Conservapedia: American History 2013 - Final SG Part 1

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Transatlantic Cable
1866: after four attempts, permanent communication with Europe finally established by underground cable
Seward Purchase of Alaska
1867: Sec'y of State under Lincoln & Johnson, bought Alaska (critics described this as "Seward's Folly")
tariff issue
disputes continued after Civil War: South and West, espec. farmers, opposed tariffs; North wanted them
Exodusters
After Reconstruction, African Americans moved from South to Midwest, especially Kansas
The Grange/Oliver Kelley
1867-74: political movement to regulate prices of railroad ("Granger" politicians)
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
1869: founded National Woman Suffrage Ass'n; led Seneca Falls Convention (1848); opposed abortion
Chataugua Movement
1874: knowledge revolution founded in NY; promoted adult education and combined it with entertainment
Chief Joseph/Nez Perce
1877: Oregon and Idaho, Indians outwit feds but then relocate to Oklahoma, which has large Indian populat.
Bessemer Process
1870s: new process made steel easy to produce
Munn v. Illinois
1877: upholds state regulation of public facility (grain warehouse), energized populist movement
Workingmen's Party
1877-80: socialist, workers, anti-Chinese party led by Dennis Kearney, imprisoned for provocative speeches
Edison/light bulb
1879: Menlo Park; 1882 lights New York; by 1898 there were 3,000 electrical generators nationwide
Bland-Allison Act
1878: federal govt agrees to buy $2M-$4M of silver/mth, to increase inflation & silver prices
Standard Oil Trust
1879-1911: America's biggest monopoly, it controlled almost 95% of the oil industry until broken up by Supreme Ct.
Booker T. Washington
self-taught former slave; urged self-help, accommodation with others; founded Tuskegee Institute for research
James Garfield
1880: "dark horse" Republican nominated as a compromise between Stalwarts & moderates, assassinated
Stalwarts
conservative Republicans who favored the "spoils system." Included former Radical Republicans. Led by Sen. Roscoe Conkling of NY, who resigned in protest when Garfield appointed anti-Stalwart to key govt job
Chester Arthur
1881-84: Stalwart, abolitionist, NY attorney, never elected before or after, ineffective
Pendleton Act
1883: estab. examination system for federal jobs, passed due to Garfield's assassination, Dem wins in 1882
Civil Service Commission
bipartisan committee to administer federal exams, victory for "reform" of government employment system
Helen Hunt Jackson
1881: published book called "A Century of Dishonor", which cited unjust treatment of Indians by U.S.
Chinese Exclusion Act
1882: Culmination of 30 years of growing racism against Chinese immigrants, who were thought to lower wages. Banned Chinese from immigrating, but was later repealed in 1943 when Chinese needed to fight Japan.
Civil Rights Cases
1883: limited 14th Am to governmental actions, not private racism; ended civil rights movement until 1950s
Brooklyn Bridge
1883: cable suspension bridge in lower Manhattan, connecting it to Brooklyn, soon supported 33M persons/yr
James Blaine
Maine moderate Republican Senator, opposed funding of Catholic schools, nominated for Pres. in 1884
Mugwumps
key East. Republicans who opposed James Blaine due to scandals, and supported Dem. Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland
1884: only Democrat elected president between 1860 and 1908; from New York and friendly to business Cleveland was elected for his integrity, support of gold standard, opposition to unions and fed spending
American Federat. of Labor (AFL)
1886: founded by Samuel Gompers, demanded 8-hour workday, was non-political, had 1M by 1901
Haymarket Square riot
1886: embarrassed union movement because their demands for 8-hour-day led to riots killing policemen
Yick Wo v. Hopkins
1886: Chinese immigrants win, invalidate San Fran. law limiting laundries to be only in stone or brick buildings
Interstate Commerce Act
1887: establishes federal agency or commission to regulate trade among states, espec. the railroads
Dawes Act
1887: granted landholdings (allotments, usually 160 acres/65 hectares) to individual Native Americans, replacing communal tribal holdings. It sought to absorb tribe members into the general public. The Dawes Act was a failure: within decades most of the tribal land had become owned by non-Indians
Jane Addams/Hull House
argued for reform of city government by involvement of women
Williamsport, Pennsylvania
late 1800s: wealthiest city in the U.S. because as center of the lumber industry; now hosts Little League
Benjamin Harrison
1888: Repub. Pres. from Indiana: favored protective tariffs, veterans pay, but lost Cong. to Dems. in 1890
US Census Bureau declares that
1890: the frontier has been settled and is officially closed
Sherman Antitrust Act
1890: prohibited companies from having monopolistic behavior, but failed in goal to break up huge trusts
John Sherman
Ohio Congressman who sponsored the Sherman Antitrust Act, brother of General Roger Sherman
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
1890: required govt. to buy 4.5M ounces of silver monthly, but the price of silver still fell, hurting miners
McKinley Tariff
1890: estab. highest tariffs ever, but made sugar duty-free; prices increase
Alfred Thayer Mahan
1890: wrote books on sea power and urged strong navy and imperialism by United States
Homestead Strike
1892: near Pittsburgh, guards hired by Carnegie's company suppress strike and end riots, 10 killed
Frederick Jackson Turner
1893: wrote that frontier experience promoted individualism & democracy
Panic of 1893
1893: hundreds of banks and businesses failed, President Grover Cleveland did nothing
Queen Liliuokalani
Hawaii leader recognized only natives, opposed joining U.S.; Americans on island then dethroned her (1893)
National Municipal League
1894: leaders form group to make city gov't more honest,efficient, effective. Now the National Civic League
Coxey's Army
1894: march on D.C. for poor led by wealthy Ohio populist, Jacob Coxey
Wilson-Gorman Tariff
1894: adds income tax of Supreme Court invalidated it; also protected big business w/ tariffs
Mr. Eugene V. Debs
headed Am. Railway Union, jailed for leading strike against Pullman railroad cars in 1894 over wages
Pollack v. Farmers Loan & Trust
1895: declared Income Tax Act of 1894 unconstitutional because not apportioned by population per Constit.
Atlanta Exposition/Compromise
1895: Booker T. Washington addresses racially diverse audience to urge cooperation, accommodation
U.S. v. Knight Co.
1895: weakens power of Sherman Antitrust Act by upholding powerful Sugar Trust, which held 98% of market
In re Debs
1895: Sup. Ct. upheld judicial power to prohibit strikes against railroads, jail those who disobey (like Debs)
condition to admit Utah as state
1896: must accept traditional marriage and ban practice of polygamy (multiple wives for one husband)
Plessy v. Ferguson
1896: upheld "separate but equal" racial segregation in facilities, schools, R/Rs; later overturned in 1954
William Jennings Bryan
Oposed high tariffs, united Dems and Populists, lost '96, '00, '08, but secured nomination for Wilson. Became Secretary of State under Wilson, but resigned in moral opposition to WWI. Best known for advocating "free silver" and Prohibition, and opposing U.S. imperialism and evolution.
"Cross of Gold Speech"
1896: famous speech by Bryan at the Dem. Convention: favored silver, don't crucify mankind on cross of gold
Populist Party/Platform
secret ballot, direct elect. Senators, referenda; bank reform; govt owned R/R; graduated inc. tax, pro-silver
High point of Populist Party/Platform
William Jennings Bryan nominated 1896 based on Cross of Gold speech: inflation to help farmers
Populist Party/Platform ended because...
economic conditions improved and because of the Spanish-American War (note how wars often end polit. parties)
William McKinley
1896: Ohio Repub. elected President, favored gold standard; assassin. in 1901 by an unemployed anarchist
Spanish American War
1898: war to free Cuba; we crush Sp. Navy; Teddy Roosevelt wins; we get Guam, Philippines & Puerto Rico
de Lome letter
Spanish diplomat called McKinley a "low politician", caused outrage against Spain, incited Sp.-Am. War
U.S.S. Maine
1898: exploded in Havana harbor, media improperly blamed it on Spain, which started the Sp.-Am. War
Rough Riders
1898: Teddy Roosevelt's regiment that invaded Cuba and won quick battles to free Cuba
Joseph Pulitzer
1890s: publisher of New York World, circulation war w/ William Randolph Hearst who published NY Journal
"Yellow Journalism"
1890s: sensationalistic, imperialistic journalism, named for comic "Yellow Kid"; caused Span.-Am. War