28 terms

Cataloging diversity

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Prokaryotes
Cells that do not contain organelles, nuclear membrane, or cytoskeleton
Archaea
Inhabit extreme environments
Bacteria
Cells that reproduce by fission and contain plasmids
Cytoskeleton
Allows cells to change shape and perform mitosis
Organelles
specialized structures that carry out specific cell functions
Protista
Kingdom composed of eukaryotes that are not classified as plants, animals, or fungi
Chromalveolata
the eukaryotic supergroup that contains the dinoflagellates, ciliates, the brown algae, diatoms, and water molds
Rhizaria
foraminiferans and radiolarians
Archaeplastida
red algae, green algae, land plants
Excavata
Euglenozoa and Euglenoids (aquatic)
Amoebozoa
Cells lack cell walls. When portions of the cell extend outward to move the cell, they form large lobes.
Opisthokonts
include animals, fungi, and several groups of protists
Interphase
period of the cell cycle between cell divisions where DNA is replicated
Prophase
Chromosomes become visible and spindle forms
Prometaphase
The second stage of mitosis, in which the nuclear envelope fragments and the spindle microtubules attach to the kinetochores of the chromosomes.
Metaphase
phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
Anaphase
Phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell
Telophase
After the chromosome seperates, the cell seals off, Final Phase of Mitosis.
Cytokinesis
division of the cytoplasm
Prophase I (Meiosis)
homologous chromosomes pair up and form tetrads, crossing over occurs
Metaphase I (Meiosis)
Tetrads are lined up, Spindle fibers attach
Anaphase I (Meiosis)
Homologous chromosomes separate
Telophase I (Meiosis)
2 nuclei form and cytokinesis occurs
Interkinesis (Meiosis)
Chromosomes still consist of two chromatids.
similar to interphase. it is a resting stop for cells
Prophase II
The duplicated chromosomes and spindle fibers reappear in each new cell.
Metaphase II
Chromosomes line up at the equator.
Anaphase II
sister chromatids separate
Telophase II
Nuclear membrane reforms, cytoplasm divides, 4 daughter cells formed
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