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entrance of digestive system; both mechanical and chemical digestion begin here
throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx
small flap that closes entrance to trachea during digestion
muscular tube that carries bolus from mouth to stomach
muscle between the esophagus and stomach, prevents acidic gastric juices from flowing up into esophagus
located between stomach and small intestine, controls the movement of partially, digested food.
majority of digestion takes place in here, divided into three parts
first part of small intestines, most digestion takes place, chemicals released from liver, gall bladder, and pancreas
second part of small intestines, absorbs nutrients from digested food
last part of small intestines, absorbs enzymes and anything left over by jejunum
Ring of muscles that are between the ileum and the cecum (first part of the large intestine)
receives and eliminates waste products from small intestines, absorbs water from remaining bolus
muscle after the large intestines, temporary storage for feces (stool)
end of digestive tract, opening where feces are expelled
the method used in the esophagus and small intestines to move bolus through
pepsinogen and HCl
two main chemicals released in stomach
organ that produced bile
process in which bile breaks down fat
secretes pancreatic juice into the duodenum, where it mixes with bile to digest food; also produces sodium bicarbonate, a base that neutralizes stomach acid
organ that stores bile
very small blood vessels that absorb nutrients
hepatic portal system
brings blood from digestive system to liver for processing
released in stomach, reacts with HCl to create pepsin
The inactive form of pepsin that is first secreted by specialized (chief) cells located in gastric pits of the stomach.
the process of taking food into the body through the mouth (as by eating)
The breakdown of complex organic molecules into smaller components by physical and chemical means
the taking up of digested molecules into the cells of the digestive tract
the removal of waste food materials from the body
Protein digestion - turns proteins into small polypeptides
Also: an enzyme present in gastric juice that begins the hydrolysis of proteins in the stomach
Enzyme that breaks down fat droplets (emulsified) into: glycerol, fatty acids, and glycerides
Carbohydrate digestion - turns polysaccharides (starch, glycogen) into smaller polysaccharides (maltose)
enzyme from pancreas that breaks down starch
Nucleic acid digestion - turn DNA/RNA into nucleotides
Made in the pancreas, _______ turns small polypeptides (once protein) into smaller polypeptides in the lumen of sm. int.
Made in the pancreas, and activated by trypsin, _______ also turns small polypeptides (once protein) into smaller polypeptides in the lumen of sm. int.
enzyme that breaks down maltose in the small intestin
enzyme that breaks down sucrose into monosaccharides in the lumen of the small intestine
enzyme that breaks down lactose into monosaccharides in the lumen of the small intestine
waste product, mostly cellulose, e. coli, water, and bilirubin
food that is regurgitated for more mechanical digestion (common for cows, rabbits, etc.)
A small lymph vessel located inside of the villi of the small intestine
forms a bolus (ball) out of the chewed food + pushes it to the back of the mouth into the pharynx
protects stomach lining from acid, w/o it would be stomach ulcers
a food substance that provides bulk but is not digested, healthy colon
releases saliva into the mouth
where digestive fluids are added and most of the chemical digestion occurs
why is the duodenum important?
Through emulsification, _______ disperses fat globules into droplets of fat.
absorbs nutrients into the bloodstream; folds in small intestine that make larger area for food absorption into the blood
paste of food made by physical digestion in the stomach
Tube shaped organ at the top of the trachea
another name for salivary amylase
Q-How long does food stay in your stomach for?
Q-Stomach lining is replaced every...
Q-What is the largest internal organ of the body?
what enzyme is found in the large intestines that breaks up cellulose, or plant material?
produce digestive enzymes that break down cellulose; unable to in humans b/c we have a tiny ______
Enzyme that breaks down proteins
Nucleic acid digestion - turn nucleotides into nucleosides
Nucleic acid digestion - turn nucleosides into: nitrogenous bases, sugar, and phosphates
hormone produced in the stomach wall that stimulates sustained secretion of gastric juice
enzymes, mucus and acid secreted from stomach glands
large intestine doesn't absorb water
large intestine absorbs too much water