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Chapter 3 and 4: Learning and Behavior, and Memory
Terms in this set (97)
mental process "how" ; process or processes of storing newly acquired information for later recall
I have a memory of xxx; recall for a specific experience
my memory is really good; the total
collection of remembered experiences stored in
encoding, storage, retrieval
process of perceiving information then categorizing or organizing it in a meaningful way so that it can be more easily stored and recalled, categorize it by sensation then how we receive or interpret according to previous information or learned memory how we take information, relying on 5 senses
process by which encoding material is retained over time in memory
-how we save it and held on to
process by which information is stored in memory and is accessed
-we have lots of memorys, but we don't use it, so you have to recall to use it for present
information processing model
a model of memory that proposes three stages in
brief impressions from any of the 5 senses are stored fleetingly, disappearing within a few seconds if they are not transferred to short-term memory.
3 stages of memory
sensory, short term, and long term
sensory must have what
short term must have what
encoding plus storage
long term must have what
____ ____ brief impression
-disappear quickly iconic (visual) memory ( .3 sec)
-stays a little longer than iconic memory Echoic (auditory) memory (1-2 sec)
is our memory always exact?
our memory is always doing what?
we only remember how many chunks of info in STM?
phone numbers because it has 7 digits
how did we figure out the 7 chunks of info?
what expands what you can remember by using chunking
process of grouping items into longer, meaningful units to make them easier to remember
example of chunking
Read the list and then recall as many as possible from memory
Example of chunking 2
repeating info, getting through repetition
sounds or looks like; acoustic or visual/semantic
coding in STM
what helps to be able to move on, get it and save it in STM
LTM is ____, although it may be trickier, its possible to get it, facts, feelings, images, skill, that we can use in the constant flow of new info that we experience in the context of previous learning and experience
in what memory do we evaluate new things coming in, historical perspective of who we are
- we can describe well thru conscious effort
own experience, event related, more personal
-SEMANTIC- non personal, general facts or knowledge
- this way is more quickly to establish but easier to forget
-Cant pull thru conscious effort
-PROCEDURAL- procedures, skill (swim, walk, talk)
- cant really describe, only describe in general terms, cant declare consciously
-unavailable to conscious awareness
-persistent and enduring
recall of how to perform skills
memory system that organizes material in a meaningful way to make it easier to remember, a way to help encoding happen
grouping items into categories
Example of clustering
Toilet paper green beans matches
hamburger bacon milk
asparagus chicken sour cream
corn broom cheese
method of loci
things you need to remember in a specific picture form of a route
Organize pieces of information into a story
set in which first letter in the word is a clue for recalling specific info
must be a full sentence
arrangement of letters that provides a cue for recalling info
____ isn't always easy to bring back to LTM
retrieval cues for ___ to pull info back that's connected to a memory (notes in a different color)
reproduce info that you've already learned
recognize things that were already provided to you
how quickly it is to RElearn something
memories can be ___, what we think happened
short term memory
1) immediate recollection of stimuli that have just been perceived; 2) also known as working memory because we have to actively process
information either in transferring from sensory memory or retrieving information from long-term memory.
long term memory
- information transferred from short-term to long-term memory may be stored for periods of time from minutes to years, perhaps even indefinitely.
Explicit vs. Implicit memory
What are the types of LTM?
Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin (1968)
first articulated the three stage information processing model
Fergus Craik and Endel Tulving (1975)
Illustrated how depth of processing can be varied by asking different kinds of questions about a word
tested by being asked a question about a word that involves shallow to deepest processing to answer the question.
Karl Lashley (1929, 1950)
Spent most of his research career searching for the engram.
Memories aren't located in precise locations of the Brain, but instead involve large areas of hippo campus and cortex.
process by which information is transferred from short-term electrical activation of neuron circuits to a long-term memory coded by physical cell changes in the brain.
What memory is is a finding of neurons in a repeated pattern?
What memory is physical changes in new connections between neurons?
A neural representation of a specific memory
suggested that the short-term memory and long-term memories have different physical bases.
Which memory involves cellular changes and which one does not?
Short-term memory does not involve cellular changes
Long-term memory does involve cellular changes
****Memory is Consolidated
What are some ways you can improve your memory?
-Reduce material to a manageable amount-don't cram
-Learn the whole versus the piecemeal learning
-Use recitation to check recall
-Study breaks and rewards
a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
May not always be reflected directly in performance
Excludes behavior change due to factors other than experience
Occurs by making an association between two stimulus events, or learning an association between its response and its consequence
What are the two types of Associative Learning?
Pavlovian conditioning and classical conditioning/operant conditioning
learning that depends on a particular type of perceptual experience during a critical time in development
discovered classical conditioning; trained dogs to salivate at the ringing of a bell, involves learning an association between two stimuli and results in a change in behavior
Early behaviorist; famous for the "Little Albert" experiments on fear conditioning, classical conditioning in humans: is fear innate or learned?
Pavlovian (classical) conditioning
involves learning an association between two stimuli and results in a change in behavior
Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
a stimulus that elicits an unlearned response or reflex
Unconditioned Response (UCR)
an unlearned response or reflex caused by unconditioned stimulus
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
A stimulus that elicits a response only after being associated with an unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned Response (CR)
A learned response to a conditioned stimulus.
Process of learning to associate a conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus.
is like language learning, have to get feed back to learn language to get perceptual experience
What are the important factors of Acquisition?
-Stimulus salience of Conditioned Stimulus
-How much it stands out
-Stimulus intensity of Conditioned Stimulus
-How intense it is
-Frequency of pairings UCS with CS
-How they're paired
process by which an organism responds to stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus, without undergoing conditioning for each similar stimulus
In Pavlovian and operant conditioning, the process by which responses are restricted to specific stimuli, in social psychology, the behavioral consequence of prejudice in which one group is treated differently from another group.
the process by which a conditioned response is eliminated through repeated presentation of the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus, in operant conditioning the process of eliminating a response by discontinuing reinforcement for it.
the reappearance of a conditioned response after extinction has taken place
a learned association between two conditioned stimuli (CS2-CS1) that can occur following conditioning to CS1 and an unconditioned stimulus
Learning an association between one's behavior and its consequences (AKA)- instrumental conditioning
-any procedure where an event following a specific response decreases the probability that the response will occur
-can create conditioned punisher by painting it with the original punisher
-must be consistent and must follow immediately after the behavior in order to be effective
-needs to be strong enough to accomplish the desired goal of suppressing undesirable behavior, but it should not be to severe
What are the two types of punishment?
Positive and negative
Two-factor learning theory
-learning that involves both Pavlovian/classical and operant conditioning to produce behavior
-has been used to attempt and to explain the development and maintenance of phobias and other anxiety-based disorders
Cognitive learning theory-
attempts to identify the role that cognitive processes like thinking and memory play in learning
latent learning and cognitive maps
Social learning theory
asserts that people observe the behavior of others and then store cognitive representations of these acts in memory, where they remain until the right influence triggers the individual to enact that behavior.
-Professor at Stanford University
-famous for his bobo doll experiment
-best known for his social learning theory
any procedure where an event following a specific response increases the probability that the response will occur
any reinforcer that is naturally reinforcing by meeting a basic biological need, such as hunger, thirst, or touch
a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer.
Continuous reinforcement schedule
a schedule that requires a consequence to be administered following every instance of a behavior
Fixed Ratio schedule
A partial reinforcement schedule in operant conditioning in which reinforcement occurs after a fixed number of responses.
Partial reinforcement schedule in operant conditioning in which reinforcement is provided after an average of a specific number of responses occur
a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
amount of responses
amount of time
stay the same
1911, believed that animals learn to make voluntary responses to adapt their environment. He needed to test his theory called, so he designed a device called the puzzle box
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