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50 terms

Unit 2 Terms

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total fertility rate (TFR)
the average number of children a woman will bear over her lifetime if current birthrates remain the same
arithmetic population density
the population of a country divided by its total land area
physiological population density
the number of people per unit of area of arable land
census
population count
megalopolis
a very large urban complex (usually involving several cities and towns)
Thomas Mathus
economist; species reproduce geometerically, food suplies reproduce arithmetically
Neo-Malthusians
a belief that the world is characterized by scarcity and competition in which too many
people fight for few resources. Pessimists who warn of the global ecopolitical dangers of uncontrolled population growth
doubling time
the time required for a population to double in size
rate of natural increase
Natural growth rate of a population, which is CBR
minus CDR expressed as a percentage.
crude birth rate (CBR)
the number of live births per 1000 people
crude death rate (CDR)
ratio of number of death in a year to every 1000 people.
demographic transition model
A sequence of demographic changes in which a country moves from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates through time.
infant mortality rate (IMR)
number of infant deaths before age one
child mortality rate (CMR)
number of child deaths between ages one and five
life expectancy
the number of years, on average, an individual is expected to live
expansive population policies
encourages large families because population is aging or dwindling
eugenic population policies
favors a single race or group over another
restrictive population policies
calls for a reduced birth rate
ecumene
the portion of the Earth's surface that is permanently settled by humans
carrying capacity
the amount of people a specific region or environment can sustain
demographic momentum
this is the tendency for growing population to continue growing after a fertility decline because of their young age distribution.
epidemiological transition model
This is a distinctive cause of death in each stage of the demographic transition. This is important because it can explain how a countries population changes so dramatically and more.
remittances
money sent home to immigrants' families
cyclic movement
movement involving a shorter period of time away from home
nomadism
practicers have no declared home and instead travel over familiar routes over long periods of time
periodic movement
involves a long period away from home and eventual return
migrant labor
foreigners who have traveled to a country for seasonal work
transhumance
a system of pastoral farming in which ranchers move livestock according to the season
migration
permanent relocation of an individual or group
international migration
permanent movement across country borders
emigrant
an individual or group who is leaving a country
immigrant
an individual or group who is coming into a country
internal migration
the movement of a group or individual within a country's borders
forced migration
involves the imposition of authority, which produces involuntary movement of people
voluntary migration
the movement of people by choice
Ravenstein's laws of migration
1) every migration flow generates return migration
2) the majority of migrants move a short distance
3) migrants who move long distances tend to move to big cities
4) urban residents tend to be less migratory than rural ones
5) families are less likely to make international moves than young adults
gravity model
population1 x population2 / the distance between
push factors
factors that compel an individual to move away from a place
pull factors
factors that persuade an individual to move to a new place
step migration
migration streams that appear as long, broken chains of movement
intervening opportunity
extra factors that come into play during a migration that diverts the individual from his/her destination
chain migration
occurs when an individual moves but keeps in touch with family and friends, encouraging further migration
islands of development
places within a region or country which receives the most foreign trade and labor
guest workers
a laborer who is working temporarily in a foreign country under a visa
refugees
a person who has a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion
internal refugees
people who have been displaced within their own country
international refugees
refugees displaced outside their homeland's borders
asylum
the right to protection in the first country a refugee arrives
quotas
in reference to migration, laws that place maximum limits on the number of people who can immigrate to a country each year
selective immigration
process to control immigration in which individuals with certain backgrounds are barred from immigrating