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MDIA 3300 Exam 1
Terms in this set (58)
The elements in the communication process:
source, encoding process, message, channel, decoding process, receiver, feedback, and noise
The three types of noise are:
semantic, environmental, and mechanical
The three main settings for communication are:
interpersonal, machine-assisted interpersonal, and mass communication
Each element in the communication process...
may vary according to setting
Mass communication refers to:
the process by which a complex organization, with the aid of one or more machines, produces public messages that are aimed at large, heterogeneous, and scattered audiences
Traditionally, a mass communicator was identified by its formal organization, gatekeepers, expensive operating costs, profit motive, and competitiveness. What medium created exceptions to these characteristics?
New models have been developed to illustrate ________
Internet mass communication
______________ has become more specialized in the past 40 years, but the channels of mass communication still have the potential to reach vast audiences.
Seven trends that characterize modern mass communication are:
audience segmentation, convergence, user-generated content, increased audience control, multiple platform, more mobility, and social media
Functional analysis holds...
that something is best understood by examining how it is used
At the macro level of analysis, mass media perform five functions for society:
surveillance, interpretation, linkage, transmission of values, and diversion. Dysfunctions are harmful or negative consequences of these functions.
At the micro level of analysis:
the functional approach is called uses-and-gratifications analysis.
The media perform the following functions for the individual:
cognition, diversion, social utility, withdrawal, affiliation and expression.
The critical/cultural approach has its roots in Marxist philosophy which:
emphasized class differences as a cause of conflict in a society
The critical/cultural approach suggests that media content helps perpetuate a system that keeps the ___________ in power. It also notes that people can find different meanings in the same message.
The key concepts in the critical approach are:
text, meaning, hegemony, and ideology.
Although they are different approaches, both _________ and __________ can be valuable tools for the analysis of the mass communication process.
functional and critical/cultural studies
____________ made information available to a larger audience. It helped the development of vernacular languages, aided the Protestant Reformation, and contributed to the spread and accumulation of knowledge.
The telegraph and telephone were the first media to use electricity to communicate. They marked the first time the message could be separated from the messenger. The __________ helped the railroads move west and permitted the newspapers to publish more timely news. The _____________ linked people together n the first instance of a communication network.
Photography provided a way to reserve history, had an impact on art, and brought better visuals to newspapers and magazines. Motion pictures helped socialize a generation of immigrants and became an important part of American culture.
______________ provided a way to reserve history, had an impact on art, and brought better visuals to newspapers and magazines. ________________ helped socialize a generation of immigrants and became an important part of American culture.
Photography, Motion pictures
__________ and ____________ brought news and entertainment into the home, transformed leisure time, and pioneered a new, immediate kind of reporting. Television has an impact on free time, politics, socialization, culture, and many other areas as well.
Radio, TV broadcasting
changed the way information was stored and transmitted and made e-commerce possible
The digital revolution
______________ have changed American culture and taken over some of the functions of mass media.
The next communication milestone is the expanding use of:
In general, it is difficult to predict the ultimate shape of a new medium. ______________ change but do not replace ______________. The pace of media inventions has accelerated in recent years.
New media, older media
The computer's ancestors were machines that performed _______________________.
By the _____ personal computers using packaged software were on the market
____________ is a network of computer networks. It was started by the U.S. Department of Defense and in its early years was used primarily by scientists. The current ________ started in the 1980s thanks to the efforts of the National Science Foundation.
The Internet, internet
The main features of the Internet are:
e-mail, newsgroups, and the World Wide Web
The introduction of broadband Internet connections will encourage the growth of:
streaming video and microcasting
The Internet has had a beneficial impact on:
the national economy, and e-commerce continues to grow
Social media have become important sources for:
news and entertainment
Social media can...
mobilize political movements
The Internet has created social concerns about:
lack of gatekeepers, information overload, lack of privacy, and isolation
______________ may be the successor to the Internet
____________ in colonial America were published with permission of the local government. A free press did not appear until after the Revolution.
The mass newspaper arrived in the _______ with the publication of Benjamin Day's New York Sun, the first of the penny-press papers.
The era of yellow journalism featured ____________, ___________, and ______________ and introduced more attractive newspaper designs.
sensationalism, crusades, and human-interest reporting
Many newspapers were merged or folded during the early ______, as tabloid papers became popular. The trend toward consolidation would continue into the years following World War II.
The newspaper industry is currently in a crisis as declining ____________ and ___________ have made it difficult for many papers to stay in business.
circulation and advertising revenue
There are four types of daily papers:
national newspapers, large metro dailies, midsize dailies, and small-town dailies
Other major types of papers are:
weeklies, special-service newspapers, and minority newspapers
All papers now have:
online versions and many have apps for mobile media
The trend toward ___________ in the newspaper industry has ended
Newspapers are reexamining their _________ and converging their print and online operations.
Newspaper audiences are measured by the ______________. Newspaper readership has declined for the past several decades, but online readership is growing.
Audit Bureau of Circulations
The first _________________ appeared during the middle of the 18th century and were aimed at an educated, urban, and literate audience
The audiences for magazines increased during the ____________ era as mass-appeal publications became prominent
____________ and _____________ helped launch a magazine boom during the latter part of the 19th century
Better printing techniques and a healthy economy
The __________ were magazines that published exposes and encouraged reform
Magazines began to specialize their content following WWI. ___________, ____________, and __________ became popular.
Newsmagazines, digests, and picture magazines
The magazine industry is experiencing a difficult time due to:
declining advertising revenue
Magazine publishers hope that the tablet computer will re-energize the:
specialized, current, influential, and convenient
The magazine industry is dominated by:
large publishing companies
The magazine industry can be divided into the:
production, distribution, and retail divisions.
A typical magazine publishing company has several main departments, including:
circulation, advertising, production, and editorial
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