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A mental image of a possible and desirable future state of the organization.

Supervisory Leadership

Behavior that provides guidance, support, and corrective feedback for day-to-day activities.

Strategic Leadership

behavior that gives purpose and meaning to organizations, envisioning and creating a positive future.


The ability to influence others.

Trait Approach

a leadership perspective that attempts to determine the personal characteristics that great leaders share.

Behavioral Approach

A leadership perspective that attempts to identify what good leaders do—that is, what behaviors they exhibit.

Task Performance Behaviors

Actions taken to ensure that the work group or organization reaches its goals.

Group Maintenance Behaviors

Actions taken to ensure the satisfaction of group members, develop and maintain harmonious work relationships, and preserve the social stability of the group.

Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory

Highlights the importance of leader behaviors not just toward the group as a whole but toward individuals on a personal basis.

Autocratic Leadership

A form of leadership in which the leader makes decisions on his or her own and then announces those decisions to the group.

Democratic Leadership

A form of leadership in which the leader solicits input from subordinates.


A Leadership philosophy characterized by an absence of managerial decision making.

Situational Approach

Leadership perspective proposing that universally important traits and behaviors do not exist, and that effective leadership behavior varies from situation to situation.

Vroom Model

A situational model that focuses on the participative dimension of leadership.

Fiedler's Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness

A situational approach to leadership postulating that effectiveness depends on the personal style of the leader and the degree to which the situation gives the leader power, control, and influence over the situation.

Task-Motivated Leadership

Leadership that places primary emphasis on completing a task.

Relationship-Motivated Leadership

Leadership that places primary emphasis on maintaining good interpersonal relationships.

Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Theory

A life-cycle theory of leadership postulating that a manager should consider an employee's psychological and job maturity before deciding whether task performance or maintenance behaviors are more important.

Job Maturity

The level of the employee's skills and technical knowledge relative to the task being performed.

Psychological Maturity

An employee's self-confidence and self-respect.

Path-Goal Theory

A theory that concerns how leading influence subordinates' perceptions of their work goals and the paths they follow toward attainment of those goals.

Substitutes for Leadership

factors in the workplace that can exert the same influence on employees as leaders would provide.

Charismatic Leader

A person who is dominant, self-confident, convinced of the moral righteousness of his or her beliefs, and able to arouse a sense of excitement and adventure in followers.

Transformational Leader

A leader who motivates people to transcend their personal interests for the good of the group.

Transactional Leaders

Leaders who manage through transactions, using their legitimate, reward, and coercive powers to give commands and exchange rewards for services rendered.

Level 5 Leadership

A combination of strong professional will (determination) and humility that builds enduring greatness.

Authentic Leadership

A style in which the leader is true to himself or herself while leading.

Pseudotranformational Leaders

Leaders who talk about positive change but allow their self-interest to take precedence over followers' needs.

Servant Leader

A leader who serves others' needs while strengthening the organization.

Bridge Leaders

A leader who bridges conflicting value systems or different cultures.

Shared Leadership

Rotating leadership, in which people rotate through the leadership role based on which person has the most relevant skills at a particular time.

Lateral Leadership

Style in which colleagues at the same hierarchical level are invited to collaborate and facilitate joint problem solving.

What are the five sources of Power??

Legitimate Power, Reward Power, Referent Power, Coercive Power,and Expert Power

Legitimate Power

the right or authority to tell others what to do.

Reward Power

influences others because he/she controls valued rewards.

Coercive Power

Has control over punishment

Referent Power

has the personal characterisics that appeals to others.

Expert Power

has certain expertise or knowledge

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