Conservapedia: American History 2013 - Final SG Part 2

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Teller Amendment
added to the Sp.-Am. War resolution to promise self-determination for Cuba
Commander George Dewey
1898: snuck into Manila Bay in Philippines and destroyed entire Spanish Pacific Fleet in Spanish-Am. war
Treaty of Paris
1898: ended Sp.-Am. War: Sp. leaves Cuba, we buy Philippines for $20M, we also get Guam & Puerto Rico
Open Door Policy
1899: policy of open, free trade with China by all nations, which boosts trade and ends spheres of influence
Foraker Act
1900: gives some self-government to Puerto Rico, which by now is a U.S. territory
Boxer Rebellion
1900: Chinese rebellion against Western imperialism in China is suppressed
Platt Amendment
1901: inserted into Cuban Constit. right of US to consent to treaties & intervene; gave US Guantanamo Bay
Theodore Roosevelt
1901-9: Repub. Pres., former Sp.-Am. war hero, trustbuster, increased regulations, similar to progressive movement
Hay-Pauncefote Treaty
1901: US-English treaty authorizing US to build neutral canal in Central America
Venezuela boundary dispute
1902: British and Germany blockaded, but Teddy Roosevelt got them to withdraw
Newlands Reclamation Act
1902: federal assistance to irrigate Western land for farmers and ranchers
The Philippines
bloody insurrection against US control, fighting continued until 1902 when US killed most insurgents
Women's Trade Union League
1903: founded for women workers because they were excluded from AFL at its mtg in Boston
Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty
1903: treaty with Panama to give US five miles wide to build Panama Canal, for $10M + $250k/yr
Northern Securities Co. v. U.S.
1904: Sup. Ct. resurrects Sherman Antitrust Act to break up railroad trust, Roosevelt's popularity soars
Russo-Japanese War
1904-05: Japan beats Russia on Chinese soil, but Roosevelt rejects Japan's demand for reparations
Lochner v. New York
1905: Sup. Ct. invalidates state regulation of working conditions, rule later became obstacle to New Deal
Hepburn Act
1906: strengthened fed regulation of railroad by Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
The Jungle
1906: book by Upton Sinclair exposed filthy conditions of Chicago slaughterhouses, caused Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act
Meat Inspection Act
1906: estab. fed regulation, inspection of slaughterhouses
Pure Food and Drug Act
1906: estab. fed regulation, inspection of food and drugs
Muckrakers
early 1900s: journalists who sensationalized the bad parts of big business and machine politics
Treaty of Portsmouth
June 1905: Roosevelt invited Japan & Russia to conference; Japan expanded its influence in Far East
Taft-Katsura Agreement
1905: Secy of War Taft recognizes Japan's dominance in Korea; Japan promises not to invade the Philippines
Susan B. Anthony
1906: died after long career advocating right for women to vote; supported Prohibition, opposed abortion
Gentleman's Agt. re: Japan
1907: excluded Japanese immigrants (note that even the Progressives opposed immigration)
Root-Takahira Agreement
1908: Sec. of State Root signed treaty w/ Japan, kept status quo, Open Door, Japan can annex Korea
Muller v. Oregon
1908: Sup. Ct. upheld working hours limitation for women (feminists today oppose this type of privilege)
Paine-Aldrich Tariff
1909: decreased tariff rates
Mann-Elkins Act
1910: empowered Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to suspend shipper rate increase
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
1911: NYC fire killed most until 9/11 attack; locked exits blocked escape, led to passage of stricter codes
progressive movement
1900-17: social reformers to combat urban problems created by growth, usually worked within other parties. Examples: Roosevelt, Wilson, Robert La Follette (WI), Lincoln Steffens, Ida Tarbell, Upton Sinclair. Example legislation: Pure Food and Drug Laws (1906), Federal Reserve System (1913); ended w/ WWI
William Howard Taft
Repub. Pres. 1909-13, conservative who lowered tariffs, used executive restraint; later became Chief Justice
Progressive (Bull Moose) Party
founded by Teddy Roosevelt in 1912 because he was angry at President Taft; split allowed Democ. to win
Woodrow Wilson
1913-1921 Dem. Pres., progressive who started federal reserve, wanted to make world safe for democracy
Underwood Tariff
Oct. 1913: brought 1st significant reduction of duties since Civil War; graduated income tax replaces revenue
Dillingham Commission
1913: recommends limits on immigration, especially from Eastern and Southern Europe
17th Amendment
1913: modified Constitution to allow for the direct election of Senators
16th Amendment
1913: establishes federal income tax, overrules Pollack v. Farmers Loan and Trust
Federal Reserve Act
1913: gives country central banking system for the 1st time since Jackson destroyed the Bank of U.S.
Triple Alliance
1882-1914: secret military alliance between Italy, Germany and Austria-Hungary that led to World War I
Triple Entente
1907: France, Great Britain and Russia ally themselves based on several treaties that led to World War I
Archduke Ferdinand
June 1914: his assassination in Bosnia started WWI
Clayton-Antitrust Act
1914: expanded antitrust law: banned price discrimination, tying agreements, & interlocking directors among competitors
Federal Trade Commission Act
1914: established Commission to investigate unfair trade practices, issued cease & desist orders
Guinn v. U.S.
1915: Sup Ct. used 15th Am to strike "grandfather clauses" that interfered with voting by slave descendants
Lusitania
1915: German submarine sunk British passenger ship carrying Americans, 128 Am. died and public outraged
National Defense Act
1916: military preparedness program, expanded army, Nat'l Guard, estab. ROTC at colleges
Federal Farm Loan Act
1916: provided for the establishment of Boards to provide loans to farmers and ranchers, later to homebuyers
Sussex Pledge
1916: after its sub sunk unarmed steamer "Sussex", Germans vowed to stop, but began sinking again in 1917
Urban League
1916: worked to eliminate discrimination and perform social work in large cities
"Peace Without Victory"
Jan. 1917: Pres. Wilson addresses Senate, seeks settlement of WWI with 'peace without victory'; failed
Jones Act
1917: creates territorial status for Puerto Rico and gives their residents citizenship
Zimmermann telegram
1917: German foreign minister sends telegram promising return of Southwest to Mexico if it invades US
Selective Service Act
1917: forces males 18-25 register for WWI
Espionage Act
1917: fines 10k, jail 20 yrs of persons aiding enemy, US mails can ban material treasonable
World War I
Congress declared war in April 1917, fighting lasted until 1918
Lever Act
1917: allowed President to set price of wheat, used by later by Hoover to combat Great Depression
Trading with the Enemy Act
1917: gives Pres power to stop financial transactions in wartime,now used to restrict travel,trade re: Cuba
Bolsheviks
1917: led Russian revolution, founded Communism that later spread to much of the world
Sedition Act
May 1918: illegalized speaking out to discourage war bond purchases
Fourteen Points
Jan. 1918: guarantee freedom of seas, facilitate int'l trade, reduce arms, stop colonialism and secret treaties, Russian territory to be restored, Alsace-Lorraine returned to France, League of Nations to oversee world
National War Labor Board
Apr. 1918: Wilson puts Taft and Frank P. Walsh in charge, purpose to settle labor disputes
Overman Act
1918: gave President extraordinary powers to coordinate govt agencies in wartime
Schenck v. U.S.
1919: upheld prosecution for speech creating "clear and present danger" to nat'l interest of enlisting soldiers
Abrams v. U.S.
1919: sustained convictions under Espionage Act for leafletting against American opposition to Russian Revolution
Debs v. U.S.
1919: indictment upheld based on speech using words tending to obstruct the recruiting service
Treaty of Versailles
June 28, 1919: surrender of German territory, reparations, Allied occupation, Germans admit guilt. The treaty largely rejects 14 points, but has role for League of Nations; U.S. Senate never ratified the treaty
Prohibition supporters
Women's Christian Temperance Union, also Anti-Saloon League
19th Amendment
1920: guaranteed women the right to vote under the Constitution (women already voted in some states)