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62 terms

Digestion

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mouth
entrance of digestive system; both mechanical and chemical digestion begin here
pharynx
throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx
epiglottis
small flap that closes entrance to trachea during digestion
esophagus
muscular tube that carries bolus from mouth to stomach
cardiac sphincter
muscle between the esophagus and stomach, prevents acidic gastric juices from flowing up into esophagus
pyloric sphincter
located between stomach and small intestine, controls the movement of partially, digested food.
small intestines
majority of digestion takes place in here, divided into three parts
duodenum
first part of small intestines, most digestion takes place, chemicals released from liver, gall bladder, and pancreas
jejunum
second part of small intestines, absorbs nutrients from digested food
ileum
last part of small intestines, absorbs enzymes and anything left over by jejunum
ileocecal sphincter
Ring of muscles that are between the ileum and the cecum (first part of the large intestine)
large intestines
receives and eliminates waste products from small intestines, absorbs water from remaining bolus
rectum
muscle after the large intestines, temporary storage for feces (stool)
anus
end of digestive tract, opening where feces are expelled
peristalsis
the method used in the esophagus and small intestines to move bolus through
pepsinogen and HCl
two main chemicals released in stomach
liver
organ that produced bile
emulsification
process in which bile breaks down fat
pancreas
secretes pancreatic juice into the duodenum, where it mixes with bile to digest food; also produces sodium bicarbonate, a base that neutralizes stomach acid
gall bladder
organ that stores bile
capillaries
very small blood vessels that absorb nutrients
hepatic portal system
brings blood from digestive system to liver for processing
pepsinogen
released in stomach, reacts with HCl to create pepsin

The inactive form of pepsin that is first secreted by specialized (chief) cells located in gastric pits of the stomach.
ingestion
the process of taking food into the body through the mouth (as by eating)
digestion
The breakdown of complex organic molecules into smaller components by physical and chemical means
absorption
the taking up of digested molecules into the cells of the digestive tract
egestion
the removal of waste food materials from the body
pepsin
Protein digestion - turns proteins into small polypeptides

Also: an enzyme present in gastric juice that begins the hydrolysis of proteins in the stomach
lipase
Enzyme that breaks down fat droplets (emulsified) into: glycerol, fatty acids, and glycerides
salivary amylase
Carbohydrate digestion - turns polysaccharides (starch, glycogen) into smaller polysaccharides (maltose)
pancreatic amylase
enzyme from pancreas that breaks down starch
nucleases
Nucleic acid digestion - turn DNA/RNA into nucleotides
trypsin
Made in the pancreas, _______ turns small polypeptides (once protein) into smaller polypeptides in the lumen of sm. int.
chymotrypsin
Made in the pancreas, and activated by trypsin, _______ also turns small polypeptides (once protein) into smaller polypeptides in the lumen of sm. int.
maltase
enzyme that breaks down maltose in the small intestin
sucrase
enzyme that breaks down sucrose into monosaccharides in the lumen of the small intestine
lactase
enzyme that breaks down lactose into monosaccharides in the lumen of the small intestine
feces
waste product, mostly cellulose, e. coli, water, and bilirubin
ruminates
food that is regurgitated for more mechanical digestion (common for cows, rabbits, etc.)
lacteal
A small lymph vessel located inside of the villi of the small intestine
tongue
forms a bolus (ball) out of the chewed food + pushes it to the back of the mouth into the pharynx
mucus
protects stomach lining from acid, w/o it would be stomach ulcers
fiber
a food substance that provides bulk but is not digested, healthy colon
salivary gland
releases saliva into the mouth
where digestive fluids are added and most of the chemical digestion occurs
why is the duodenum important?
bile
Through emulsification, _______ disperses fat globules into droplets of fat.
villi
absorbs nutrients into the bloodstream; folds in small intestine that make larger area for food absorption into the blood
chyme
paste of food made by physical digestion in the stomach
Larynx
Tube shaped organ at the top of the trachea
Ptyalin
another name for salivary amylase
4-6 hours
Q-How long does food stay in your stomach for?
3 days
Q-Stomach lining is replaced every...
Liver
Q-What is the largest internal organ of the body?
e. coli
what enzyme is found in the large intestines that breaks up cellulose, or plant material?
secum
produce digestive enzymes that break down cellulose; unable to in humans b/c we have a tiny ______
protease
Enzyme that breaks down proteins
nucleotidases
Nucleic acid digestion - turn nucleotides into nucleosides
nucleosidases
Nucleic acid digestion - turn nucleosides into: nitrogenous bases, sugar, and phosphates
gastrin
hormone produced in the stomach wall that stimulates sustained secretion of gastric juice
gastric juices
enzymes, mucus and acid secreted from stomach glands
diarrhea
large intestine doesn't absorb water
constipation
large intestine absorbs too much water