections. It has no medical or pharmacological effects. It is often used as a control condition in experiments, to counter the effect of subjects knowing they have taken something.
Placebo effect
Any observed change in functioning or behaviour that is 'caused' by a placebo, where there is a demonstrated difference between those taking the placebo treatment and those offered no treatment.
Population
The entire group of individuals related to the problem of interest that the researcher is testing. A sample is drawn from the population
Positive correlation
Indicates that two variables share a relationship to one another that occurs in the same direction. Thus, as one variable increases the other variable also tends to increase. For example, as the amount of exercise an individual performs increases, fitness level also tends to increase.
Qualitative data
Factual or descriptive pieces of information about the qualities of the characteristics or behaviours being measured.
Quantitative data
Numerical measures/values used to quantify, /describe the characteristics or behaviours being measured.
Random assignment / allocation
The allocation of subjects to different groups in an experiment ensuring that each subject has an equal chance of being selected in any of the groups to be utilised.
Random sampling
A form of allocating subjects from the population of interest to form part of the sample in such a manner that each member of the population has an equal chance to be selected. One method of doing this is using random number tables of selection. If the sample is of sufficient size, it is usually representative of the population.
Range
the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a frequency distribution. The range is the simplest measure of variability.
Repeated-measures design
One group undertakes both experimental conditions, the experimental condition and the control condition.
Representative sample
A characteristically resemblant portion of the population of interest.
Respect for persons
Proper regard by the researcher for the welfare, rights, beliefs, perceptions, customs and cultural heritage of all individuals involved in research.
Sample
- A subset of the population that is used for research purposes.
Sampling
The method used to select subjects for a study. Types of sampling include random sampling and stratified sampling.
Scatter diagram (scattergram; scatterplot)
A graphical representation of the strength and the direction of the relationship between variables.
Scientific method
A series of orderly steps on clearly defined goals, objectivity and to obtain empirical evidence. are: preparing the study; conducting research reporting findings; and replicating or repeating the study.
Self-report measures
Forms of gaining data which rely on spoken or written responses to questions posed by the researcher. Examples include interviews, surveys and questionnaires.
Single-blind study
An experiment in which subjects are unaware of the experimental or control condition to which they have been assigned. This reduces the likelihood of the Hawthorne effect occurring.
Standard deviation
A measure of the variability of scores in a distribution indicating the average difference between the scores and their mean.
Standardised instructions and procedures
Instructions and procedures used with all groups to make sure only the independent variable differs between them
Statistically significant
When the likelihood of results (e.g. the difference in the mean scores for an experiment) being due to change factors is at an acceptably low level. In scientific research, a level of 0.05 significance is commonly used as a benchmark to gauge whether a difference obtained in the findings is truly due to the influence of the independent variable and not attributed to chance. A 0.05 significance level occurs when the probability of chance is 5 or fewer times in 100 repetitions of the research. Stricter probability values (p) of significance are sometimes employed, such as < 0.01 (less than 1 in 100); and p <0.001 (less than 1 in 1000).
Statistical significance
The term used to indicate whether the results obtained in an experiment do not occur by chance and may therefore be the result to other variables.
Stratified sampling
A method of subject selection used to attempt to prevent biases by making the sample more representative of the population. It involves identifying some of the factors (strata) present in the population such as age, sex, or income level and then selecting a separate sample from each stratum in the same proportions.
Stratified random sampling
Sampling technique in which the population as a whole is divided into parts or 'strata' and each stratum has participants drawn from it.
Subject
A participant in an experiment.
Subjective data
Data obtained by self-report measures in which subjects give verbal or written responses to a series of research questions.
Systematic study
The scientific approach of carrying out and reporting research.
T test
A mathematical procedure that involves a comparison of the means of two groups or treatment conditions to establish statistical significance.
Test of significance
A statistical test used to determine whether the mean scores of two groups differ significantly.
Uncontrolled variables
Those variables that have influenced the result as their presence was not accounted for (and removed) in the experimental method. Uncontrolled variables which cause a change in the value of the dependent variable are termed 'confounding variables'.
Variable
A factor pertaining to the property of an individual or object that can alter in amount or kind and can be measured.
Voluntary participation
Where subjects become a part of an experiment because they choose to do so. This choice is often based on being provided with some information as to the purposes, nature and procedures involved in the research design
Withdrawal rights
The right of experimental subjects to remove themselves from the research situation at any point they decide (such as when the experiment is seen by the subjects as causing too much personal discomfort or distress).
Beneficence
The researchers responsibility to maximize the potential benefits of research and minimise the risks of harm or discomfort to all research participants
Case study
An in-depth study of some particular behaviour or phenomenon of interest in a particular individual, group or situation.
If the law you find is not ______nothing else matters
On Point
Case of 1st Impression
an issue before a court that has never been answered or heard before
All legal material fall into what 2 categories
Primary Authority or Secondary Authority
Primary Authority
thought of as the law, cases, statutes or regulation
Examples of Primary Authority
Cases, statutes, constitutions
Examples of Secondary Authority
Legal Dictionaries, Treatises, Practice Guides, Form Books, Horn Books, Digests, Restatements, Legal Encyclopedias, Legal Periodicals, American Law Reports
Legal Dictionaries
Used to look up terminology, it is hard to look things up from context
Form Book
Book that has forms
Practice Guides
tells you what steps you have to take to achieve something (like a cookbook)
Hybrid Treatises
treatises that has elements of a form book and a practice guide built in
Examples of Hybrid Treatises
Texas Transaction Guide & Texas Litigation Guide
Horn Book
It is 1 volume, and used for instructional puposes only. It's intent is to give you a general overview of the law. Not something you can use for research.
Digests
contain short summaries of points of law found in cases
Main Digest in Texas
West's Texas Digest
How is a digest kept current
by the slot in the back cover called the pocket part sent each year
Restatements
a scholarly compilation of the common law by the American Law Institute.
Restatements are ______Authority
Secondary
How are Legal Encyclopedias Organized
Alphabetically by topic, further subdivided into se