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BJU World History Chapter 9
Terms in this set (61)
The practice of kings and nobles appointing church officials and also investing them with their religious authority.
Reform movement began at a monastery in Cluny, France in this year.
The buying and selling of religious or blessed articles or goods, or even church offices.
One of the most influential of the reforming monastic orders. Monks of this order adopted the lives of seclusion and strict discipline.
Bernard of Clairvaux
A man of deep piety and sincere devotion, he demonstrated by his life the genuineness of his religious convictions. He was an outspoken critic of worldliness in the church and in society.
College of Cardinals
Created in 1059 so that churchmen rather than Roman nobles or German kings could choose the popes.
Probably the greatest of the reforming popes. he used his influence as pope to curb other abuses in the church and to strengthen his office.
This German emperor refused to obey, insisting on his right to appoint bishops in his realm. he declared that Gregory was not pope but a false monk.
The penitent Henry stood barefoot in the snow for three days, waiting for the pope to speak to him in the winter of this year.
Concordat of Worms
An agreement that recognized the right of the church to elect its own bishops and abbots and to invest them with spiritual authority. These elections however had to be in the presence of the emperor or his representatives. In addition, the emperor retained the right to invest church officials with secular authority.
Members of orders renouncing worldly possessions and pledging themselves to lives of poverty.
Friars were sometimes referred to as this because they had to beg for their daily sustenance.
Francis of Assisi
The son of a rich merchant, he was the founder of the Franciscan order. As a young man, he exchanged his wealth for beggar's rags and devoted his life to ministering to the poor and sick.
A Spanish nobleman who founded the Dominican order. He devoted his life to battling heresy. Earned a reputation in the field of education.
No pope before or after him exercised such extensive authority over both church and state.
The punishment of an individual by depriving him of the sacraments and excluding him from the fellowship of the church.
The suspension of public church services and of the administration of all sacraments (except baptism and extreme unction) in a given location.
A special church court commissioned by the pope to stamp out heresy.
Local tribe leaders who assumed the role of protectors. Each ruled like a king in his own territory.
The territory over which a duke ruled.
Henry the Fowler
The first of the Saxon line of German kings. His favorite pastime was hunting game with hawks.
Henry's son, often called "the Great." He became one of the strongest German kings.
Holy Roman Empire
Built on the union of Germany and Italy and on the alliance of the church and state, neither of which could provide a strong foundation.
These kings were unsuccessful in their attempts to establish a strong, centralized monarchy that would weaken the power of the great nobles.
The German princes hoped to bring an end to civil wars by choosing as king a member of this family.
Sought to restore the glory and stability of what he termed the "holy empire." Also known as Barbarossa.
The last notable Hohenstaufen ruler. He was heir to the German and Sicily thrones. The grandson of Frederick I.
Angles and Saxons
Germanic tribes from northern Europe that invaded Britain. They established their own independent kingdoms.
Alfred the Great
The ruler of the important Saxon kingdom of Wessex. He defeated the Danes and pushed them back into northeastern England.
Many local districts governed by officials called shire-reeves.
Traces the history of England from the Roman times to Alfred's day.
Danish ruler who made England part of the Danish Empire.
Edward the Confessor
He died without a direct heir.
The powerful earl of Wessex elected king by the English nobles.
Battle of Hastings
The armies of William, duke of Normandy, and Harold, earl of Wessex, met for the English throne.
Military followers of William who became feudal vassals of his holdings.
The findings of the survey of William's census were collected in this record.
The great-grandson of William the Conqueror. A Frenchman who possessed more wealth and territory outside of England than within.
List of accusations of what crimes had been committed and who the suspected offenders were.
Uniform laws for all of England that superseded the local feudal laws.
Thomas a Becket
Archbishop of Canterbury. He became a bitter opponent of Henry's interference in church matters.
Henry II's oldest son. Known as "the Lionhearted." He was an able warrior and an admired Crusader. He contributed little to the English crown.
Was a more able ruler than Richard, but he lacked the strong personal qualities that had won his brother the trust and admiration of the people.
Latin for "Great Charter." Originally intended as a guarantee of feudal rights, it became one of the most important documents in English history.
One of England's most gifted medieval kings. He attempted to extend English rule over all of Britain. He conquered Wales and made his son Prince of Wales. His attempts to subdue Scotland met with fierce resistance.
The most important and enduring contribution of Edward's reign. Served as a check on the king's power.
An assembly of the great men of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom.
A feudal body composed of William the Conqueror's chief vassals.
Power of the Purse
The withholding of Parliament's approval of new taxes to force the king to hear their grievances.
The count of Paris chosen as king by the feudal lords. He founded a new royal line, the Capetian House, whose members built a strong monarchy in France.
A small area around Paris ruled by Capetian monarchs.
The real founder of France. By enlarging the territory under his rule and by increasing his power over his vassals, he began a period of Capetian greatness. "Augustus."
These bailiffs were appointed and paid by the king and replaced local feudal officials. They collected royal taxes, enforced feudal rights, and administered justice, reinforcing the king's authority throughout his realm.
He has been called the ideal medieval king. He combined sincere piety and just rule to build respect and loyalty for the French throne. Philip's Grandson.
Known as "the Fair" because of his handsome features. He further expanded royal power in France. Heavily taxed the French.
This Pope stepped in and decreed that no king could impose a tax on clergy.
The meetings of representatives from the church, nobility, and townspeople at Paris.
In 1095 this pope addressed a council of church leaders and French noblemen at Clermont, France. He called for a Holy Crusade to free the Holy Land from the Turks.
The military campaigns of those fighting a "holy war."
1095 and 1291
The eight major Crusades were between these years.
The Muslims recaptured Jerusalem in 1187 under this new leader.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
BJU World History Chapter 8
BJU World History Chapter 7
BJU World History Chapter 1
BJU World History Chapter 2
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