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total fertility rate (TFR)

the average number of children a woman will bear over her lifetime if current birthrates remain the same

arithmetic population density

the population of a country divided by its total land area

physiological population density

the number of people per unit of area of arable land


population count


a very large urban complex (usually involving several cities and towns)

Thomas Mathus

economist; species reproduce geometerically, food suplies reproduce arithmetically


a belief that the world is characterized by scarcity and competition in which too many
people fight for few resources. Pessimists who warn of the global ecopolitical dangers of uncontrolled population growth

doubling time

the time required for a population to double in size

rate of natural increase

Natural growth rate of a population, which is CBR
minus CDR expressed as a percentage.

crude birth rate (CBR)

the number of live births per 1000 people

crude death rate (CDR)

ratio of number of death in a year to every 1000 people.

demographic transition model

A sequence of demographic changes in which a country moves from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates through time.

infant mortality rate (IMR)

number of infant deaths before age one

child mortality rate (CMR)

number of child deaths between ages one and five

life expectancy

the number of years, on average, an individual is expected to live

expansive population policies

encourages large families because population is aging or dwindling

eugenic population policies

favors a single race or group over another

restrictive population policies

calls for a reduced birth rate


the portion of the Earth's surface that is permanently settled by humans

carrying capacity

the amount of people a specific region or environment can sustain

demographic momentum

this is the tendency for growing population to continue growing after a fertility decline because of their young age distribution.

epidemiological transition model

This is a distinctive cause of death in each stage of the demographic transition. This is important because it can explain how a countries population changes so dramatically and more.


money sent home to immigrants' families

cyclic movement

movement involving a shorter period of time away from home


practicers have no declared home and instead travel over familiar routes over long periods of time

periodic movement

involves a long period away from home and eventual return

migrant labor

foreigners who have traveled to a country for seasonal work


a system of pastoral farming in which ranchers move livestock according to the season


permanent relocation of an individual or group

international migration

permanent movement across country borders


an individual or group who is leaving a country


an individual or group who is coming into a country

internal migration

the movement of a group or individual within a country's borders

forced migration

involves the imposition of authority, which produces involuntary movement of people

voluntary migration

the movement of people by choice

Ravenstein's laws of migration

1) every migration flow generates return migration
2) the majority of migrants move a short distance
3) migrants who move long distances tend to move to big cities
4) urban residents tend to be less migratory than rural ones
5) families are less likely to make international moves than young adults

gravity model

population1 x population2 / the distance between

push factors

factors that compel an individual to move away from a place

pull factors

factors that persuade an individual to move to a new place

step migration

migration streams that appear as long, broken chains of movement

intervening opportunity

extra factors that come into play during a migration that diverts the individual from his/her destination

chain migration

occurs when an individual moves but keeps in touch with family and friends, encouraging further migration

islands of development

places within a region or country which receives the most foreign trade and labor

guest workers

a laborer who is working temporarily in a foreign country under a visa


a person who has a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion

internal refugees

people who have been displaced within their own country

international refugees

refugees displaced outside their homeland's borders


the right to protection in the first country a refugee arrives


in reference to migration, laws that place maximum limits on the number of people who can immigrate to a country each year

selective immigration

process to control immigration in which individuals with certain backgrounds are barred from immigrating

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