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Psychometrics final '13
Terms in this set (54)
An accumulation of EVIDENCE that a test is based on sound psychological theory and therefore measures what it is suppose to measure; Evidence that a test relates to other test and behaviors as predicted by a theory.
The extent to which the question on a test are representative of the material that should be covered by a test.
Evidence that test scores correlate with or predict independent behaviors, attitudes, or events; the extent to which the scores on a test correlate with scores on a measure of performances of behavior.
Criterion -related validity
The perception of the test taker that the test measures what it is supposed to measure.
A statement, question, or partial sentence that is the stimulus in a multiple-choice question
The incorrect response to a multiple-choice question.
A scientific investigation of a new test's reliability and validity for its specified purpose
Research tools that collect information to describe and compare people's attitudes (how they feel), knowledge( What they know), and behaviors(what they do).
A method for establishing evidence of validity based on a tests relationship with other variables in which test administration and criterion measurements happen at roughly the same time.
When the criterion in a validation study measures more dimensions than those measured by a test.
The statistical process used to predict ONE set of test scores from one set of criterion scores
The process in which more than one set of test scores is used to predict one set of criterion scores
The place where the regression line crosses the Y AXIS
The expected change in one unit of Y for every change in X on the regression line
These steps for defining or explaining a psychological construct.
an educated guess or prediction based on a theory
One of two strategies for demonstrating construct validity showing that constructs that theoretically should be related are indeed related; evidence that test scores are not correlated with unrelated constructs
One of two strategies for demonstrating construct validity showing that constructs that theoretically should be related are indeed related (evidence that scores on a test correlate strongly with scores on other test that measure the same construct).
An advanced statistical procedure based on the concept of correlation that helps investigators identify the underlying constructs or factors being measured.
A statistical test of significance that provides evidence that the factors obtained empirically in a confirmatory factor analysis are similar to those proposed theoretically.
A plan for developing a new test that specifics the characteristics if the test, including a definition of the constructs and the content to be measured.
Test that are structured and require test takers to respond to structured EX; True or false, rating scales Multiple choice questions
Objective test formats
A test format that does not have a response that is designated as "correct", interpretation of response as correct or providing evidence of a specific construct is left to the judgment of the person who administers, scores or interprets the test takers responsive: essay test
Subjective test formats
A test-scoring model that assumes the more the test takers respond in a particular fashion. (1 point for each "correct" answer, and the total number of correct answers becomes the raw score).
Cumulative Model of scoring:
A test-scoring model that places test takers in a particular group or class.
Categorical Model Of Scoring
A test-scoring model that compares the test takers score on various scales within the inventory to yield a profile.
• Ipsative Model of scoring
An objective test format that consists of a question or practical sentence, called a stem followed by a number of responses only one of which is correct.
multiple choice questions
A type of psychological test in which the response requirements are unclear so as to encourage test takers to create responses that describe the thoughts and emotions they are experiencing.
A test item format that requires the test taker to choose one of tow or more words or phrases that appear to be unrelated but are equally acceptable.
Popular SUBJECTIVE TEST items in educational settings that are usually general in scope and require lengthy written responses by test takers.
The tendency of some test takers to agree with any ideas or behaviors presented.
The tendency of some test takers to provide or choose answers that are socially acceptable or that present them in a favorable light.
The inclination of some test takers to try to answer items in a way the will cause a desired outcome or diagnosis.
A statistic that describes the relationship between tow dichotomous variables.
The line that results when we graph the probability of answering an item correctly with the level of ability on the construct being measured. (Graph provides a picture of both the items difficulty and discrimination).
• Item characteristic curve (ICC)
The percentage of test takers who answer a question correctly.
• Item Difficulty
A theory that relates the performance of each item to a statistical estimate of the test takers ability on the construct being measured
• Item response theory
A clinical interview that has few predetermined questions, instead, the assessor's questions are more likely to be determined by the client's response.
non-directive clinical interview
a self-report personality inventory consisting of 550 items that describe feelings or actions which the person is asked to agree with or disagree with; many scales estimating traits and qualities of personality have been developed using MMPI items
A special branch of psychology that concentrates on the relation between how the brain functions and the behaviors it produces.
A statistic that compares the performance of those who made very high test scores with the performance of those who made very low test scores on each item.
Decisions that points for divining test scores into pass/fail groupings.
A matrix that displays the correlation of each item with every other item.
Assessments that measures a student's ability to apply in REAL -WORLD settings the knowledge and skills he or she has learned.
Assessments that involve determining what students do and do not know; these are typically used to assign grades.
• Summative assessments
Assessments that are used to determine whether students have the skills or knowledge necessary to understand new material and to determine how much information students already know about the new material.
• Placement assessments
Assessments that involves an in- depth evaluation of an individual to identify characteristics for treatment or enhancement.
• Diagnostic Assessments
Test that determine how well an individual's achievements compares with the achievements of others ( distinguishes b/w high and low achievers).
• Norm -referenced tests
Test that involve comparing an individual's test score with an objectively stated standard of achievement such as being able to multiply numbers.
• Criterion-referenced test
The model of assessments in which psychological test provide standardized comparisons and allow the assessor to make predictions about the client's behavior outside the assessment setting so as to identify disorders and design an individualized treatment program
• Information-gathering model of assessment
The model that requires test takers to perform a particular task on which their performance is measured.
• Therapeutic model of assessment
The model of assessments in which psychological tests provide definitive answers as to whether clients as a group have responded positively to a particular therapy or intervention.
• Differential treatment model
An interview that has a predetermined set of questions in which the assessors assigns numbers or scores on their content to arrive at a diagnosis or a hiring decision.
• Structured clinical interview
The percentage of test takers who answer the question correctly
Recommended textbook explanations
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
Psychology: Principles in Practice
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Myers' Psychology for the AP Course
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