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78 terms

exam 3

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When looking at the word red printed in green ink, it is difficult to name the color of the ink. This is called
the Stroop effect.
A human that sleeps 17-18 hours per day is likely
a newborn
A change in bodily function that occurs over a 24-hour period is a(n)
circadian rhythm.
If you were to live in a cave without any time cues, how long would your average sleep/waking day probably be in hours?
25
Deprivation of sleep is used to
examine why we sleep.
The alpha brain-wave pattern is associated with
relaxed wakefulness.
REM sleep is distinguished from N-REM sleep in that
the eyes move during REM sleep.
Insomnia refers to
difficulty in sleeping enough
Narcolepsy refers to
sudden and uncontrollable onset of sleep.
Apnea is a sleep disorder involving
breathing difficulties during sleep.
Somnambulism is a sleep disorder that involves
walking while asleep.
Selective attention refers to the situation in which
you attempt to track one message and ignore another
In order for us to deal with unconscious wishes in our dreams without being threatened, Freud argued that our dreams contain
symbols of our impulses.
How do we know that the content of dreams can be influenced by motivations?
Thirsty people dream about drinking fluids.
____ are anxiety-arousing dreams that may lead to a person waking up, sometimes seemingly in order to avoid the threat that emerged in the dream.
nightmares
Which of the following is typically observed during a hypnotic episode?
A hypnotized person may experience an alteration of perception
Which of the following is true of the simulating paradigm?
It is used to determine whether hypnosis is genuine.
Hypnosis can be considered to be an altered state of consciousness because it
may result in an alteration of perception.
Susceptibility to hypnosis
varies from some people who are readily hypnotized to those who appear invulnerable to hypnosis.
The type of meditation which involves focusing your attention on an object is ____ meditation.
concentrative
Drugs that alter behavior, mood, and consciousness are termed
psychoactive.
Prolonged use of narcotics seems to
lead to lower production of particular endorphins
The function of keeping track of our relation with the environment is referred to as
monitoring.
The difficulty with naloxone as a treatment for acute narcotic toxicity is that
the effects of naloxone are short-lived.
Sensorimotor functioning is very impaired when blood alcohol level reaches a threshold dose of
0.1%
Chronic drinking can lead to
Korsakoff's syndrome
The major effect of tranquilizers is to
reduce anxiety.
Amphetamines
increase synaptic levels of brain dopamine and norepinephrine
Hallucinatory drugs likely act by
interfering with brain serotonin activity.
You are taking a test on psychology when you suddenly think of your grandmother. The image of your grandmother was stored at the
preconscious level
The struggle to remember a name that we can almost retrieve is called
the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.
Last year Jack fell off his roof and landed on the back of his head. Now he is blind. He was walking past some students playing catch when one of them threw him the ball. He caught it. This is an example of
blindsight.
Knowledge at the level of the ____ is most difficult to access.
subconscious
An altered state of consciousness involves
a change in the quality of awareness.
Evolutionary theory suggests that we sleep because
people who slept at night were less likely to be killed by nighttime predators.
The study of how people think, acquire knowledge, imagine, plan, and solve problems is called ____ psychology.
cognitive
Psychologists say that people go through four phases in solving a problem. Which of the following is one of the four phases?
generating one or more hypotheses
A mechanical, repetitive mathematical procedure for solving a problem is known as a/an
algorithm.
High creativity seems to be
tied to knowing a lot about a particular topic.
The tendency to assume that if an item is similar to members of a particular category, it is probably a member of that category itself, is known as the
representativeness heuristic.
You are quite sure that it rains every time you wash your car. In fact, this is probably not true, but it is most related to which heuristic?
availability
The tendency to look for evidence supporting one particular hypothesis and not considering other possibilities is known as the
confirmation bias.
The willingness to do something we wouldn't otherwise choose to do because of money or effort already spent is termed the
sunk cost effect
Transformational grammar is a
system for converting a deep structure into a surface structure
Edgar suffers a stroke on the left side of his brain and as a result has a condition characterized by inarticulate speech and difficulties using and understanding grammatical devices. This condition is known as ____ aphasia.
Broca's
The rate of progression through the stages of language ability
is approximately the same in all languages and all cultures
Which of the following would probably be the best prototype of "bird"?
robin
In those rare cases where children are not exposed to language (for example, separated from adults and growing up in a forest), they
have not developed a language of their own and learn very little language when exposed to it.
Our best evidence for the importance of early development in human language learning is the fact that
if deaf children are not exposed to some sort of sign language by age 12, they will never learn it well.
Studies of the brain areas for language in bilingual speakers indicate
that bilingual language capacity is neither more nor less lateralized than single language.
Under which of the following conditions, if any, could you move your eyes steadily, without jerky movements?
when following a moving object
According to the conceptual network approach, which of the following questions should most people be able to answer most rapidly?
Are canaries yellow?
According to the spreading activation theory, which of the following would someone be most likely to think of after hearing the word "rose"?
red
In general, our attention is drawn to
whatever is unusual given the current context.
Which of the following is an example of the attentive process?
Finding Waldo in a Where's Waldo book
"Change blindness" refers to the phenomenon that
people looking at a scene often fail to notice something that changes
During the moment after perceiving one stimulus, it is difficult to accurately perceive a second stimulus. This is called the
attentional blink.
The gradual development of expertise in a given field requires an increase in
crystallized intelligence.
The psychometric approach to intelligence proposes that:
intelligence is a mental capacity that can be measured by analyzing performance on mental tests
The degree to which a test samples broadly across the domain of interest refers to the test's:
content validity
Standardized tests are tests that:
have testing, scoring and interpretation procedures that do not vary across different administrations of the test
Binet's original IQ test was designed to:
identify children who would do poorly in traditional schools
Based on the intelligence quotient formula developed by Lewis Terman, an individual with a mental age greater than his or her chronological age would have:
an IQ greater than 100
Dorinda tells you that her 12-year-old cousin recently completed an intelligence test that translated raw scores into deviation IQ scores. Dorinda knows that her cousin's deviation IQ score was 75, but she is not sure what this means. You should tell her that her cousin:
scored below the mean for 12-year-olds
The idea of emotional intelligence is most similar to:
Gardner's interpersonal intelligence
Tacit knowledge consists of:
unspoken rules and strategies that are rarely, if ever, taught formally
The fact that the correlation in IQ scores between monozygotic twins reared apart is lower than that between monozygotic twins reared together suggests:
environmental factors can have an influence on intellectual development
tudies comparing IQ scores of various ethnic groups have found that the mean score:
for European Americans tends to be 10-15 points higher than the mean score for African Americans
According to Raymond Cattell, fluid intelligence refers to:
the ability to solve problems, reason, and remember
Results of research with African American children adopted into white homes best supports the idea that racial difference in IQ test scores:
are significantly influenced by environmental conditions
The term used to refer to the genetically determined bounds on intellectual ability is
reaction range
Reed and Jensen designed a study to measure the speed of neural processing. They had participants sit in a darkened room and watch a video monitor. At random intervals, a checkerboard pattern would appear on the monitor, and Reed and Jensen measured the latency of P100 waves generated by the brain in response to the presentation of the pattern. The results from this study:
showed there is a correlation between P100 latency and intelligence score
Howard Gardner has suggested that:
traditional conceptions of intelligence need to be broadened to include special abilities or talents
Karina is a prima ballerina with the New York ballet company. According to Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, Karina is likely to score high in:
bodily-kinesthetic intelligence
The triarchic theory of intelligence suggests that:
any complete conceptualization of intelligence must address behavior that occurs outside laboratory settings
According to Robert Sternberg, intelligence can be divided into three major parts. These three components of intelligence are:
analytical intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence
Achievement tests are designed to measure a person's:
current level of knowledge or competence in a particular subject
Reliable tests:
produce similar scores from one administration to the next