ARCTEL VOCAB 2018-19
Terms in this set (73)
Krashen - controls amount and quality of input leaners receive
Approaches to language learning and teaching focused on the cognitive processes in the brain of the learner.
Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)
Language teaching approaches, methods, strategies, and techniques that focus on helping students develop communicative competence.
content-based instruction (CBI)
An approach to second language instruction in which content-area subjects and topics are used as the basis of instruction.
Language that is understood by the learner. Focuses on meaning first and uses simplified speech.
Oral or written language produced by a second language speaker that is comprehensible to the individual or individuals with whom he or she is communicating. Second language learners' need to produce comprehensible output pushes them to pay attention to gaps in their proficiency and thus may prompt them to notice more in the input and motivate them to learn the language they need to express their intended meanings.
The process by which individuals acquire the knowledge and practices that enable them to participate effectively in a language community. (Langman, 2008b, p. 489). Language and cultural learning are considered inseperable.
Adjusting the support offered during a teaching session to fit the child's current level of performance
perspective that focuses on the relationship between social behavior and culture
teaching for transfer
Teaching that recognizes and values the vast store of knowledge students have in their home language and that enables students to effectively draw on this knowledge when learning or learning through their new language.
Students draw on what they know in their first language. Knowing certain things about the student's first language will allow the teacher anticipate what students will have trouble with or allow them to use the students' first language to help teach the second.
zone of proximal development
In Vygotsky's theory, the range between children's present level of knowledge and their potential knowledge state if they recieve proper guidance and instruction
How do students develop proficiency in a new language?
How can different theories of language learning inform effective practice?
SLA is studied by scientists with many different backgrounds and foci. Learning about all the theories will broaden the educator's thinking about SLA.
the language form produced by speakers acquiring a second language that combines linguistic features from both their native and their new languages
academic language proficiency
A level of proficiency in English that allows students to handle demanding learning tasks with abstract concepts.
Communicative Competency Model
The model that assumes that the communication-related skills and abilities of members are what help groups overcome obstacles and achieve their goals.
written or spoken communication or debate
A category or type of literature (or of art, music, etc.) characterized by a particular form, style, or content.
a dictionary; a specialized vocabulary used in a particular field or place
The study of the structure of words
in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix)
The way bound morphemes make inflectional chanes to the word, such as number, tense and degree.
the study of the sound system of language and includes the rules that govern its spoken form
in language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
The manifestations of a single phoneme in speech
The arrangement of words and phrases to create well-formed sentences in a language.
Meaning of words, phrases and sentences
words that have the same linguistic meaning
words that have opposite meanings
words that can be included in a larger, more general category (e.g. the hyponyms car, bus, aeroplane as a form of the hypernym transport).
words that label categories, eg animal (this category includes for example dog, cat and rabbit).
characterizes a reciprocal semantic relationship between pairs of words
the coexistence of many possible meanings for a word or phrase
The relationship between words in which one or more words are part of another word
the practical use of language that includes the ability to adjust language communication according to audience and context
Use of multiple languages
In linguistics, register is one of the many styles of varieties of language. It is determined by a variety of factors, including social occasion, context, purpose, and audience. Register is also sometimes referred to as stylistic variation. The term register can also refer to degrees of formality in language.
a form of language spoken by people in a particular region or group
A language that results from the mixing of a colonizer's language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated.
A simplified form of speech developed from two or more languages
Behaviorist theory of language Acquisition
a method of language teaching which emphasises the teaching of speaking and listening before reading and writing, uses dialogues and drills, discourages use of L1, and often makes use of contrastive analysis. Prominent in the 1950s and 60s, especially in the US
Language acquisition involves interaction of environmental influences and inborn tendency to acquire language
Creative Construction Theory
Following Chomsky, innatists developed this theory. 2nd language learners follow same strategies as native speakers do.
SLA The way the the linguistic systems of two languages are compared and contrasted. Used to be thought that a comparison between a learner's L1 and L2 would predict the errors that a learner would make; the underlying assumption was a behaviorist one--that L1 interference was to blame. Many errors are now attributed to developmental causes, not interference. The best predictions of this are in the area of phonology.
A process of comparing and contrasting the structure (phonological, morphological, and syntactic rules) of two different languages to predict areas of difficulty in 2nd language development.
Krashen, Stephen L.
University of Southern California/ is an expert in the field of linguistics especially in the theories of language acquisition and development. His theory of second language consists of 5 main hypotheses. 1. Acquisition learning hypothesis 2. monitor hypothesis 3. natural order hypothesis 4. input hypothesis 5. Affective filter hypothesis
States that there are two independent ways in which we develop our linguistic skills: acquisition and learning. Acquisition of language is a subconscious process and the learner is unaware of the process taking place. Language learning is the formal and conscious study of language forms and functions as explicitly taught in foreign language classes. Once the new knowledge has been acquired, the learner is actually unaware of possessing such knowledge. This is analogous to the way in which children learn their native language. Consequently, if we accept the hypothesis then we need to spend more time using real language with our students as opposed to teaching them explicit grammar rules.
Monitor Hypothesis (Krashen)
A learner's learned system acts as an editor to what they are producing. If the structure or word were acquired, output would be spontaneous and checking it would be unnecessary.
Requires sufficient time, focus on grammatical form, and explicit knowledge of the rules.
Natural Order Hypothesis
Krashen- grammatical structures aquired in a predictable order, independent of the order grammar is taught
Language learners acquire (rather than learn) the rules of a language in a predictable sequence. That is, Certain grammatical features, or morphemes, tend to be acquired early, whereas, others tend to be acquired late.
Input Hypothesis (Krashen)
Second language acquisition is the direct result of the learners' understanding the target language in natural communication situations.
Comprehensible input is the causative variable in language acquisition.
3 constraints that underlie Krashen's definition of input
1. It must be understandable
2. It must contain grammatical structures that are just a bit beyond the acquirer's current linguistic knowledge
3. It must be a part of naturally flowing language used for authentic, purposeful communication
Affective Filter Hypothesis
a hypothesis proposed by Krashen and associated with his monitor model of second language development (see MONITOR HYPOTHESIS). They hypothesis is based on the theory of an affective filter, which states that successful second language acquisition depends on the learner's feelings. Negative attitudes (including a lack of motivation or self-confidence and anxiety) are said to act as a filter, preventing the learner from making use of INPUT, and thus hindering success in language learning.
Comprehensible input is necessary for SLA.
The communicative give-and-take of natural conversations between native and non-native speakers as the crucial element of language acquisition
negotiation of meaning
The give and take in communication
(in conversational analysis) what speakers do in order to achieve successful communication, including providing feedback, helping each other to express ideas, and making corrections
How does the second language learner's output facilitate acquisition?
1. It can serve to elicit requests for clarification
2. As learners speak and write i the new language, they have to actively select the grammar, vocabulary, and linguistic style that will best express their ideas.
the point past which language learners can not progress without exceptional effort
Critical Period Hypothesis
A theory that says that language learning must take place during early childhood if an individual is to attain "native-like" proficiency.
Interaction Hypothesis (Long)
when students are conversing, they make modifications that help them acquire the desired language quicker
Adapted conversation patterns that proficient speakers use in addressing language learners so that the learner will be able to understand. Examples of interactional modifications include comprehension checks, clarification requests, and self-repetitions.
The hypothesis, proposed by Richard Schmidt, that language learners learn only that which they have first 'noticed' or become aware of in the input
Pienemann- the sequence in which learners acquire certain language features depends on how easy they are to process.
Input processing model
VanPatten- looks at how learners make sense out of input and how they get linguistic data from it.
Input is the language that learners hear or read and then process for meaning. To be successful, learners must have access to input and interaction with other speakers of the new language.
He acceps the processability theory and adds the following:
1. Learners always process input for meaning first and rely on content words before anything else to get that meaning.
2. When a content word and a grammatical form encode the same meaning, learners rely on the content word and "skip" the grammatical form.
3. Learners rely on a first-noun strategy to understand who did what to whom.
-Newly processed input leads to changes in the learner's developing linguistic system. This system involves accomodation and restructuring.
Output processing explains how learners are able to make use of their acquired implicit knowledge in conversations with others.
adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information
the process by which the incorporation of a form or structure makes other things change without the learner's ever knowing.
communicative language teaching (CLT) and content-based instruction (CBI)
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory
the approach that emphasizes how cognitive development proceeds as a result of social interactions between members of a culture
Zwiers and Crawford (2011)
Identifies 5 core communication skills that ELs need and can develop within the ZPD through productive academic conversations with their teachers and peers across the content areas:
1. elaborating and clarifying
2. supporting ideas with evidence
3. building on or challenging ideas
How do Krashen's input hypothesis and Vygotsky's ZPD theory differ?
"Krashen's theory reflects a cognitive perspective and focuses on the acquisition of a second language and the provision of comprehensible input that contains linguistic forms and structures that are just beyond the student's current level and that students are ready to acquire. Vygotsky's theory is about knowledge development in general, with an emphasis on how learners co-construct knowledge based on their interadtions with others in a given sociocultural context." (Language Learning and Teaching, p. 58)
Bilingual and Multilingual Pluralist Perspective
de Jong (2011)- presents four guiding principles that educators can use from a bilingual perspective:
1. striving for equity
2. affirming linguistic and cultural identities
3. promoting developmental bilingualism
4. structuring for integration.
Innatist Perspective in Second Language Acquisition
there is a language acquisition device (LAD) that enables children to figure out the underlying rules of the language on their own because of their exposure to samples of natural language. These underlying rules are known as Universal Grammar. Once the LAD is activated and children internalize the syntax of the language, they can make up their own correct utterances.
language used in formal settings and academic writing. The language used in school for teaching and learning
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP)
Refers to formal academic learning. This includes listening, speaking, reading, and writing about subject area content material. This level of language learning is essential for students to succeed in school. Students need time and support to become proficient in academic areas. This usually takes from five to seven years. Recent research has shown that if a child has no prior schooling or has no support in native language development, it may take seven to ten years for ELLs to catch up to their peers.
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS)
Language skills needed in social situations. It is the day-to-day language needed to interact socially with other people. English language learners (ELLs) employ BIC skills when they are on the playground, in the lunch room,on the school bus, at parties, playing sports and talking on the telephone. Social interactions are usually context embedded. They occur in a meaningful social context. They are not very demanding cognitively. The language required is not specialized. These language skills usually develop within six months to two years after arrival in the U.S.
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