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Intro to Juvenile Justice Exam 1
Terms in this set (35)
What is the person and the act in juvenile terms?
delinquent child and delinquent act
What decision was reached in Roper V Simmons
A juvenile under 18 years of age who commits a capital crime, can not face the death penalty
What was the impact of the Kent V United States decision on juvenile justice in America?
(1965) determined that a child has due process rights, such as having an attorney present at waiver hearings.
What activities occurred prior to the 1899 time frame concerning juvenile justice?
Juveniles were treated similarly to adult offenders. No distinction by age or capacity to commit criminal acts.
Explain the significance of the In Re Gault Decision on Juvenile Justice in America.
(1967) Ruled that a minor has basic due process rights , including notice of the charges with respect to their timeliness and specificity , right to counsel, right to confrontation, and cross examination, privilege against self incrimination, right to a transcript of the trial record, and right to appellate review.
What are 4 differences between the juvenile and adult justice systems?
(1) Juvenile proceedings are not considered criminals, adults are.
(2) Parents are highly involved; adult parents are not.
(3) Standard of arrest is more stringent for adults that juveniles.
(4) Juvenile courts are private, adult courts are not.
Explain the difference between judicial activism and judicial restraint.
Judicial activism is an interpretation of the U.S. constitution, holding that the spirit of the times and the needs of the nation can legitimately influence judicial decisions. The review that the supreme court should creatively reinterpret the text of the constitution and the laws in order to serve the judges own vision regarding the needs of contemporary society.
RESTRAINT encourages the supreme court to limit the exercise of their own power. Judges should hesitate to strike down laws unless they are obviously unconstitutional.
What activities occurred during the mid- 1990's to the present time frame concerning juvenile justice?
Attention given to strategy that focuses on reducing the threat of juvenile crime and expanding options for handling juvenile offenders. Emphasis is placed on "evidence based" programs and policies and striking a balance between prevention and control programs. Effort is made to use restorative justice model, which involves balancing the needs of the victim, community, and the juvenile.
What are the effects of fetal alcohol syndrome on children?
Effects can lead to mental retardation, malformations of skeletal system, effects major organ systems, specifically the heart and the brain. It also inhibits growth , central nervous system complications, poor motor skills, mortality, difficulty with learning, memory, social interactions, attention span, problem solving, diminished speech, hearing, ethical values and others.
Why is adjustment important concerning juveniles?
plea bargin-The plea bargain is any agreement in a criminal case between the prosecutor and defendant whereby the defendant agrees to plead guilty to a particular charge in return for some concession from the prosecutor.
What does early childhood development encompass?
Encompasses physical, socio-emotional, cognitive, and motor development. 0-8 years of age is the period in life where the brain develops most rapidly and has a high capacity for change and the foundation is permanently cemented in the entire life cycle.
Conduct that is illegal ONLY because the child is under aged.
What was included in the adjudicatory stage concerning juveniles?
adjudication or fact finding hearing
List 2 Statistics provided by the children defense fund concerning inadequate educational opportunities.
(1) Nearly 60% of all 4th and 8th grade public school students cannot read or compute at grade level. (2) Only 66% of 4th graders cannot read at grade level, 59%cannot compute at grade level.
Explain the impact that inadequate educational opportunities have on juveniles.
• Reading proficiency an issue; at risk for grad repetition & dropping out
• Poor, minority-group children more at-risk due to: underfunded schools, inadequate educational opportunities
• No high school diploma = earn 30% less money
Explain what is meant by "criminal justice is an interdisciplinary field".
It is a borrowed field and that makes it a powerful field, because it takes the best theories from the natural (hard sciences) and the social sciences in order to help us understand why people commit crime so that we can come up with policies and practices to deter or control that criminal behavior.
Explain Nature vs Nurture as it relates to juveniles.
Nature is innatism(knowledge is gained by experience and scenes); nurture is Tabula Rausa
What was included in the pre-adjudicatory stage concerning juveniles?
Take into custody
agree to a finding
deny the petition
detention facility; child care shelter
What are 4 similarities between juvenile and adult justice systems?
(1) Right to recieve Miranda Warnings.
(2) Right to counsel at most key stages of court process.
(3) Can be placed in pretrial detention facilities.
(4) Both can be placed in treatment programs.
What is meant by "Justice is a double edge Sword"?
The guilty do not receive the punishment they deserve, however the innocent receive punishment for crimes they did not commit.
What activities occurred during the 1960's and 1970's time frame concerning juvenile justice?
Constitutional due process was introduced into the juvenile justice system. The concept for punishing children or protecting them under parens patriae is under attack by the courts.
What decision was reached in the McKeiver V Pennsylvania case?
(1971) Trial by jury in a juvenile courts adjudicative stage is not a constitutional requirement.
What decision was reached in Miller V Alabama?
Supreme Court held that mandatory life sentences, without the possibility of parole, are unconstitutional for juvenile offenders.
List 4 of the 8 factors that contribute to adolescent problems that youth face.
(2) Diet and health problems
(3) Mental Health Problems
(4) Self Image Problems
Explain what is a bind over or removal.
Transferring legal jurisdiction over the most serious and experienced juvenile offenders to the adult court for criminal prosecution.
Summarize The Greatest Generation.
Born after WWI and raised during the Depression, they overcame hardships, fought in WWII, and went to build America into the worlds greatest superpower. They were willing to pot off personal gain for the common good.
Define role diffusion.
According to Erik Erikson, role diffusion occurs when people spread themselves too thin, experience personal uncertainty, and place themselves, at the mercy of people who promise to give them a sense of identity they they can not develop for themselves.
Explain why the study of delinquency is so important and what it entails.
-The problem of youth in modern society are both a major and national concern and an important subject for academic study.
-Though most juvenile law violations are minor, some young offenders are extremely dangerous and violent.
-some youths involved in multiple serious criminal acts are referred to as lifestyle, repeat. or chronic delinquent offenders.
-The scientific study requires understanding the nature, extent, and cause of youthful law violations and the methods devised for their control. This study also involves analysis of the law enforcement, court, and correctional agencies designed to treat youthful offenders who fall into the arms of the law - known collectively as the juvenile justice system.
Explain the impact that substandard living conditions have on juveniles.
Millions of children live in substandard housing-high-rise multiple family dwellings. which can have negative influence on their long term psychological health. They live in deteriorated urban areas that prevent them from having productive and happy lives.
What was included in the post adjudicatory stage concerning juveniles?
youth development center;treatment; training school
residential child care facility
List 2 statistics provided by the children defense fund concerning racial inequality.
(1) Black students fall behind and usually do not catch back up. Without an education, Black children are dead on arrival in Americas economy.
(2) Black children arrive in kindergarten with lower levels of school readiness than white children.
Define Ego Identity.
According to Erik Erikson, this is formed when youths develop a full sense of self, combining how they see themselves and how they fit in with others.
Summarize Generation Y (Millennials)
Born between 1980 and 2000, Compared to their elders, millinnials are incredibly sophisticated technologically and have mastered the art of social media . They live in a world that is much more racially and ethnically diverse than their parents, and most are willing to accept diversity. They are often accused of being self centered, irresponsible, and having lack of understanding of how the work world functions. They are also open minded, liberal , upbeat, and overly passionate about racial and gender equality.
List the recent social improvements enjoyed by American youth.
Teenage birthrates nationwide have declined substantially during the last decade; more children are being read to by their parents than ever before; fewer children with health risks are being born today than in 1990.
Explain the problems of youth in american culture.
Young people are extremely vulnerable to the negative consequences of school failure, substance abuse, and early sexuality. ; They often experience stress, confusion, and depression because of trouble and conflict occurring in their families, schools, and communities. ; Problems of american society and the daily stress of modern life have had a significant effect on our nations youth as they go through their tumultuous teenage years.
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