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Test and Measures Final
Terms in this set (45)
What are the 2 useful models used for decision making when planning an examination and what is involved in each model?
1) Task-oriented model (performance, strategy, impairment)
2) ICF model (participation, activity, impairment)
What are the 3 purposes for conducting a pediatric examination and what is involved in each one?
1) DISCRIMINATIVE (how does the child compare to peers?)
-diagnosis, eligibility for PT
2) EVALUATIVE (has the intervention been effective?)
-document change over time, determine efficacy of programming
3) PREDICTIVE (how does the child's performance today provide insight into the child's performance at a later time?)
What 9 things should the examination strategy depend on?
age, diagnosis, cognitive level, language level, vision and hearing status, time and space constraints, desired outcome, setting where services will be provided, source of reimbursement for the service
1) What is the norm for cadence for a 1 year old? 2) 3 years? 3) 7 years? 4) Adult?
1) 175 steps/min
2) 153 steps/min
3) 143 steps/min
4) 114 steps/min
What is the purpose of performing an outcome measure on a pediatric patient?
to determine how the child's performance compares either with typically developed children of the same age (norm-referenced) OR how it compares with a performance standard (criterion-referenced)
1) What is the norm for velocity of a 1 year old? 2) A 3 year old? 3) A 7 year old? 4) An adult?
1) 64 cm/s
2) 86 cm/s
3) 114 cm/s
4) 122 cm/s
1) What outcome measures are used to assess pediatric postural control and balance?
1) pediatric balance scale, pediatric functional reach (norms start at 3 years), rhomberg EO and EC, m-CTSIB
1) How is measuring ROM different in pediatrics than adults? 2) Manual muscle testing?
1) typically the same landmarks but some boney landmarks aren't fully developed, baby fat makes palpating challenging, test position varies (DF and PF measured in prone for ex. ), there are no norms for infants and young children
2) on infants and toddlers MMT is done through observation, focus is on muscle groups rather than isolated muscles
What are 5 things that the evaluation of posture of a pediatric patient can tell you?
weakness, tone, ROM limitations, asymmetry, and developmental positions
What 3 things do you look at in a pediatric patient when evaluating toeing-in?
1-femoral anteversion (look at hip IR to ER and the position of the patella to the foot)
2-tibial torsion (look at the thigh-foot angle and the position of the patella to the tibia)
3-metatarsus adductus (observe if there is extensive adduction of the forefoot)
1) What is the accuracy for the disability prediction of acute ankle sprains?
2) When is this test performed?
1) + or - 3 days
2) 3 days post injury
1) What is objective, measurable assessment of an ability inherit to the activity of concern to assess the healthcare team in determining the capabilities of the subject and their readiness for return to an environment with intrinsic risk? 2) What kind of tests are generally used for this?
1) functional testing
2) static or dynamic tests that attempt to recreate the forces a person will encounter with return to sport
1) Is static laxity predictive of dynamic stability? 2) What is probably the best indicator to predict readiness to implement functional testing?
1) not necessarily
2) subjective ratings (self-report)
What are 7 requirements for functional testing eligibility?
1-adequate time for physiological healing
2-controllable or no effusion
4-full ROM and joint stability
5-pain-free ADL function and normal gait
6-lack of subject apprehension
7-adequate practice of skill or task to be evaluated
What are the 3 general guidelines of functional testing?
2-3 trials and then 3 tests
3-best measure of the 3 tests is recorded
What are the 6 functional test categories?
1-jump-hop tests (power)
3-static/dynamic balance tests
4-agility tests (performance)
5-functional movement patterns
6-self-report outcome tools
1) What is the difference between a jump test and a hop test? 2) Which hop test is a strong predictor of vertical jump height?
3) What is the expectation of the distance of the single limb hop test?
1) Jump test: the pt jumps off of one limb and lands on both
Hop test: the pt jumps off of one limb and lands on the same limb
2) single leg triple hop
3) 90-100% of height (10% for single leg take off)
1) What % does the hip contribute to vertical jump? 2) The knee? 3) The ankle?
1) What type of injury should the vertical jump test be used for? 2) What type of injury should the standing long jump or distance jumping be used for?
1) knee injury
2) ankle injury
1) What % does the hip contribute to the standing long jump? 2) The knee?
3) The ankle?
1) What kind of sensitivity and specificity does hop testing have? 2) What is the problem with this? 3) How is it improved?
4) What kind of testing has the best results for ACL subjects?
1) high specificity and low sensitivity
2) too many subjects can be identified as normal
3) cluster testing (combined single leg hop and timed hop improved sensitivity)
4) a vertical, side and broad tests had high sensitivity
In the step down test, what is the 6 point rating scale?
1-adequate trunk control
2-adequate hip control
3-adequate knee control (one point for tibial tuberosity staying medial to 2nd metatarsal and one point for medial to medial border of the foot)
5-adequate STJ control
1) What should the combination of the 3 directions of the star excursion balance reach test be equal to? 2) What are the norms for t-tests in young athletic males? 3) In young athletic females?
1) the pt's height
2) 10.7 s
3) 13.0 s
1) What is the purpose of the functional movement screen (FMS)? 2) What do the seven tests require? 3) How is it scored? 4) What 3 things does this test incorporate? 5) What is a normal score for a young, healthy person? 6) What score is predictive of injury?
1) assess fundamental movement patterns to identify limitations or asymmetries
2) muscle strength, flexibility, ROM, coordination, balance and proprioception
3) on a scale of 0-3 (0 is unable to perform and 3 is normal) with a total of 21 possible points
4) stability, controlled mobility and proprioceptive balance
5) 15-16 points
1) What is pain within 30 seconds indicative of with a single limb stance?
2) What does the single leg squat identify?
1) gluteal tendinopathy
2) weaker and slower firing of hip abductors
1) What should be the first thing you do when performing a wheelchair assessment? 2) What parts make up the wheelchair?
1) describe the "user" (can they be independent?, small or large? environment?)
2) back, seat, arm rests, leg rests, foot rests, wheels, and casters
1) What are the options for the back and seat of a wheelchair? 2) For the armrests?
3) Leg rests? 4) Wheels?
1) upholstery or molded
2) full length, desk length, wrap around
3) attached, swing-away detachable, elevating
4) solid rubber, semi pneumatic, pneumatic
1) What are the options for the foot rests of a wheelchair? 2) The casters?
1) solid (moveable or not moveable), heel straps, molded
2) solid rubber, semi pneumatic, pneumatic (and small or large)
1) What is the standard size of the seat for the narrow adult wheelchair? 2) For a normal adult? 3) How do you get the total width of the wheelchair?
1) 16" wide seat
2) 18" wide seat
3) add 8-10" to the width of the seat to get the total width of the chair
1) How should the pt be seated in order to measure them for a WC? 2) What measurement do you take for the seat width? 3) Depth? 4) Height? 5) The back of the chair?
1) firm surface with no back support, 90 degree hip and knee angle, feet flat on the floor, dressed in most common clothes
2) hip to hip + 1 inch
3) hip to bend in knee - 2 inches
4) sole of the shoe to the bend in the knee (add 2 inches if they will have their feet resting on the foot plates and subtract the height of the cushion)
5) buttock to the top of the shoulder and decide how much lower the back can be made (consider trunk balance and muscle control)
1) What is the amount of tilt of the wheels on a wheelchair towards the center? 2) What is the standard? 3) What is the standard of the hanger angle (leg rest hang)?
1) wheel camber
2) 3 degrees
3) 60 degrees
1) Where should you measure the wheelchair to determine where the COG is? 2) What individuals need a WC home assessment?
1) the front of the seat back to the center of the rear axel
2) people who are experiencing a permanent change in mobility
1) When doing a home WC assessment, what should you consider in the garage?
2) What about if there is no garage?
1) once parked, can the door open wide enough for a WC transfer...will the WC fit b/w 2 cars for rolling into the house? How many and how high are the steps leading into the home...room for a ramp....a place to insert grab bars?
2) bad weather plan? is it easier to enter the front, back or side door (check door handle and locking mechanism), look at the path leading to the home (needs to be 4 feet wide to accommodate WC)
1) For WC ramps, how do you determine how long to make them? 2) How wide should they be? 3) How high should the handrails be and how for should they extend beyond the top and bottom ends of the slope? 4) When should you build a ramp?
1) 12" of run for every 1" in rise
2) 36 " of clearance
3) 32 " high and they should extend 12"
4) for any step greater than 1"
1) When doing a WC assessment for the home, how wide do doors need to be?
2) What height should the doorknobs be?
3) What should be considered when looking at exits?
1) a minimum of 32" but ideally 36"
2) 36" or lower
3) ideally there should be 2 exits and if emergencies occur the pt should need minimal assistance to independence to exit
1) In WC home assessment, how much room should be between pieces of furniture for maneuvering? 2) How much floor space is needed to turn around?
3) What should be the dimensions of the sink?
1) at least 36"
3) 17" from rear wall, 29" bottom clearance, 34" height limit (if the sink is in a cabinet it should be placed within 2" of the edge of the cabinet)
1) In WC home assessment, how tall should the counters be? 2) And the depth?
2) 24" depth (only the first 16" are useable from a WC)
1) What are the myotomes for C5-T1?
1) C5-elbow flexion
C8-finger flexion and ulnar deviation
T1- finger abd/add
2) L2-hip flexion
L5-great toe extension
1) In sway back posture, what muscles are lengthened and which are shortened?
2) Flat back posture?
1) lower abdominals and hip flexors are lengthened; upper abdominals and hip extensors are shortened
2) lower back erector spine are lengthened and anterior abdominals are shortened
1) What is affected on the side of a person's dominant hand? 2) In scoliosis, how many curves are ALWAYS present?
3) Scoliosis is named for the location and direction of the curvature, what side is the posterior and anterior rib hump located?
1) lower shoulder, higher iliac crest, spine deviates to the opposite side
2) there is always a primary curve present but there may be a secondary or smaller balancing curve
3) the posterior rib hump is located on the side of the convexity and the anterior rib hump is located on the side of concavity
What are the cranial nerves?
1) How do you test CN I and what should you be observing? 2) CN II ? 3) CN III ? 4) CN IV ? 5) CN V ? 6) CN VI ?
1) eyes closed smell 2-3 x (abnormal if can't smell)
2) acuity (snellen chart) and peripheral fields (observe pupil asymmetry)
3) gaze "H" convergence, light reaction (abnormal if can't track or pupil asymmetry; observe ptosis, abnormal eye position and pupil asymmetry)
4) tracking inward and downward (abnormal is unable to track; observe abnormal eye position)
5) sharp touch to forehead, cheeks and jaw clench teeth, corneal reflex (abnormal if weak or no sensation, absence blink; observe if not able to articulate words)
6) extra-ocular movements (lateral) (abnormal if unable to track; observe abnormal eye position)
1) How do you test CN VII and what should be observed? 2) CN VIII ? 3) CN IX?
4) CN X ? 5) CN XI ? 6) CN XII ?
1) anterior 2/3 tongue taste and expression (abnormal if facial droop or unable to contract muscles; observe facial droop difficult with articulation)
2) hearing (abnormal if unable to hear or ID start stop or location of sound)
3) swallow; gag reflex (abnormal if no gag reflex and difficulty with swallowing)
4) swallow, say "ah", gag reflex (abnormal if no gag reflex or abnormal movements of palate or pharynx; observe hoarse voice, difficulty with articulation)
5) MMT upper trap and SCM (abnormal if atrophy asymmetry)
6) stick tongue out (abnormal if tongue deviates; observe difficulty with articulation)
What are the sensory or motor functions of the first 6 cranial nerves?
III-medial, superior and inferior rectus and inferior oblique motor control
IV-superior oblique motor control
V-3 divisions of pain sense in the face AND muscles of mastication
VI-lateral rectus motor control
What are the sensory or motor functions of CN VII - XII ?
VII-taste on anterior tongue sensory AND facial motor control
IX-taste on posterior tongue AND pharynx motor control
X-taste on epiglottis AND pharynx and soft palate motor control
XI-SCM and trapezius motor control
XII-tongue motor control